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Summary of books and Table of Contents

The aim is to provide an easy reference to the future readers to get the information quickly and from multiple sources. The page is under continuous update and may look incomplete at times. Most of the books referred here are in public domain and out of copyright. Since the PDF copies have been OCRed, texts are still not 100% accurate and some words might be misspelt. The folder names and file names are reference to the future [online] repository which shall be shared with visitors in due course of time.

Sections on this page: Books on Europe, England, Germany, France, Spain, ---Books on Islam, ---Books on American Region, ---Books on Women and Witchcraft, ---Books on Assyria and Babylonia, ---Books on History of Chivalry, Serfdom and Feudalism, England, Europe, ---Papal Bulls, ---Battles of the World, ---Books on Africa

The book list, size and number of pages are summarized here. You may explore it here or search/find using keywords which book is stored under which folder. If you want these 6230 books (and additional 500 e-books downloaded from Project Gutenberg website) on a micro SD-card having memory size of 128 GB, please write to me at fb@cfdyna.com - I will send by speed-post this to your address after a payment of INR 2,000/- across anywhere only in India. These books are categorized into 100 folders as shown below.

Folder List Books

The Sacred Books of the East Series - IN 50 VOLUMES --- [1, 15]THE UPANISADS: in 2 vols. : F. Max Muller, [2, 14]The sacred LAWS OF THE ARYAS: in 2 vols. : Georg Buehler, [3, 16, 27, 28, 39, 40]THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHINA: in 6 vols. : James Legge, [4, 23, 31]THE ZEND-AVESTA: in 3 vols. : James Darmesteter and L. H. Mills, [5, 18, 24, 37, 47]PAHLAVI TEXTS : in 5 vols. : E. W. West, [б, 9]THE QUR’AN: in 2 vols. : E. H. Palmer, [7]THE INSTITUTES OF VISNU: Julius Jolly, [8]THE BHAGAVADGITA with the Sanatsujatiya and the Anugita : Kashinath Trimbak Telang, [10]THE DHAMMAPADA: F. Max Muller : SUTTA-NIPATA : V. Fausboll [11]BUDDHIST SUTTAS: T. W. Rhys Davids, [12, 26, 41, 43, 44]THE SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA: in 5 vols. : Julius Eggeling, [13, 17, 20]VINAYA texts: in 3 vols. : T. W. Rhys Davids and Heimann Oldenberg, [19]THE FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING: Samuel Beal, [21] THE SADDHARMA-PUNPARIKA or The Lotus of the True Law : H. Kern, [22, 45]JAINA SUTRAS : in a vols. : Hermann Jacobi, [23] MANU: Georg Buhler, [29, 30]THE GRIHYA-SUTRAS: in 2 vols. : Hermann Oldenberg and F. Max Mliiler, [32, 46]VEDIC HYMNS: in 2 vols. : F. Max Muller and H. Oldenberg, [33]THE MINOR LAW-BOOKS: JuHus Jolly, [34 , 38]THE VEDANTA-SUTRAS: in 3 vols. : with Sankaracarya's Commentary : G. Thibaut, [35, 36]THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA: in 2 vols. : T. W. Rhys Davids, [42]HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA: M. Bloomfield, [48]THE VEDANTA-SUTRAS with Ramgnuja’s Sribhasya: G. Thibaut, [49]BUDDHIST MAHAYANA TEXTS: B. B. Cowell, F. Max Mailer and J. Takakusu, [50]INDEX: M. Winternitz

Books on India which are out of Copyrights

[001] Watters, T. (1904) On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India, 629–645 ad, London: Royal Asiatic Society. [002] Basham, A.L. (1954) The Wonder that was India, London: Sidgwick & Jackson. [003] Basham, A.L. (1964) Studies in Indian History and Culture, Calcutta: Sambodhi. [[04] Basham, A.L. (ed.) (1975) A Cultural History of India, Oxford: Clarendon Press. [004] Basham, A.L. (1983) ‘The Mandasor Inscription of the Silk-Weavers’, pp. 101–3, in B. Smith (ed.), Essays in Gupta Culture, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. [005] Beal, S., trans. (1884) Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, 2 vols, London: Trubner. [006] Date, G.T. (1929) The Art of War in Ancient India, Oxford: Oxford University Press [007] Dunbar, G. (1943) A History of India from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, London: Nicholson & Watson. [007] Keith, A.B. (1928) A History of Sanskrit Literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

English Language in 1548: If one compares the style in 1548 with that in 2023, there is only semantic similarities. Does it apply to Greek and Latin in 100 CE and Greek in twenty first century? Have they gone similar change? If not why?

English Language in 1548

Books on Witchcraft and Inquisitions
HISTORY OF WITCHCRAFT IN ENGLAND: FROM 1558 TO 1718 by WALLACE NOTESTEIN, Assistant Professor of History, University of Minnesota

Pg-2: Witchcraft, in a general and vague sense, was something very old in English history. Pg-3: The belief grew up that witches rode through the air to these meetings, that they renounced Christ and engaged in foul forms of homage to Satan. Pg-6: In 1209 one woman accused another of sorcery in the king’s court and the defendant cleared herself by the ordeal. Pg-9: The case of the Duchess of Bedford — another instance of the connection between sorcery and political intrigue — fell naturally into the hands of the council. Pg-13: The beginning of Elizabeth’s reign saw a serious and successful effort to put on the statute-book definite and severe penalties for conjuration, sorcery, witchcraft, and related crimes. Pg-14: It was further provided that those who by witchcraft presumed to discover treasure or to find stolen property or to “ provoke any person to unlawfull love” should suffer a year’s imprisonment and four appearances in the pillory.

Pillory: a wooden framework with holes for the head and hands, in which offenders were formerly imprisoned and exposed to public abuse.

Malleus Maleficarum by Heinrich Kramer

Excerpts from globalgreyebooks.com/malleus-maleficarum-ebook.html

The Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches) was written by the Catholic clergyman Heinrich Kramer and was the most important witchhunter's bible, used by both Catholics and Protestants. First published in 1486, it remained in use for three hundred years and had a tremendous influence in the witch trials in England and on the continent. The book was used as a judicial case-book for the detection and persecution of witches, and elevated sorcery to the status of heresy, which at the time was punished by being burnt at the stake. The author had tried to prosecute witches previously in 1484, and had been kicked out of his city and dismissed as 'senile and crazy'. Undeterred he wrote The Malleus Maleficarum, possibly as an act of revenge and self-justification.

Malleus Meleficarum Original

Title page of the 1669 edition of Heinrich Kramer’s Malleus Maleficarum

The book specifies rules of evidence and the official procedures by which suspected witches were to be tortured and put to death. Thousands of people (mostly women) were murdered as a result of the procedures described in this book, for no reason other than a strange birthmark, living alone, mental illness, cultivation of medicinal herbs, or simply because they were falsely accused.

Kramer’s Inquisition in Innsbruck, starting in July 1485, employed intimidation, brutal force, and unlimited torture; denied legal defense. He issued distorted reports of his interrogations a scandalous conduct, even by late fifteenth-century legal standards. The author of the Malleus stated that forty-eight women had been burned as witches in the diocese of Constance. There is no reason to doubt this number, especially because he indicated that he himself had searched this diocese more than any other.

The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft: Theology and popular belief - by HANS PETER BROEDEL

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: contested categories 2. Origins and arguments 3. The inquisitors’ devil 4. Misfortune, witchcraft, and the will of God 5. Witchcraft: the formation of belief – part one 6. Witchcraft: the formation of belief – part two 7. Witchcraft as an expression of female sexuality

Malleus Maleficarum

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
85_Women-Witchcraft 85_Confirmation-Witchcraft.pdf A CONFIRMATION AND DISCOVERY OF WITCHCRAFT JOHN STEARNE 1973: Published at University of Exeter, Printed in Great Britain by The Scolar Press LimitedEnglish 0072
Table of Contents The book contains just one chapter with inline (in-text) references, no Bibliography

Review: The book starts with statement that witchcraft is covenant to the Devil with many references to the Old Testament [OT]. It also mentions Exodus 22:20 which states idolators must die. A quick search in ISV has the statement "Whoever sacrifices to any god other than the Lord must be destroyed.". The text of book gives a flavour of old English in seventeenth century such as the words "legall tryalls".

Quote: I have learned and observed since the 5 March 1645 as being part of agent in finding out or discovering some of those since that time, being about two hundred in numbers, in Essex, Suffolke, Northamptonshire, Huntingtonshire, Bedfordshire, Norfolke, Cambridgeshire, and the Isle of Ely in the county of Cambridge besides other places, justly and deservedly executed upon their legall tryalls.

This book is overall from a Christian apologist which justifies evidences of Witches as per scripture as well as execution of witches to death. This book is a classical example of fear used to instill in human minds to accept Christ. It further stresses the witchcraft is more dominant in women than men. Multiple ways to identify witches are explained, even the story of Devil coming to bed with witches are mentioned. Overall, the book seems to portray the fact that the Devil or Satan is more powerful than the Christian Lord, idolators are abominable worthy of death. The book is full of Christian superstitions such as Devil can transform himself in Angle of Light. Some keyword to quickly search the books are: Women, Satan, Devil or Devill, Witch, Marks, Confess, Angel.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
85_Women-Witchcraft 85_Demonology-Witchcraft.pdf DEMONOLOGY AND WITCHCRAFT SIR WALTER SCOTT, BART LONDON: WILLIAM TEGG & CO.English 0424
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Letter-I Origin of the general Opinions respecting Demonology among Mankind - The Belief in the Immortality of the Soul is the main Inducement to credit its occasional re-appeaiance - The Philosophical Objections to the Apparition of an Abstract Spirit little understood by the Vulgar and Ignorant - The situations of excited Passion incident to Humanity, which teach men to wish or apprehend Supernatural Apparitions - They are often presented by the Sleeping Sense Story of Somnambulism - The Influence of Credulity contagious, so that Individuals will trust the Evidence of others in despite of their own Senses - Examples from the Historia Verdadera of Bernal Dias del Castillo, and from the Works of Patrick Walker - The apparent Evidence of Intercourse with the Supernatural World is sometimes owing to a depraved State of the bodily Organs Difference between this Disorder and Insanity, in which the Organs retain their tone, though that of the Mind is lost - Rebellion of the Senses of a Lunatic against the current of his Reveries - Narratives of a contrary Nature, in which the Evidence of the Eyes overbore the Conviction of the Understanding - Example of a London Man of Pleasure Of Nicolai, the German Bookseller and Philosopher Of a Patient of Dr. Gregory - Of an Eminent Scottish Lawyer deceased Of the same fallacious Disorder are other instances, which have but sudden and momentary - Endurance Apparition of Maupertuis Of a late illustrious modern Poet The Cases quoted chiefly relating to false Impressions on the Visual Nerve, those upon the Ear next considered - Delusions of the touch chiefly experienced in Sleep Delusions of the Taste and of the Smell - Sum of the Argument
Chapter-02: Letter-II Consequences of the Fall on the communication between men and the Spiritual World - Effects of the Flood - Wizards of Pharaoh - Text in Exodus against Witches - The word Witch is by some said to mean merely Poisoner Or if in the Holy Text it also means a Divineress, she must, at any rate, have been a character very different to be identified with it The original, Chasapk, said to mean a person who dealt in Poisons, often a traffic of those who dealt with Familiar Spirits - But different from the European Witch of the Middle Ages - Thus a Witch is not accessary to the temptation of Job - The Witch of the Hebrews probably did not rank higher than a Divining Woman - Yet it was a crime deserving the doom of death, since it inferred the disowning of Jehovah's Supremacy - Other texts of Scripture, in like manner, refer to something corresponding more with a Fortune-teller or Divining Woman, than what is now called a Witch - Example of the Witch of Endor Account of her meeting with Saul Supposed by some a mere Impostor - By others a Sorceress powerful enough to raise the Spirit of the Prophet by her own art Difficulties attending both positions - A middle course adopted, supposing that, as in the case of Balak, the Almighty had, by exertion of his will, substituted Samuel, or a good spirit in his character, for the deception which the Witch intended to produce Resumption of the Argument, showing that the Witch of Endor signified something very different from the modern ideas of Witchcraft - The Witches mentioned in the New Testament are not less different from modern ideas than those of the Books of Moses, nor do they appear to have possessed the power ascribed to Magicians - Articles of Faith which we may gather from Scripture on this point That there might be certain Powers permitted by the Almighty to inferior, and even evil Spirits, is possible; and, in some sense, the gods of the Heathen might be accounted Demons - More frequently, and in a general sense, they were but logs of wood, without sense or power of any kind, and their worship founded on imposture - Opinion that the Oracles were silenced at the Nativity, adopted by Milton Cases of Demoniacs - The incarnate Possessions probably ceased at the same time as the intervention of Miracles Opinion of the Catholics Result that Witchcraft, as the word is interpreted in the Middle Ages, neither occurs under the Mosaic or Gospel Dispensation - It arose in the ignorant period, when the Christians considered the gods of the Mahommedan or Heathen Nations as Fiends, and their Priests as Conjurers or Wizards Instance as to the Saiacens, and among the Northern Europeans yet unconverted - The gods of Mexico and Peru explained on the same system - Also the Powahs of North America Opinion of Mather Gibb, a supposed Warlock, persecuted by the other Dissenters Conclusion
Chapter-03: Letter-III Creed of Zoroaster received partially into most Heathen Nations - Instances among the Celtic Tribes of Scotland - Beltane Feast - Gudeman's Croft Such abuses admitted into Christianity after the earlier Ages of the Church - Law of the Romans against Witchcraft - Roman Customs survive the fall of their religion - Instances Demonology of the Northern Barbarians Nicksas - Bhar-geist - Correspondence between the Northern and Roman Witches - The Power of Fascination ascribed to the Sorceresses Example from the Eyrbiggia Saga - The Prophetesses of the Germans - The gods of Valhalla not highly regarded by their Worshippers - Often defied by the Champions - Demons of the North Story of Assueit and Asmund - Action of Ejectment against Spectres - Adventure of a Champion with the goddess Freya Conversion of the Pagans of Iceland to Christianity - Northern Superstitions mixed with those of the Celts Satyrs of the North - Highland Ourisk - Meming the Satyr
Chapter-04: Letter-IV The Fairy Superstition is derived from different sources - The Classical Worship of the Silvans, or Rural Deities, proved by Roman - Altars Discovered The Gothic Duergar, or Dwarfs, supposed to be derived from the Northern Laps or Fins - The Niebelungen-Lied King Laurin's Adventures Celtic Fairies of a gayer character, yet their pleasures empty and illusory - Addicted to carry off Human Beings, both Infants and Adults - Adventures of a Butler in Ireland - The Elves supposed to pay a Tax to Hell - The Irish, Welsh, Highlanders, and Manxmen, held the same belief - It was rather rendered more gloomy by the Northern Traditions Merlin and Arthur carried off by the Fairies - Also Thomas of Erceldoune His Amour with the Queen of Elfland - His re-appearance in latter times - Another Account from Reginald Scot - Conjectures on the derivation of the word Fairy
Chapter-05: Letter-V Those who dealt in fortune-telling, mystical cures by charms, and the like, often claimed an intercourse with Fairy Land - Hudhart or Hudikin - Pitcairn's Scottish Criminal Trials - Story of Bessie Dunlop and her Adviser - Her Practice of Medicine and of Discovery of Theft Account of her Familiar, Thome Reid - Trial of Alison Pearson - Account of her Familiar, William Sympson - Trial of the Lady Fowlis, and of Hector Munro, her Stepson Extraordinary species of Charm used by the latter Confession of John Stewart, a Juggler, of his intercourse with the Fairies Trial and Confession of Isobel Gowdie Use of Elf-arrow Heads Parish of Aberfoyle Mr. Kirke, the Minister of Aberfoyle's Work on Fairy Superstitions He is himself taken to Fairy Land Dr. Grahame's Interesting Work, and his Information on Fairy Superstitions Story of a Female in East Lothian carried off by the Fairies Another instance from Pennant
Chapter-06: Letter-VI Immediate Effect of Christianity on Articles of Popular Superstition - Chaucer's Account of the Roman Catholic Priests banishing the Fairies Bishop Corbett imputes the same - Effect to the Reformation his verses on that Subject his Iter Septentrionale Robin Goodfellow, and other Superstitions mentioned by Reginald Scot - Character of the English Fairies - The Tradition had become obsolete in that Author's Time - That of Witches remained in vigour but impugned by various Authors after the Reformation, as Wierus, Naudzus, Scot, and others - Demonology defended by Bodinus, Remigius, & c. - Their mutual Abuse of each other Imperfection of Physical Science at this Period, and the predominance of Mysticism in that Department
Chapter-07: Letter-VII Penal laws unpopular when rigidly exercised - Prosecution of Witches placed in the hand of Special Commissioners, ad inquirendum - Prosecution for Witchcraft not frequent in the elder - Period of the Roman - Empire nor in the Middle Ages - Some Cases took place, however - The Maid of Orleans - The Duchess of Gloucester Richard the Third's - Charge against the Relations of the Queen Dowager - But Prosecutions against Sorcerers became more common in the end of the Fourteenth Century - Usually united with the Charge of Heresy Monstrelet's Account of the Persecution against the Waldenses, under pretext of Witchcraft Florimond's testimony concerning the Increase of Witches in his own time - Bull of Pope Innocent VIII - Various Prosecutions in Foreign Countries under this severe law Prosecutions in Labourt by the Inquisitor De Lancre and his Colleague - Lycanthropy Witches in Spain in Sweden and particularly those apprehended at Mohra
Chapter-08: Letter-VIII The Effects of the Witch Superstition are to be traced in the Laws of a Kingdom - Usually punished in England as a crime connected with Politics - Attempt at Murder for Witchcraft not in itself - Capital Trials of Persons of Rank for Witchcraft, connected with State - Crimes Statutes of Henry VIII - How Witchcraft was regarded by the three leading sects of Religion in the Sixteenth Century; first, by the Catholics; second, by the Calvinists; third, by the Church of England, and Lutherans - Impostures unwarily countenanced by Individual Catholic Priests, and also by some Puritanic Clergymen Statute of 1562, and some Cases upon it - Case of Dugdale Case of the Witches of Warbois, and execution of the family of Samuel - That of Jane Wenham, in which some Church of England Clergymen insisted on the Prosecution - Hutchison's Rebuke to them - James the First's Opinion of Witchcraft - His celebrated Statute, i Jac. I. - Canon passed by the Convocation against Possession Case of Mr. Fairfax's Children - Lancashire Witches in 1613 - Another Discovery in 1634 - Webster's account of the manner in which the Imposture was managed - Superiority of the Calvinists is followed by a severe Prosecution of Witches - Executions in Suffolk, & c., to a dreadful extent - Hopkins, the pretended Witchfinder, the cause of these Cruelties - His Brutal Practices - His Letter - Execution of Mr. Lewis Hopkins - Punished Restoration of Charles - Trial of Coxe of Dunny and Cillender before Lord Hales - Royal Society and Progress of Knowledge - Somersetshire Witches - Opinions of the Populace A Woman swum for Witchcraft at Oakley Murder at Tring - Act against Witchcraft abolished, and the belief in the Crime becomes forgotten - Witch Trials in New England Dame Glover's - Trial Affliction of the Parvises, and frightful increase of the Prosecutions - Suddenly put a stop to The Penitence of those concerned in them
Chapter-09: Letter-IX Scottish Trials - Earl of Mar Lady Glammis William Barton - Witches of Auldearn - Their Rites and Charms - Their Transformation into Hares Satan's Severity towards them - Their Crimes - Sir George Mackenzie's Opinion of Witchcraft - Instances of Confessions made by the Accused, in despair, and to avoid future annoyance and Persecution - Examination by Pricking - The Mode of Judicial Procedure against Witches, and Nature of the Evidence admissible, opened a door to Accusers, and left the Accused no chance of escape - The Superstition of the Scottish Clergy in King James VI's time, led them, like their Sovereign, to encourage Witch Prosecutions - Case of Bessie Graham - Supposed Conspiracy to Shipwreck James in his Voyage to Denmark - Meetings of the Witches, and Rites performed to accomplish their purpose - Trial of Margaret Barclay in 1618 - Case of Major Weir Sir John Clerk among the first who declined acting as Commissioner on the Trial of a Witch - Paisley and Pittenweem Witches - A Prosecution in Caithness prevented by the Interference of the King's Advocate in 1718 - The last Sentence of Death for Witchcraft pronounced in Scotland in 1721 - Remains of the Witch Superstition - Case of supposed Witchcraft related from the Author's own knowledge, which took place so late as 1800
Chapter-10: Letter-X Other Mystic Arts independent of Witchcraft Astrology - Its influence during the 16th and 17th Centuries - Base Ignorance of those who practised it - Lilly's History of his Life and Times - Astrologers' Society - Dr. Lamb Dr. - Forman Establishment of the Royal Society - Partridge Connexion of Astrologers with Elementary Spirits - Dr. Dun Irish Superstition of the Banshie - Similar Superstition in the Highlands Brownie - Ghosts Belief of Ancient Philosophers on that Subject - Enquiry into the respect due to such tales in Modern Times - Evidence of a Ghost against a Murderer - Ghost of Sir George Villiers - Story of Earl St. Vincent of a British General Officer of an Apparition in France of the second Lord Lyttelton of Bill Jones of Jarvis Matcham - Trial of Two Highlanders for the Murder of Sergeant Davis, discovered by a Ghost - Disturbances at Woodstock, anno 1649 - Imposture called the Stockwell Ghost - Similar case in Scotland - Ghost appearing to an Exciseman - Story of a Disturbed House discovered by the firmness of the Proprietor - Apparition at Plymouth - A Club of Philosophers - Ghost Adventure of a Farmer - Trick upon a Veteran Soldier - Ghost Stories recommended by the Skill of the Authors who compose them - Mrs. Veal's Ghost Dunton's Apparition - Evidence Effect of appropriate Scenery to encourage a tendency to Superstition differs at distant Periods of Life - Night at Glammis Castle about 1791 - Visit to Dunvegan in 1814


The book draws some evidences from Criminal records of scotland by Mr. Pitcairn. There are some references to supernatural events such as "After having given an account of a great victory over extreme odds, he mentions the report inserted in the contemporary Chronicle of Gomara, that Saint Iago had appeared on a white horse in van of the combat, and led on his beloved Spaniards to victory." The first chapter deals with some human psychology and few instances of (mental) illnesses [mental delusion and physical deceptions] and their medical treatments. The first chapter does not give any religious angle to the matter.

The second chapter starts with Consequences of the Fall on the communication between men and the Spiritual World and deals with scriptures about witchcraft. It mentions Azrael as the angel of death [pg-51] and "Avenging Flood". This chapter in a very subtle manner tries to prove that there is no mention or association of witchcraft with Christian scriptures and links all occurrences of demons with pagans and heathens.

A related book published in modern days is "Encyclopedia of Demons in World Religions and Cultures" by Theresa Bane. This book gives reference to King James the First who before acceding to the throne of England in 1603, had written and published a book entitled Daemonologie. He discloses how these people, most often women, conspire to summon up the Devil and barter their souls for a pittance of power and ability. French judge and DEMONOGRAPHER Pierre de Rosteguy de Lancre conducted the witchhunts of 1609 under the order of King Henry the Eighth. In ancient Greece, the word DAEMON referred to a spirit entity that may have been a force for either good or evil. During the spread of Christianity when the young church openly and aggressively condemned all things pagan, the intent of the word changed.

From the same book: Agrimas: In Judaic lore and described in Midrashic literature, it is said that after the expulsion from the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve separated from each other for a while. During this period, Piznia, a daughter of LILITH, met Adam and together they had many children, giving birth to a specific type of demonic half-breed known as Cambion Lutins. The first born child of their union was a son named Agrimas. Ninety-two thousand other children are said to have followed. Using his status as a son of Adam, Agrimas sought out Methuselah the Righteous, who slew ninety thousand of his descendants in a single sword stroke. In exchange for peace, Agrimas gave Methuselah the names of his remaining descendants and the symbols of protection against them. The remaining LUTINS then sought refuge on the furthest mountains and in the deepest places in the sea. Sources: Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, 141; Hammer, Jewish Book of Days, 42; Scholem, Kabbalah, 357. According to Japanese demonology, Ika-Zuchi-No-Kami is one of the seven Shinto demons. A subterranean spirit who lives in the underworld, his rumblings can be heard through volcanic earthquakes and eruptions. Source: Roberts, Japanese Mythology A to Z, 57. In Japanese Buddhist demonology there is a species of demon known as a jikininki (“humaneating ghosts”). Some other demons are Jurasetsu-Nyo, Awabi, Emma-O, Fujin, Hannya or Akeru or Hannya-Shin-Kyo, Hariti, Karasu Tengu.

Witchcraft Godly Zeal

Godly Zeal and Furious Rage: The Witch in Early Modern Europe by G. R. Quaife
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
85_Women-Witchcraft 85_Discourses-Witchcraft-1.pdf A DISCOURSE ON WITCHCRAFT Printed for J. Read, in White-Fryars, 1736 -English 0048
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: To prove that the Bible has been falsely translated in those Places which speak of Witchcraft
Chapter-02: That the Opinion of Witches has had its Foundation in Heathen Fables
Chapter-03: That it hath been improved by the Papal Inquisitors, seeking their own private Gain, as also to establish the Usurped Dominion of their Founder
Chapter-04: That there is no such Thing as a Witch in the Scriptures, and that there is no such Thing as a Witch at all
Chapter-05: An Answer to their Arguments who endeavour to prove there are Witches
Chapter-06: How the Opinion of Witches came at first into the World
Chapter-07: The Conclusion

Review: This book contains many contradictions when compared with Scriptures. New Testament clearly has mention of Witchcraft which in contrast to the claim made by this book. The book starts with mention of Act made in the Reign of King James-I concerning Witchcraft.

Quote: "I argue from the miserable Poverty of our vulgar reputed Witches, that they are wrongfully accused: For I am not willing to believe, that they have such a Power with the Devil, as to make him do wonderful things at their command, when they never command him to fetch them Money, and to fetch them Bread."

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
85_Women-Witchcraft 85_Discourses-Witchcraft-2.pdf DEMONOLOGIA: A DISCOURSE ON WITCHCRAFT WILLIAM GRAINGEH -English 0193
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Biographical Introduction; giving an Account of Edward Fairfax, his Ancestry, Family, and Writings; with critical opinions upon his works, and specimens of his Original Poetry, A&C
Chapter-02: Damonologia: A Discourss on WITCHCRAFT as it was acted in the family of Mr. Edward Fairfax, of Fuyston, in the County of York, in the year 1621
Chapter-03: Remarks On The Demonologia
Chapter-04: The Family and Descendants of Edward Faifax
Chapter-05: Remarks On Pastoral Poetry
Chapter-06: Eglon And Alexis
Chapter-07: Flermes And Lycaon


Witchcraft Salem Possessed

Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft by Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
85_Women-Witchcraft 85_Essay-on-Witchcraft.pdf AN Historical Essay CONCERNING WITCHCRAFT Printed for R. KnaPlock, at the Bishop's Head ThirdEnglish 0293
Table of Contents (starts from page 17)
Chapter-01: How many Cases may be resolved by Natare and Art, without having Recourse to the Agency of Spirits
Chapter-02: Is a Chronological Table of some Tryals and Executions of supposed Witches and Conjurers, and Impostors; and of virtuous Persons and learned Men who have been oppressed with great Calumnies of this Sort
Chapter-03: Is Observations upon those Matters of Fact; tending to prove, that the great Numbers of Witches in some Ages above others have been wholly owing to the different Principles and Notions of the several Times and Persons together with Two Schemes of the several Kinds of Principles that have had such different Effects.
Chapter-04: Is an Answer to Mr. Baxter's Account of the Suffolk Witches, in the Years 1645 and 1646, when above Therefore were hanged in that and the Neighbouring Counties and amongst the rest Mr. Lowes, an ancient Clergyman, who had been 50 Years Minister of Brandefton, near Framlingham. In this Chapter the Reader will find the Practice ofSwimming, Walking, Watching, and keeping them awake, being the common Methods of Hopkins that filed himfelf the Witchfinder General.
Chapter-05: Is an Account of 19 hanged in New-England 1692. In this Chapter is shewn the Invalidity of Confessions, and the Vanity of the Spectral Evidence, and the great Confufton and Misery that follows such Prosecutions, p. 72
Chapter-06: Is an Answer to the pretended Witchcrafts at Mohra in Sweden, in the Year 1670, printed by Mr. Glanvil as tranfated by Dr Horned: At that Time Fourscore and Five were condemned and most of them executed
Chapter-07: Is an Answer to the Case of the Three Witches of Warbois, the Execution of whom is annually commemorated by a Sermon at Huntington preached by one of the Fellows of Queen's Colledge in Cambridge; and their Case is newly reprinted by the Author of the Compleat History of Witchcraft.
Chapter-08: An Answer to the Tryal of Two Women condemned by my Lord Chief Baron Hale, and executed at Bury St. Edmunds in the Year 1664. In this the Sense of our Statute is explained, and all Charms used for discovering Witches are shewn to be against it.
Chapter-09: Is the Case of Richard Dugdale, who by some is called the Surey Demoniac, by others the Surey Impostor. In this is seen the Vanity of Dissenters, in pretending to cast out Devils. Though the Case might have rested, if The Compleat History of Witchcraft had not reprinted one part, and suppressed the other.
Chapter-10: Is the Case of Jane Wenham of Walkern, in Hertfordshire. In this is shewn how impossible it is for the most innocent Persons to defend themselves against such fantastick Evidence, if it be allowed of as legal Proof - In this Chapter is shewn, that our Royal Society in England, having been the first of that sort that hath been founded in Europe, for discovering the true Knowledge of Nature, our Nation hath been the first in these latter Ages, that cleared itself of such Superstitions.
Chapter-11: Answers the Cases of Teats, Marks, Charms, Want of Tears, and Swimming.
Chapter-12: Enquires into the true Sense of Scripture, and shews what kind of Witchcrafts they were that are spoken of there.
Chapter-13: Shews, that it is a vulgar Error to think, that the Laws of all Nations have been like ours
Chapter-14: Some Remarks concerning the Occasion of our present Statute, and the Freedom we have had since the Time that we have had no Execution of it.
Chapter-15: Chap. Contains a Collection of Seven notorious Impostors detected. It begins Page 182.
Chapter-16: Closes the Discourse with a Judgment of what the Author thinks he hath fully proved in this Matter, and what he still leaves open to Time and farther Experience. And gives the Reason of the Two Sermons following, for preventing such ill uses as may be made by bad Men.
Chapter-17: The First Sermon is a Proof of Christianity, from the 15th of St. John. v. 24. The Second is concerning the Nature and Ministration of good and evil Angels, from the 148 Psalm, Ver. 2.

Review: A book written in old English which where trials is written as tryals. Overall a good compilation of cases on witchcraft.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 85_Georgraphy-Witchcraft.pdf The Geography of Witchcraft Montague Summers 1927English 0644
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Greece and Rome
Chapter-02: England
Chapter-03: Scotland
Chapter-04: New England
Chapter-05: France
Chapter-06: Germany
Chapter-07: Italy
Chapter-08: Spain


Witches of Atlantic

Witches of the Atlantic Wolrd - edited by Elaine G. Breslaw
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
41_Trinity-Bible-DeadSea 41_Bible-Manuscripts-V2.pdf OUR BIBLE AND THE ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS - BEING A History of the Text and its Translations FREDERIC G KENYON, M.A., D.Litt. ThirdEnglish 0345
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: VARIATIONS IN THE BIBLE TEXT The existence of variations - Examples - Their origine - Mistakes of copyists: (1) Errors of hand and eye - (2) Errors of mind - (3) Errors of deliberate alteration. - Early MSS. the most free from error. Method of recovering the true text. Textual errors do not endanger doctrine
Chapter-02: THE AUTHORITIES FOR THE BIBLE TEXT The Authorities classified - 1. Manuscripts - 2. Versions. - 3. Quotations in the Fathers
Chapter-03: THe ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE Writing in early times: the Tell el-Amarna tablets — Writing in Babylonia. — In Egypt - In Palestine - Form of the original manuscripts of the Bible
Chapter-04: The Hebrew Text The Hebrew characters —The Hebrew language —Classification of the books of the Old Testament into three groups —These groups represent three stages in the formation of the Hebrew Canon: (1) The Law; (2) The Prophets; (3) The Hagiographa —Dates of these stages, from which the care for the text may be supposed to commence. — Stages in the history of the Hebrew text. —1. The Targums. 2. The Talmud. 3. The Massorete. — The extant Hebrew text entirely Massoretic —The text, once fixed, copied with extreme care —The extant MSS. comparatively late, but faithful —Causes of disappearance of older copies —The extant MSS, how classified -Description of the chief MSS —The printed text —Summary: the extant MSS contain a faithful representation of a text which can be traced back to about A.D. 100; but they do not enable us to follow it further.
Chapter-05: THE ANCIENT VERSIONS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT The versions the only means for arriving at a pre-Massoretic text. 1-The Samaritan Pentateuch. Its origin. — Its discovery — Its character. — Its manuscripts. 2—The Septuagint and other Greek versions. Origin of the Septuagint —Its contents. — Becomes the Bible of the Christian Church —Consequently rejected by the Jews —Rival translations in the 2nd century: (1) Aquila, (2) Theodotion, (3) Symmachus. — Origen's Hexapla: its great effect on the Septuagint — Editions of the Septuagint in the 3rd century: (1) Eusebius, (2) Lucian, (3) Hesychius —Present state of the Septuagint: The extant MSS. — The printed editions — Reconstruction of the ancient editions from the MSS —The Septuagint and Massoretic texts 3—Other Eastern Versions. The Syriac version — The Coptic versions — The Ethiopic version — The Gothic and other versions 4—The Latin Versions, (a) The old Latin Version. The Vulgate 5—Condition of the Old Testament Text. Summary of the evidence of the versions —Most of them too late to be of use —Evidence of the Samaritan Pentateuch — The real issue: Septuagint v. Massoretic — The Hebrew text certainly corrupt in places: but the Septuagint not always trustworthy — Additions and corruptions in Septuagint — Deliberate falsification of Hebrew text not proven — Summing-up
Chapter-06: THE TEXT OF THE New TESTAMENT. The original MSS. of the N. T. —Circumstances under which the early copies were written. —Careful copying begins in the 4th century. —Transmission from 4th to 15th century. —The earliest printed texts. —The "received" text. —Its deficiencies. —Materials for correcting it: the chief manuscripts (uncial and cursive), versions, and Fathers — Grouping of authorities. —Westcott and Hort's theory. —Distinction of Syrian, Western, Alexandrian, and Neutral groups —Importance of this theory —Objections to it —The oljections considerd
Chapter-07: THE Manuscripts OF THE New TESTAMENT. Codex Sinaiticus. —Codex Alexandrinus (A)Codex Vaticanus (B)Codex Ephremi (C)Codex Bezse (D)Codex Claromontanus — Other uncial MSS. —Cursive MSS.
Chapter-08: THE ANCIENT VERSIONS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT 1. The Eastern Versions, I. Syriac Versions. The Old or Curetonian Syriac — The Peshitte — The Philoxenian or Harkleian Syriac —The Palestinian Syriac —II. Coptic Versions. The Memphitic or Bohairic. —The Thebaic or Sahidic. —The Fayyumice, Middle Egyptian, and Akhmimic Versigns, —III. Other Eastern Versions. Armenian —Gothic —Ethiopic —Arabic 2. The Western Versions. (a)The Old Latin —Various forms of it —The principal MSS —(b)The Vulgate —The Principal MSS —Codex Amiatinus
Chapter-09:THE VULGATE IN THE MDDLE AGES Importance of the Vulgate as the Bible of the West. — Simultaneous use of Old Latin and Vulgate. — Consequent mixture of texts. — Spanish and Irish MSS. —Irish illuminations in English MSS. — Texts of English MSS. derived from Italy. — The Lindisfarne Gospels. — Eminence of English scholarship in the 8th and 9th centuries. —Charlemagne’s effort to improve the Vulgate —Alcuin’s revision —The Golden Gaspels —Thepdulf's revision —The school of St. Gall — Snbsequent deterioration — Revision in the 18th century by the University of Paris —The earliest printed Latin Bibles — The Sixtine Vulgate — The Clementine Vulgate
Chapter-10: THE ENGLISH MANUSCRIPT BIBLE The conversion of England —Caedmon's Bible paraphrase —The Psalter of Aldhelm —Bede —Alfred —Interlinear glosses in Latin Bibles —The Gospels of the 10th century — Alfric's Old Testament —Progress suspended by the Norman Conquest —Verso translations in the 13th century —Translations of the Psalms —Revival of religion in the 14th century. —Wycliffe —Tho earlier Wycliffite Bible —The later Wycliffite Bible —Theory that the Wyecliffite Bible is not really Wycliffe’s —Examination of the theory
Chapter-11: THE ENGLISH PRINTED BIBLE The invention of printing and the revival of learning. —The Reformation. —The struggle for a translation of the Bible—(1) Tyndale’s New Testament, 1525 —His Pentateuch, 1530.—Revised New Testament, 1534, 1535. —Tyndale’s Bible the direct ancestor of the Authorised Version.—(2) Coverdale’s Bible, 1535.—(3) Matthew's Bible, 1537 —(4) The Great Bible, 1539-1541 —(5) Taverner’s Bible, 1539 —Progress suspended during reigns of Edward VI. and Mary. —(6) The Geneva Bible, 1557-1560. —(7) The Bishops’ Bible, 1568. —(8) The Rheims and Douai Bible, 1582-1609 —(9) The Authorised Version, 1611 —Its excellence and infiuence —Acceptance of the Authorised Version —Causes necessitating a revision in our own time —(10) The Revised Version —Its characteristics — Changes in text —Changes in interpretation — Changes in mnermage —Summary —Reception of the Revised Version.

Review: To proof that Bible has any divine value, one need to first proove that Paul existed.

Folder Name Book File Name Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01:Genesis xii. 1. "Now the Lord said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto a land that I will show thee.” Abram called by God from Ur of the Chaldees—Abram’s faith and obedience
Chapter-02: Genesis xii. 7, 8. "The Lord appeared unto Abram, and said. Unto thy seed will I give this land; and there builded he an altar unto the Lord, who appeared unto him. And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east: and there he builded an altar unto the Lord, and called upon the name of the Lord." The Lord appears to Abram at Sichem—Abram builds an altar to the Lord, and calls upon the name of the Lord
Chapter-03: Genesis xiii. 2. “And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold.” A famine in Canaan —Abram’s journey into Egypt —Abram equivocates with Pharaoh —Abram becomes very rich in cattle, in silver and in gold, but still calls on the name of the Lord
Chapter-04: Genesis xiii. 8. “And Abram said unto Lot, Let there be no strife, 1 pray thee, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen, for we be brethren.” A strife between the herdmen of Abram and the herdmen of Lot— Abram’s disinterested conduct —separation of Abram and Lot —The Lord appears to Abram after Lot had left him
Chapter-05: Genesis xiv. 18. “And Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the Most High God : and he blessed him.” Abram arms his servants and conquers five of the kings of Canaan —Abram’s interview with Melchizedek
Chapter-06: Genesis xv. 6. “He believed in the Lord ; and he counted it to him for righteousness.” Abram’s interview with the king of Sodom —Abram reminds the Almighty of his promise of a son —The Almighty confirms the promise
Chapter-07: Genesis xv. 17. “And it came to pass, that when the sun went down and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces.” The Almighty reveals Himself to Abram as the God who brought him out of Ur of the Chaldees —Abram asks for a sign in confirmation of the Almighty’s promise —Abram’s vision —A Patriarch’s day with God —The postponement of the promised inheritance
Chapter-08: O2NESIS xvii. 1. "And the Lord appeared unto him on the plains of Mamre." Abram's marriage with Hagar —The rite of circumcision instituted —The Almighty changes Abram’s and Sarai’s name —Abraham’s laughter —The visit of the three Angels to Abraham —Sarah’s laughter
Chapter-09: Genesis xviii. 19. "For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord.” Abraham’s care for the religious instruction of his family and household —Abraham’s intercession for the cities of the plain
Chapter-10: Genesis xxi. 10. “She said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.” Abraham equivocates with Abimelech —The birth of Isaac —Ahrbaham makes a great feast the day that Isaac was weaned —Ishmael mocks, and is sent away from his father’s house

Review:There are many more chapters, almost all commentary on Bible. Page-14- At the death of Noah, which occurred only two years before the birth of Abram, the unadulterated worship of the God of the Bible appears to have become almost extinct, for even the family of Abram, and, in all probability in his earlier years, Abram himself, were idolaters. Of this important fact in his history, we are informed in the book of Joshua, "Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood (the river Euphrates) in old time, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor: and they served OTHER GODS."

Trial by Fire and Battle in Medieval German Literature by Vickie L. Ziegler

This book analyzes literary texts that provide some of the most vivid and detailed accounts of the medieval ordeal: the dramatic treason trials in late medieval Charlemagne epics. The two epics chosen -- Stricker's Karl der Große and the Karlmeinet -- treat trial by battle as the living legal reality it was in those times, yet display very different attitudes toward feud and punishment in their respective (13th- and 14th-century) societies. Gottfried's Tristan contains an ordeal by battle, of which the author approves, and an ordeal by fire, of which he does not, reflecting a common position of the intelligentsia of the time.

Trial by Fire and Battle in Medieval Germany

Trial by Fire and Water: The Medieval Judicial Ordeal by Robert Bartlett. The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe Edited by Wenvy Davies and PAUL Fouracnre

In trial by ordeal the accused was subjected to some harsh test - holding hot iron, being cast into a pool of water - with guilt or innocence decided according to the outcome. Although a strange and alien custom, trial by ordeal has been an important legal procedure in many regions and periods. Robert Bartlett here examines the workings of trial by ordeal from the time it first appeared in the barbarian law codes, tracing its use by Christian societies to its last days as a test of withcraft in Europe and America. He discusses recent theories about the operation and decline of the practice, shedding new light on both the ordeal as a working institution and the pressure for its abolition.

Trial by Fire and Water

The ordeal had a very wide range of applications: it was used more for serfs than for freemen; it was particularly applicable to alleged sexual and marital offences, and so was often applied to women; and above all, as a trial of faith, it was deemed by the twelfth century to be specially appropriate for cases involving oaths, lese-majesty, heresy and by extension witchcraft, where it had the added advantage not only of providing a public spectacle, but also of the very convenient argument that apparent innocence was itself evidence of the use of witchcraft. Whilst it was invoked under both canon and secular law, its religious character was attested by its Old Testament precedents.

Table of Contents: Introduction, Early History, The Workings of the Ordeal in its Heyday -Types of Ordeal -Ordeal, Testimony, and Oath, The End of the Ordeal and Social Change -The Functionalist Case -The Persistence of the Ordeal -Exemptions -The Case of England, The End of the Ordeal: Explanations in Terms of Belief -Critics of the Ordeal -Clerical Interests, Trial by Battle -Trial by Battle: A Sketch -Battle and Ordeal, Aftermath -Disappearance -Replacement -Recrudescence, Further Reflections


O God, the just judge, who are the author of peace and give fair judgement, we humbly pray you to deign to bless and sanctify this fiery iron, which is used in the just examination of doubtful issues. If this man is innocent of the charge from which he seeks to clear himself, he will take this fiery iron in his hand and appear unharmed; if he is guilty, let your most just power declare that truth in him, so that wickedness may not conquer justice but falsehood always be overcome by the truth. Through Christ.

With these words medieval priests initiated one common form of trial by ordeal. A man accused of a crime, or a man seeking to claim or defend his rights, would, after a solemn three-day fast, pick up a hot iron, walk three paces, and put the iron down. His hand would be bandaged and sealed, then, after three days, inspected. If it was ‘clean’ -that is, healing without suppuration or discoloration — he was innocent or vindicated; if the wound was unclean, he was guilty.


Pg-196: Chapter title - Tests by Hot Water, Cold Water, and Fire: "The ordeal, having its origin far back in the times when the Germans were pagans and before their settlements in the Roman Empire, was retained in common usage after the Christianizing and civilizing of the barbarian tribes. The administering of it simply passed from the old pagan priests to the Christian clergy, and the appeals were directed to the Christian’s God instead of to Woden and Thor. Under Christian influence, the wager of battle (or personal combat to settle judicial questions), which had been exceedingly common, was discouraged as much as possible, and certain new modes of appeal to divine authority were introduced. Throughout the earlier Middle Ages the chief forms of the ordeal were: (1) the ordeal by walking through fire; (2) the ordeal by hot iron, in which the accused either carried a piece of hot iron a certain distance in his hands or walked barefoot over pieces of the same material; (3) the ordeal by hot water, in which the accused was required to plunge his bared arm into boiling water and bring forth a stone or other object from the bottom; (4) the ordeal by cold water, in which the accused was thrown, bound hand and foot, into a pond or stream, to sink if he were innocent, to float if he were guilty; (5) the ordeal of the cross, in which the accuser and accused stood with arms outstretched in the form of a cross until one of them could endure the strain of the unnatural attitude no longer; (6) the ordeal of the sacrament, in which the accused partook of the sacrament, the idea being that divine vengeance would certainly fall upon him in so doing if he were guilty; (7) the ordeal of the bread and cheese, in which the accused, made to swallow morsels of bread and cheese, was expected to choke if he were guilty; and (8) the judicial combat, which was generally reserved for freemen, and which, despite the opposition of the Church, did not die out until the end of the medieval period."

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 40_Christian-Apology-V1.pdf A Christian Apology, Volume 1: God and Nature PAUL SCHANZ, D.D., D.PH., Professor of THEOLOGY in the University of TUEBINGEN, -English 453
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: APOLOGY AND APOLOGETICS Necessity of an Apology— Significance of Religion for man's temporal and eternal destiny — The welfare of the individual and of society— Variety of Religions — Antagonism between the world and revelation— Claims of the one infallible Religion — Christianity — Historical character of Apologetics — Moses — The Prophets — Jesus Christ — The Apostles — Apologetic tendencies in Holy Scripture —Apologetics and Faith — The Metaphysical Absolute, and the God of Religion — The object of Faith and knowledge— The formal proof from reason of supernatural revelation — Apology and Apologetics — Dimonstrati Christians and Catholica — Object of Apology and Apologetics — Peeambula fidei— Motiva credibilititis — Postulates of historical Religion— Natural method of cognition — Internal and external facts — Division of the work
Chapter-02: HISTORY OF APOLOGETICS Apologetics as old as Religion— Canonical books — Septuagint— Philo— Jewish paraphrases — Talmud — Christian Apologetics Division — Drey— Councils of Nicaea and Trent -First Period: Jews and Gentiles — Gospel of St Matthew — Epistle of Barnabas — Justin's Apologies — Proof from Prophecy — Apologies philosophical and ethical, legal and political — General Apology for Christian frith and morals — The Gnostics — Scientific Apologise— Christianity supreme since the days of Constantine— Polemics — Apologetic history. -Second Period: Islam — Judaism— Talmud — Cabbala— John Damascene — S. Thomas — Italian Renascence— Humanism — German Humanism — The Reformers. Third Period: Grotius — Huet — Pascal — Arminian and Socinian Theology — Deism in England, France, Italy, and Germany — Nineteenth Century Rationalism — Darwinism: — France — England— Italy -Spain — Germany
Chapter-03: RELIGION AND HISTORY Universality of Religion — The history of Religion is the history of mankind — Civilized and uncivilized peoples — No people without Religion — Superstition a proof of faith— Sacrifice and Praver — Belief in immortality — Worship of the dead — Moral notions — Cannibalism — Religion in the widest sense — Atheism— Independent morality — Superstition as a substitute for faith — Buddhism
Chapter-04: RELIGION AND MAN Origin of Religion — Religion older than its history— External Causes —Legislators — Priests — Heads of Families — Shamans— Compact between rulers, priests, and people — Relation of man to nature — Climate — Fear — Sense of dependence — Reverence- Ancestor -Worship — Idealistic theory — Imagination — Reason-Force of the principle of casuality — Religion an innate disposition of soul— Moral order in the world— Conscience — Sin — Evolution —Animal instinct— Animism — Fetichism — The historic and scientific development of Religion — Union with God, the end of all Religion
Chapter-05: TRADITIONALISM AND ONTOLOGISM Natural cognition of Cod accorJing to Holy Scripture — Creation— Providence — Conscience — External and internal experience — Universal belief presupposed — Primitive Revelation — Necessity of training— Jews and Gentiles — Revelation of profane knowledge— Vatican Council on Revelation— French Traditionalists— Intellectual action dependent on external agency — Ontologism— Idea of God — Idealism— Ideas — Plato— Arians— Philo— Gnostics —Neoplatonism— Augustine — Mediaeval Platonists — Reformers —Descartes — Middle course between Sensism and Ontologism — Analogous knowledge of God — Monotheistic instinct of the heart — Inborn idea of God — Ontological proof for the existence of God— Anselm— Descartes— Leibnitz— Gratry — Ecclesiastical condemnation of Traditionalism and Ontologism
Chapter-06: BEGINNING AND END Realism and Idealism — The teaching of Philosophy on the beginning of things — Ex nihilo nihil fit — The voice of Religion on the same — Thomas — Bonaventure — Recent philosophers opposed to the temporal existence of the world— Experimental science on the beginning of the world — Man and Animals had a beginning —So had the plants, the earth, the world — Primitive matter —Ignoramus et ignorabimus — Motion and force— First cause — The end a proof of the beginning — No infinite time — Natural science on the end of things — The second proposition of Clausius — Mechanical theory of heat — Eternal rotation — Regressus in infinitum — God — Cosmological argument— Creation
Chapter-07: LIFE Life Is motion — The organic and inorganic in nature — Origin of life— Aristotle — Schoolmen — God the living cause — Natural science — Omne vivum ex ovo— Experiments regarding spontaneous geneva
Chapter-08: THE VARIOUS FORMS OF LIFE Wonderful variety of living form—Historical explanation—Palaeon tology on the appearance of living beings— Plants—Animals—Geology—Gradual Formation of the earth— Evolution —Darwin —Variability and its extent —Constancy of specific character -Germinal disposition —Variability in remote times —Absence of Intermediary forms —Variation per saltut— Internal causes of variability —Heredity —Irregularity of the same—Fundamental law of biogenesis —Correlation —Rudimentary organs —Limits of heredity —Its inexplicable character —Natural selection in the struggle for existence —Weapons of defence and attack —Theory not based upon sufficient experimental proof —Survival of the fittest not proved —Imperfect and lower animali —Initial organt —Mechanical Stimulus —Adaptation —Utility of morphological properties of plants not proved —Migration-theory— Sexual selection —Secondary sexual organs—Colour —Lower Animals —Plant —Constant relation of sexes —No new species —Internal cause of formation —Theory of descent, an historical but incomplete recon struction—Notion of species — Difference between plant and animal —Sensation and spontaneous motion —Barrier between Sensation and mechanical motion —Psychical Dynamism —Theology and Darwinism —Third stage of the cosmological argument.
Chapter-09: MAN Man an animal rationale —Homo Sapiens —Vegetative and sensitive life —Physical difference between man and brute —Upright position— Head— Formation of face —Facial angle —Skull— Brain— Microcephali —Organization of brain —Causes of its development —Physical defects —Tail— Hair —Disadvantages in the struggle for life —View of the physical differences — Ordinary theory of descent from apes set aside —Language —Its psychological cause —Reason —Theories on the origin of language —The child — Vis astimativa — Instinct — Want of Progress — Perfectibility of instinct —Instinctive actions of man —Thought — Dominion over nature —Progress —Self-consciousness —Scientific knowledge —Free will —Moral sense— Anthropophagy —Suicide —Conscience —Heroism —Historical proof— Fourth stage of the cosmological argument.
Chapter-10: DESIGN AND PURPOSE Analytical and synthetical method—Efficient and final causes—Actual existence of design —Aristotle — Holy Scripture —The Fathers—Natural philosophers on design —Theory of Kant and Laplace- Design in evolution —Formation of rings —The moons of Uranus and Neptune —Mutual interaction of bodies —The law of the conservation of energy — Purposeness in the effects of heat, water, air —Organic nature — Internal adaptation — Process of nutrition —Apprehension of good — Instinctive actions —Vital force— Propagation —Biogenetlcal law —Arrangements for securing propagation —Purposeness not utility —Universal purposeness — Anaxagoras and Aristotle —The Creator fixes the purpose — Man the end of creation —Self-consciousness and moral character —Social order —Evil, physical and moral —Curse on nature— Metaphysical evil in nature, organic and inorganic —The physico-theological proof for the existence of God.
Chapter-11: VIRTUE AND REWARD Analogy taken from the animal and vegetative kingdom —Instinct of self-preservation —Desire of happiness —Absence of internal and external happiness —The end of man hereafter —Virtue and Sin —Retributive justice — Postulate of practical reason —The moral and anthropological proof for the existence of Cod.
Chapter-12: THE SOUL Nature of Soul knowable from effects only —Life in the Vegetative and Animal Kingdom —The soul of Brutes —Its divisibility —It is an active substance innate in the animal germ —The soul of man an immaterial simple substance —Notion of Simplicity and Unity —The Spiritual Ego —Identity of Self-consciousness — Opposition of soul and body —Their union—Seat of the soul— Soul and Brain—Mental derangement, culpable or inherited —Dreams — Liberty of Will — Statistics of morality — Soul Dot a mere force —Immortality of the soul—Historical proof —Doubts —Opposition between Philosophy and Belief —The Old Testament on Immortality—Universal belief not an error —Its natural Explanation —Dreams —Spiritualism —No empirical proof for immortality— Metaphysical proofs for immortality — Christian View — Schoolmen — Form—Spirituality — Desire of happiness —The psycho-teleological proof —Resurrection of the body— Council of Vienne on immortality.
Chapter-13: MONISM Materialistic and Idealistic Monism— Historical Survey —Christian Theism —Gross Materialism —Mechanical Monism —Its Incompetency to solve the riddle of the existence of the world — Renounces the higher intellectual and moral life —Animated matter —Pantheiim —School of reason — Psychological school— Idea of being, logical and objective—The Possible not the beginning of things —Individuality incomprehensible in Pantheism —Real ideal —Higher cause of the really existing things —The individual spiritual life only explicable in the supposition of an absolutely perfect cause —No unlimited progress —Process of thought and progress inexplicable —Optimism and Pessimism —Insufficiency of every kind of Monism —Theistic Dualism— Aristotelian and Scholastic Explanation —The Vatican Council on Monism
Chapter-14: CREATION Reason demands the doctrine of creation—Revelation gives the explanation —Genesis—Meaning of bard = creavit —God is Creator from the beginning —Absolute and conditioned or communicated being —The world made out of nothing by the omnipotent will of God—Not caprice, but wisdom —The Eternal ideas —Time and space —Philo —Augustine —Origen —Conservation of things by the Creator —The laws and forces of nature —The First Cause acting through secondary causes—Immutability of God and mutability of created things —Notion of Creation —Autogony
Chapter-15: HISTORY OF CREATION The Mosaic account —Its difficulties —Opinion of the Fathers —Commentaries on the Hexsemeron —Leading principles in its explanation —Inspiration —Tradition —No literal exegesis —Accommodation to the capacity of the reader —Religious object in view of the writer —Application of the principles —Later Theologians —The Schoolmen —The modern view of the world and biblical exegesis —The various theories on the work of creation —Theory of the flood —Literal explanation —Hypothesis of a restoration —Light —Concordistic Theory —The Days as Periods —Second and Third Day —Creation of plants, of animals — Fourth Day —Acts of Creation in general successive, but principle of division only ideal — Bishop Clifford — Opus creationis, distinction is ornatus
Chapter-16: THE SYSTEM OF THE WORLD The geocentric system of the Bible —System of Copernicus —Pythagoras —Ptolemy — Scholastics —Nicolas of Cusa —Copernicus —Opposition of Reformers —Mathematicians —Catholics —Galileo —Judicial proceedings of 1616 —Condemnation explained by the condition of science at the time —Second proceeding in 1633 —Kepler's three laws— Newton— Law of gravitation— Parallax of fixed stars —Aberration of light —Deviation of falling bodies —Foucault's pendulum experiment
Chapter-17: THE UNITY OF THE HUMAN RACE Biblical account of the creation of man —No pro-Adamites —Inhabitableness of other heavenly bodies —Unity of descent the necessary postulate of original sin and redemption —Specific unity —Division of races — Fertile intermarriage —Change of colour and figure as determined by clime and manner of life —Distinction of higher and lower races unfounded — Savages are degenerate races —Capacity for culture a proof of specific unity —Population of the earth from a common centre in Asia— Propagation of plants and animals from several different centres —Traditions on the origin of diversity of tongues —The Indo-Germanic languages branches of a common Aryan language— Relation to Semitic languages —Turanian languages— Common origin of the three families—History of language a history of decadence —Confusion of tongues
Chapter-18: THE AGE OF THE HUMAN RACE Holy Scripture on the age of man —No fixed chronology —No data from Scripture as to the age of the earth —Traces of fossil man in Quaternary strata (Diluvium) —No traces of Tertiary man— Kitchen-refuse, Lake-dwellings, and palings, of recent origin— Stone age, Bronze and Iron Age —Ethnography and the study of the comparative science of language —Ancient civilization of Egypt and India— Relative age: 8,000-10,000 years
Chapter-19: THE DELUGE Biblical account—Its sources —The jahvistic and elohistic sources —Confirmation from cuneiform inscriptions —Superiority of the biblical narrative on account of its moral teleology —Other traditions of the Flood —Age of the Flood greater than that assigned in the Bible —The Ice-Age —Universality of the Flood —Not universal as to earth, plants, and animals, nor probably as to man —Undecided by the Church


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 40_Christian-Apology-V2.pdf A Christian Apology, Volume 2: God and Revelation PAUL SCHANZ, D.D., D.PH., Professor of THEOLOGY FifthEnglish 654
Chapter-01: CHRISTIANITY AND THE HISTORY OF RELIGION The Christian religion new— Objected to on that account by Jews and Gentiles— Antiquity as a general mark of truth —The early Christian Apologists show from the Old Testament and from reason that the Christian religion, though old, admits of legitimate progress and development —The Logos as revealed in the heathen world —Preparation for Christianity —Modern comparative History of Religion points to the unity of religion in the beginning, to a primitive revelation —The historical develop ment of Religion under the guidance of Divine Providence proves that Heathenism wu a preparation for Christianity— But Christianity is not the natural outcome and purely human development of heathen religions— Utility of the History of Religion for Apologists—It must needs precede the exposition of Christian doctrine itself— The views of Greeks and Romans, and of the Old and New Testament, upon the mutual relations of peoples and nations to one another—Ethnographical Knowledge of the Fathers somewhat limited —Verdict of the History of Religion concerning the questions of Primitive Revelation and the origin of Christianity— Division of religions— Religions of nature and culture —Of savage and civilized man — Particular and universal religions —Revealed and non-revealed religions —Monotheistic and polytheistic religions —Religions of fear— Of sin—Of Uw and justice —Pantheistic religions —Division based upon genesis of language —Turanian —Semitic —Aryan —Statistics from the History of Religion
Chapter-02-1:THE INDO-GERMANIC RACE The religion of India —The Vedas —The Varuna period —Indra period —Brahma period of the Rig-Veda —Sama-Veda —Yajur-Veda —Atharva-Veda— Division of Hindu religions Vedism— Older Brahmanism —Buddhism —Jainism —New Brahmanism or Hinduism—Monotheism its beginning —Not nature-worship— Devas, the oldest Gods—Zeus Pater the Supreme God —Aditi and Aditijas —Mitra and Varuna —Worship in the first period —Soma —Immortality —Custom — Indra period —Indra makes way for Varuna —Mitra for Agni —The warlike character of Indra as the national God —Worship —Soma, a drink for the Gods —Brahmanism —Brahma and Brahman —Castes — Power of the Brahmans —Law and custom fixed (law books) —Vishnu and Manu— Sutras —Schools of philosophy — Upanishad— Migration of Souls —Atman —Schools of Sankhya and Yoga— Pessimism— Buddhism and Jainism— Monastic orders of men and women —Sakya-Muni or Gautama— Buddha —His life— Comparison between Buddha and Christ— Buddhistic dogma and canon — Agnosticism and Atheism —Denial of Atman —Nirvana— Doctrine of regeneration or new birth— Karma— No creation—Deliverance from suffering, not Pessimism —The three Buddhistic treasures: Buddha, Dharma, Sangha— Negation —Passivity —Not positive moral agency and action —Buddhistic asceticism an impediment to Christian Missionaries —Spread of Buddhism— Hinduism as the Worship of Vishnu and Siva —Trimurti— Incarnations of Vishnu- Krischna —Sivaism—Nature, its destructive and regenerative force —Moral excesses —Worship of images and beasts —Comparison with Christianity
Chapter-02-2: The Iranians The Iranian religion —Zend-Avesta —Division in religion cause of division of race —Religious reforms— Dualism following upon Monotheism, the hinge on which the whnle religious system turns —Zoroaster not a myth— Zernane Akerene —Ahuramazda Supreme God —Amschaspands and Jazetas— Creation— Davas, the bad spirits headed by Ahriman —Dualism— Sosiosch, the redeemer —Mithra, the mediator— Sraoscha, the third god — Ethics —Struggle of the good agaiust the power of evil-Worship — Magi — Care of the dead — Resurrection — Haoma drink —External influence in the development of the Iranian religion— Babylonian Captivity
Chapter-02-3: The Greek Religion Human ideas and ways carried into Theology —Three degrees in the Greek Religion: Worship of nature, Worship of a family of gods, Mythology—Poverty of ethical element —Virtue and Sin —Influence of religion upon the life of house and home —Worship of Apollo at Delphi— Disorganising influence of Philosophy —Hesiod, Epicurus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle— Greek Tragedians —Epicureanism and Stoicism — Mysteries — The charismata (gifts) in the church of the Corinthians
Chapter-02-4: The Roman Religion Roman Theology —Greek and Roman Scepticism —Oriental cultus in Rome —Apotheosis of Emperors —Stoicism —Seneca —Attempts at restoration by the emperors
Chapter-02-5:The Teutenic Religion ---
Chapter-03-1: THE HAMITES AND SEMITES Chinese Religion and Chinese people—Their sacred books: King—Three kinds of religion : the old national, Confucianism, Taoism mixed with later Buddhism—Original Monotheism— Shang-ti the highest god —Perfect Monotheism —Confucius —Laotse— Pessimism in the Moral system of Confucius —Worship of ancestors—Virtue —Religion a state institution —This life the main point —Taoism —Tao, the first principle —Pantheism —Morality negative, inaction —Philosophy in Taoism —Spiritual conception of God —Trinity —Messianic idea —Buddhism in China—Popular religion —Magic in Taoism and Confucianism —Statues of Animals— Prayer-mills—State religion and Ancestral worship —Obstacles to Missionaries
Chapter-03-2: The Japanese Popular religion —Shintto— Confucianism and Buddhism— Cultus— Ko and Kin
Chapter-03-3: The Egyptians Relation to the Semite —Literature— Difficulty in determining the nature of Egyptian religion —Differences according to time and place —Exoteric and esoteric doctrine —Very probably Henotbeistic in the beginning —Ptah, Ra, Anon, Osiris —Triads — Monotheism — Polytheism — Pantheism — Sabaeism— Myths —Typhon —Origin of Egyptian religion quite unknown —Sexual Dualism —Osiris Myth —Three classes of gods: gods of the Dead, gods of the Elements, Sun-gods —Cultus of Animals and Fetichism —Worship and Custom —Care for the dead— Immortality and resurrection —Complete Moral system.
Chapter-03-4: The Semites Crude Worship of nature and demonic beings —Belief in Proridence —Original Monotheism, soon followed by naturalistic Polytheism —Assyria and Babylonia —Assur —Little known of the old Assyrian and Babylonian religions, but, as far as known, consisted in worship of light and fire —Bel, Baaltis, Istar —Sensuality and human sacrifices— Creation and deluge— Religions of Western Asia, Syria, Phoenicia, and Canaan —Monotheistic Pantheism —Sensual worship —Influence upon the Israelites —The Sabbath, or the observance of the Seventh day —Belief in immortality —Deep consciousness of sin and great piety
Chapter-03-5: The Arabs This religion the crudest and least cultured. More in chapter on Islam
Chapter-04: UNCIVILIZED PEOPLES General description —Fetichism, deification of nature, Pantheism: Belief in a higher being, in spirits, in a future existence —Worship of ancestors and belief in ghosts— Magic —Totemism— Religion of fear —Human sacrifices —Cosmology —Eschatology —Low standard of morality —Sad condition of these races —Brief sketch of religious life —These natural religions move on a downward course, both intellectually and morally —The civilized people of America as compared with the uncivilized —The Mongolian uncultured peoples —Shamanism— Eusebius— Prudentius— Folklorists
Chapter-05: THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL The chosen people— Historical sketch —The old Testament and Modern Criticism —The various Hypotheses: original document, fragments, supplements —The Hexateuch according to the Hypothesis of Keuss, Graf, Wellhausen —The Elohistic original document, and the Jehovistic book of history —The Priestly codex, whether older or more recent than Deuteronomy — Importance of these Hypotheses —The arguments in support of them drawn from the history of religions —The development of the religion of Israel begins with Monotheism —Idolatry, as practised by the majority of the descendants of Noe, came by falling away from the original monotheistic religion— Such a defection from a spiritual to a sensual religion is in itself possible, and with Semites probable —The entire history of religion proves this — Retrogression does not suppose a previous lower grade —Proof from Holy Scripture —Particular persons named as representatives of the idolatrous principle —The names for God are no proof of Polytheism — El, Ilu, Kloliim, Jahve —No trace of special and separate worship being paid to the supposed different gods; nor any trace of mythology —No goddess ever worshipped by the Jews —Josue on the foimer Polytheism of the Israelites —Judges xi 24 on the tame —The Lamentations of the Prophets concerning the idolatry of Israel, presuppose their belief in Jahve —Preservation of that belief quite impossible without a religious moral basis —Moses taught pure Monotheism —Not the founder of the religion, but only the mediator of the Covenant —The Covenant becomes the vital principle of Israel —The Covenant not impossible — The idea, existed also among Non-israelites, and at an earlier time —Moses appealed to the God known by the people —His knowledge of God greater and purer, his education more perfect and refined —Egyptian influence —Written laws an ancient Institution —Monotheism as perfected by the Prophets —A new law after the exile quite incomprehensible from an historical point of view —The special problem of the authorship of Deuteronomy and Priestly Codex —Supposed distinction between tradition and scripture —But the sacred writers appeal to the written law —The sacrificial tables of Carthage and Marseilles — Composition of the Jehovistic book in Ihe eighth century —The Book of the covenant Mill earlier — Legislation ofjosias (Deuteronomy) by tbe help of Jeremias —Value of the proof Drawn from the judgment which the prophets pass upon the sacrifices —Sketch of the historical condition —The data of the historical books regarding the antiquity of the Law cannot be set aside as so many interpolations— Centralisation of worship older —Worship in the high places not allowed, but tolerated —The Ark of the Covenant as the symbol of unity —The tabernacle the pattern for, not the copy of, the temple —Unity, in the time of the Judges —Restoration not innovation under Josias— Priestly Codex anyhow older than Deuteronomy —Restoration under Esdras and Nehemias— People would not have accepted the Priestly Codex as Mosaic Law, if new and hitherto unknown —Ezechiel and the law of sanctification —Wellhausen's reasons for the later composition of Priestly Codex— History of Tradition —The Books of Chronicles — Impossible to admit that the entire ancient history was rearranged upon a new basis —Parallels drawn from Egyptian and Assyrian Archaeology — Priests; Feasts; Sacrifices —Impossible to fabricate in the year 444 a legislation adapted for the march through the desert —Impossible to unite the various writings into one whole —Critical and philological comparison pronounces against the hypothesis —The testimony of the New Testament on the history of the Old Testament —The Original text and Greek Septuagint —The Messianic idea the central point of the history of Israel —Preparation for Christ .
Chapter-06-1: NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS The Jews: Talmudistic Judaism without priesthood and central sanctuary —Mishna —Gemara —Talmud of Jerusalem —Babylonian Talmud — Midraschim— Kabbala —Jewish civilization— Reformed Judaism
Chapter-06-2: The Moslems Islam— Mohammed — His acquaintance with the Old and New Testament —His religious education; course of his religious development —The year of the Flight — Death of Mohammed— Various appreciations of his character, sometimes too favourable —Two periods to be distinguished in his life— Mohammed not acting bona fide in the later period of his life— Accused Jews and Christians of falsifying the Scripture, but never proved the charge —Rapid spread of his doctrines due to sensuality, brute force, and the degraded condition of the Arabs— The Koran —Its faith and morality —Crude monotheism —Angels —Combats a distorted notion of the Trinity — Christ a prophet, like Moses and Mohammed —Allah is great, and Mohammed is his prophet —Miracles and higher knowledge no place in his system —Mohammed raised by Tradition on a higher pedestal —Veneration of Saints a compensation for the unapproachableness of God— Pilgrimages— Paradise Sensual —Christ's second coming —Good works impregnated with self-seeking and pleasure — Polygamy — Slavery—Blood-Revenge — Pork and Wine forbidden — Prayer and fasting— Cultus— Mohammed's hostile attitude to Christianity— Progress of Islam— Its antagonism to civilization and to Christianity
Chapter-07: THE ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY The name of Christian—Josephuson Christ—Tacitus on Nero's persecution —Suetonius on the expulsion of the Jews— Pliny the Younger's letter to Trajan —The sacred Scriptures on Christ— The relations of Christianity to the Old Testament — Celsus' gibes, and Origen's reply — Christianity contained in the Old Testament in germ— The Sermon on the Mount not a mere anti-pharisaical manifesto— Christ came to fulfil the law and the prophets in a spiritual sense— A freer and wider explanation not possible before the coming of the Holy Ghost —Distinction between doctrine and morality— Univertalitm —Heaven our home —The mysteries of Christianity —The Incarnation —The Blessed Trinity —Christian morality —Love of God and out neighbour —Love of enemies — Love for God's sake, and for the salvation of souls—The evangelical counsels —Married life and virginity— Humility —The doctrine of Jesus not derived from Judaism and Hellenism— Even the teaching of the Essenes far removed from Christ's teaching —Is the progress of the New Testament on the Old due to heathen influence? —The Fathers, by their explanation of the Logos, allow that there is a religious element common to Christians and Gentiles —Their knowledge of other religions scanty —The Iranian, Hindu and Buddhistic religions similar in some respects to Christianity— But they differ in cause and nature, means and end —The common ground of reason and the remnant of primitive revelation only a general basis —A modern Japanese writer on Christianity —It cannot be proved that Jesus was influenced by the Egyptian religion -Christianity not a blend of Jewish spirit and Greek philosophy —The Fathers, though prizing Greek philosophy, set greater store by the teaching of prophets and apostles —Socrates' ethics a long way behind Christian morality —Jesus and the Apostles not conversant with Greek philosophy —Love of God and neighbour unknown to the Greeks —No universalism —Christianity not hellenized by the Apologists— Otherwise they would not have abandoned Greek philosophy —Philosophy employed by them to defend and build up Christian doctrine— Faith, inherited from the Apostles, the principle of religious knowledge— Even the myth-hypothesis cannot break up Christianity into bits from heathenism and Judaism —Christianity inexplicable, unless it is the work of God
Chapter-08: REVELATION The Old and New Testaments on supernatural Revelation —The Apostles organs of supernatural revelation —Meaning of the word "Revelation" —Belief in a Revelation common to all religions —Therefore not in opposition to self-consciousness —Definition of Revelation —Natural and supernatural Revelation —Objections of Rationalists —Revelation not impossible —Natural dependence of the mind on external influence —Of knowledge and science on faith —The Spirit of man as the image of God capable of divine influence —Above reason not contrary to reason —Knowledge by Faith— Revelation not contrary to man as a free, moral being —Pedagogical purpose of Revelation —Necessity of Revelation before and after sin —Supernatural end —Necessity shown from History of religion and philosophy —Insufficiency of natural power of man —Vatican Council on the necessity of Revelation —Grace — Manner and modes of Revelation —Types —Dreams —Visions —Words
Chapter-09: REASON AND REVELATION Certainty of Revelation required for immediate and mediate recipients —Duty of believer to examine —Negative and positive criteri —Character of prophets and apostles a guarantee for the fact of Revelation— Moral certitude and evidence —Confirmation of Internal conviction by external signs —Miracles as an external criteriurd —Used by Jesus for that purpose— Influence of man's will on the belief in miracles— Persuasion of the Jews —Impotency of false gods in this respect —Miracles only necessary at the beginning —Prophecies, another and still more general critcrium —Have full force only after resurrection of Christ — Internal criteria— Contents of Revelation— Doctrine and precepts of Jesus —Gospel as preached to the heathen —The early Apologists— Morality of the Gospel—Its effects upon disciples and apostolic communities —Criteria for later times —For Jews and Christians —Apostolic tradition— Propagation of Christianity —Miracles have not ceased altogether — Appeals to miracles in the past —Trustworthiness of Scripture presupposed —Supported by prophecy —Origin on the conjunction of external and internal criteria —Importance of the criteria in Apologetics —Knowledge and Faith —Natural and supernatural Faith —Ecclesiastical Decrees against Traditionalism —Vatican Council
Chapter-10: Miracles Miracles in nature and history —Belief in miracles universal — Reflections on the subject by Augustine, Scholastics and modern writers —Notion of a miracle — Purpose of the miracles of the Old and New Testaments —Working of miracles by Christ an essential element in the plan of salvation —The miracles of Aristeas —Miracles as sensible signs — Immediate divine causality — Not contrary to nature —Absolute and relative miracles— Possibility of miracles— Possible only from theistic standpoint —Material and formal objections —Miracles not a restoration of nature to its former state —A means of God's providence —Not contrary to the law of causality —Natural forces and laws employed for higher purposes— Analogy of nature— Physical and moral possibility on the part of God and on the part of man —Necessity of miracles —Mysteries in nature —Miracles can be recognized as such —Immediate perception of divine operation not necessary —Nor complete knowledge of all the laws of nature— A knowledge of limits sufficient —Relation between cause and effect —Instantaneous effects—The testimony of those who work miracles— False miracles —Moral conditions —Spiritualism —Vatican Council
Chapter-11: PROPHECY Cicero on Prophecy— Universal belief in— Prophecy in the Old Testament —Meaning of the word —The Prophet a preacher of truth and foreteller of the future —Messianic Prophecy —Prophecy a gift of God— Inspiration of Prophets —Difficulties in the explanation of Prophecies —Time and space in the Prophecies of the Old Testament —Prophecies a connected system —Must be viewed in the light of divine Providence —Allegorical interpretation
Chapter-12: THE TRUSTWORTHINESS OF HOLY SCRIPTURE The Canon of the Old and New Testament— External and internal grounds of trustworthiness —Protocanonical and Deuterocanonical books —Jewish tradition on the formation of the Canon-Testimony of Jesus and the Apostles on the Canon —Use of the LXX. in the New Testament and in the Fathers — Council of Trent —Texts of the Old Testament — LXX— Pescbittho— Itala —Vulgata —Codex Claromontanus — Muratori's fragment —The Canon of the Alexandrian Church —The four great Epistles of S. Paul —The Epistle to the Hebrews —The Catholic Epistles —The Apocalypse —The Acts of the Apostles —The Gospels-Time of composition of the Gospels —The Synoptical Gospels composed before the destruction of Jerusalem —Precautions against forgeries or falsifications —No forged or interpolated document can acquire canonical authority —Tradition the criterium —Only Apostolic writings canonical —Apostolicity the touchstone for the canonicity of the books of the New Testament
Chapter-13: INSPIRATION Inspiration and Revelation in the Prophets and the authors of the Hagiographa —Jewish doctrine on the subject —The gift (charisma) of Prophecy and Wisdom —The New Testament on the Inspiration of the Old Testament —The Inspiration of the New Testament follows from the general Inspiration of the Apostles -Testimony of the Apostles to this effect —Their literary activity occasional and supplementary —Promulgation of Inspiration —Second and third gospel inspired —The Divine Economy in the writings of the New Testament —The latter gradually put on a level with the Old Testament —Nature of Inspiration — Verbal Inspiration as held by the Fathers —Scholastics —The Reformers —The Human Element in the composition of the inspired writings -Schools of Alexandria and Antioch —Discrepancies of Scripture a proof of their trustworthiness —Practical application of this principle —The term "dictare"— Post-Tridentine Theologians on Inspiration — Recent Theologians —Various degrees of Inspiration —Modern notion of —Direct and indirect reasons for limiting the notion —Cardinal Newman's obiter dicta—Application of principle to particular subject matter often difficult— S. Thomas and Bellarmine —Application of principles to points of natural science —Councils of Trent and Vatican
Chapter-14: THE INTERPRETATION OF HOLY SCRIPTURE Necessity of interpretation —The great Synagogue —Holy Scripture not self-interpreting — How far later books explain the earlier —The New Testament explains the Old Testament— Obscure passages explained by clear —Faith also a help —Yet all these means are insufficient —Proof from Scripture and the Fathers —Holy Spirit not in individuals, but in the Church at large —The mind of the Church or the rule of faith as the living spirit of the Church— Authentic interpretation by the Church— Consensus Patrum— Ecclesiastical precepts on interpretation — Dogmatic and scientific exegesis —Scientific importance of Patristic interpretation —Decree of Council of Trent regarding the use of the Vulgate —Ecclesiastical approbation of translations into the vernacular — Non-catholic Exegesis
Chapter-15: THE GOSPEL AND THE GOSPELS The Gospels as records of the Apostles— The good tidings —Diatessaron— Apochryphal Gospels not sources for the life of Jesus —Controversy about the Synoptical Gospels and S. John's Gospel —The relation between the Synoptical Gospels of Matthew and Mark according to the Fathers —The Dependence-Hypothesis —Griesbach's Hypothesis, assigning to Mark the third place —The Mark- Hypothecs, assigning to his Gospel the first place —The fragments of Papias —Prologue to Gospel of Luke— Explanation of Synoptic discrepancies from the scope of the Synoptists, supposing the hypothesis of dependence on one another and on Tradition —Tradition-Hypothesis exonerates the Evangelists, but incriminates Tradition —Scope of the Synoptists — Progress from Matthew to Luke —Peculiarities of John's Gospel —Complement of the Synoptists —Gospel of John and Apocalypse-Last Supper probably on 13th Nisan —Internal reasons for authenticity of the 4th Gospel— Hints as to the author —Contents point to John —Language, character, anti-judaistic tendency not contrary— Everything points to an eye-witness —Further proof taken from the fact that Christ's activity in Judaea is recorded —Portrait of Christ drawn by John completes that of the Synoptists —No want of historical development— Miracles recorded in the 4th Gospel not against reason, but must be viewed in the light of Providence —Agreement between Christ's discourses and those of the Baptist to be explained by the prophetical office of the latter —Affinity between the Synoptical discourses and those of John's Gospel —Discourses held in Jerusalem naturally less popular —John's peculiar fitness to record them —Idea of the Logos not taken from Philosophy, but from Sapiential books viewed in the light of tne actual fact of the Incarnation —The Kingdom of God in the Synoplists —The Person of Christ in the 4th Gospel— Eschatology —Parables —Unless of Apostolic origin, its relation to Synoptisls and its general enthusiastic reception inexplicable —Scope of the 4th Gospel —Christ the Messias and Son of God —Concluding remarks upon the trustworthiness of the Gospels —These do not furnish a complete portrait of Christ
Chapter-16: THE LIFE OF JESUS Life of Jems the most effective Apology —Model of the life of the faithful —Historical sketch—Year of birth probably 749 U.C. — Day of birth difficult to determine —Since 4th century December 25th generally accepted —Length of public ministry 2.5 or 3.5 years— Complete Biography impossible —Infancy and youth little known —Order of public ministry chiefly determined by John's account —History of Passion —Year of death 782 or 783 —Day of death a Friday — Resurrection— Its importance for faith and life —Resurrection foretold by prophets and Christ himself— Proofs of the resurrection partly historical, partly psychological —Discrepancies to be explained by the different scope of the Evangelists —Reasons why the disciples did not recognize the risen Saviour at once —The doubts of the disciples a proof of the resurrection —Belief in the resurrection not due to prophecy —Apparitions vouchsafed to the disciples only-Slowness of the disciples in believing —Psychological proof for the resurrection —Belief and conduct of disciples otherwise inexplicable —Attempts at natural explanations —Theft —Trance —Vision —Fact of the resurrection the necessary basil of faith and hope in Apostles and Christians
Chapter-17: PERSON AND NATURE OF JESUS Holy Scripture on the divinity of Christ—The Synoptists— Meaning of the term "Son of Man" —Genealogies— Parents of Jesus— S. Paul on Christ's divinity —Christ's Preexistence taught in his four great Epistles —Jewish idea of a heavenly Messias —Incarnation the distinguishing feature —General Belief in the Apostolic communities —Gospel of S. John —Jesus the centre of Christian worship— Divinity of Christ fully taught throughout— Particular passages on the preexistence of Jesus —One passage favourable to subordinationism
Chapter-18: CHRIST'S DOCTRINE AND WORK Claim of Jesus to equality with the Father considered as blasphemy by the Jews —Jesus proves his claim by miracles and prophecies —Evangelists and Apostles adopt the same method — I'rotevangelium —Development of Messianic prophecy —Of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Juda, of the house of David — Son of David and Son of God —Moral and religious renovation through the Messias — Eternal reign of the Messias —Attempts of the Rabbinical school to make void the prophecies —Prophecies concerning the sufferings of the Messias —Born of a virgin —Nativity in Bethlehem, triumphal entry into Jerusalem, betrayal —Messianic hopes of Jews and Gentiles at the time — Tacitus —Suetonius —Vergil —Erythraean Sibyl —Fulness of time —Why the advent of the Messias so late? —Answers from Scripture and the Fathers —Preparation of Gentiles negative and positive —Law of development in the economy of salvation— Predestina tion—Mediseval Theologians —S. Thomas— Recent Apologists —Full natural development of good and evil— Retrospective force ot the sacrifice of the Cross —Preparation for Christ an argument for his divinity —Claims of Jesus not dependent on condition and spirit of the time —Belief in the coming Messias leads the disciples to believe in Jesus as the Messias and Son of God —Some passages of the Old Testament concerning the divinity of the Messias —Not unsuspected by the Jews —Involuntary testimony of the Rabbis —Christ's prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem —Christ's miracles a proof of his divinity, especially in conjunction with his doctrine —Significance of the miracles in the several Gospels —Division of the New Testament miracles-Cures and Nature-miracles— Rationalistic explanations— Miracles wrought in and for Jesus
Chapter-19: THE GOD MAN Difficulty of drawing in full the character of Jesus —Union and compenetration of the divine and the human —God-Man —One and the same person in two distinct natures —Bodily development of Jesus— Spiritual development not altogether wanting —People of Nazareth ignorant of true character and nature of Jesus —Jesus endowed with surpassing wisdom, though not educated in the schools —True wisdom —Truth gives real freedom to believeri —Sinlessness of believers —Direct and indirect testimonies of Scripture —Portrait drawn by the disciples of their sinless roaster not due to considerations of indulgence —Testimony of is enemies —Accusations of blasphemy and violation of Sabbath —Baptism of Jesus —Internal sinlessness of Jesus —Positive side of his moral character — Virginity of Jesus the sign of perfect renunciation of all things earthly —Charity of Jesus —Humility and self-denial of the Son of God —Unique example of each and all virtues— Impossible to explain his character by supposing a fusion of Eastern and Western genius —Jesus the only pattern of all men and all conditions of life —Redemption the work of the Son of God— Prophetical, sacerdotal, and royal office — Doctrine of Jesus sublime and yet adapted to all men— Trinity —Incarnation as a manifestation of God's love, justice, and holiness —The Kingdom of God spiritual and universal —Sanctification of individual, family, society — Matrimony— Its Indissolubility and chastity —State of virginity —Voluntary poverty —Grace
Chapter-20: A RETROSPECT Brief analysis of contents in first and second volumes


Christian worship : its origin and evolution : a study of the latin liturgy up to the time of Charlemagne by Duchesne, L. (Louis), 1843-1922; McClure, M. L. 1918


CHAPTER I. ECCLESIASTICAL AREAS. 1 1. Jewish and Christian Communities 2. Local Churches — Episcopal Dioceses 3. Ecclesiastical Provinces 4. Patriarchates — National Churches

CHAPTER I: THE MASS IN THE EAST. 1. The Liturgy in Primitire Times 2. The Syrian Liturgy in the Fourth Century 3. The Oriental Liturgies (1) Syria, p. 65; (2) Mesopotsmia and Persia, p. 69; (3) Casarea and Constantinople, p. 71 ; (4) Armenia, p. 73 4. The Alexandrine Liturgy 75 (1) The Buchologion of Sarapion, p. 75 ; (2) Later Liturgies, p. 79 5. Later Modifications 82

CHAPTER III. THE TWO LITURGICAL USES OF THE LATIN WEST. 1 1. The Roman and Gallican Uses 2. Origin of the Gallican Use 3. Fusion of the Two Uses

CHAPTER IV. LITURGICAL FORMULARIES AND BOOKS. 1. The Formi of Prayer 106 2. The Lections 3. The Chants 113

CHAPTER V. ANCIENT BOOKS OF THE LATIN RITE. § 1. Roman Books 120 (1) The Gregorian Sacramentary, p. 120; (2) The Gelaaian Sacramentary, p. 125; (3) The Missale Franconium, p. 184; (4) The Leonian Sacramentari, p. 135 ; (5) The Roll of Rarenna, p. 144; (6) The Ordium Romani, p. 146 § 2. Gallican Books 151 (7) The Missale Gothicum, p. 151 ; (8) The Missal Gatticanum Vetus, p. 152; (9) Masses published by Mono, p. 153; (10) The Lectionary of Luxeuil, p. 154; (11) The Letters of St. Germain of Paris, p. 155; (12) British and Irish Books, etc., p. 156; (13) The Bobbio Missal, p. 158; (14) Ambrosian Books, p. 160


CHAPTER VIII. THE CHRISTIAN FESTIVALS. § 1. Usual Observance of the Week 228 § 2. The Ember Days 232 § 3. Holy Week 4. Movable Feasts 235 (1) The Computation of Easter, p. 236; (2) Eastertide, p. 239; (3) Lent, p. 241; (4) Holy Week, p. 247 5. The Immorablo Feasts 257 (1) Christmas and Epiphany, p. 257; (2) The Festivals after Christmas, p. 265b; (8) The Festivals of the Virgin and St. John Baptist, p. 269; (4) The Festival of the 1st of January, p. 273; (5) The Festival! of the Holy Cross, p. 274; (6) St Michael and the Maccabees, p. 276; (7) The Festivals of the Apostles, p. 277; (8) The Martyrs and other Local Festivals, p. 283; (9) Fasts, Octaves, and Litanies, p. 285; (10) Calendars and Martyrologies, p. 289

CHAPTER IX. CEREMONIES OF CHRISTIAN INITIATION. 1. Baptism according to the Roman Usage 294 (1) Rites of the Catechnmenate, p. 295; (2)Preparation for Baptism, p. 298; (3)Blessing of the Holy Oils, p. 305; (4)Baptism, p. 308; (5)Confirmation, p. 314; (6) First Communion, p. 315 2. The Gallican Baptismal Rite 316 (1) The Catechnmenate, p. 317; (2) Preparation for Baptism, p. 319; (3) Baptism and Confirmation, p. 320 § 3. The Initiatory Rites in the Churches of the East 327 § 4. Comparison of Rites, and their Antiquity 5. The Reconciliation of Heretics 338

CHAPTER X. ORDINATION. 1. The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy 342 2. Latin Ceremonies of Ordination 3. Ordinations at Rome 353 (1) The Minor Orders, p. 352; (2)Tho Ordinations at the Ember Seasons — that is, of Priests and Deacons, p. 353; (3) The Ordination of Bishops, p. 359; (4) Ordination of the Pope, p. 362 4. Ordinations according to the Gallioan Rite 5. Ordinations in the East 376

CHAPTER XI. LITURGICAL VESTMENTS 379 (1) The Tuniele and the Planeta, p. 379; (2) The Dalmatic, p. 382; (3) The "Mappula" and the Sleeree, p. 383; (4) The Pallium, p. 884; (5) The Stole, p. 390; (6) Shoes and Headdress, p. 395; (7) The White Saddle-cloth of the Roman Clergy, p. 396; (8) The Crosier and Ring, p. 397

CHAPTER XII. THE DEDICATION OF CHURCHES. 1. Building consecrated to Christian Worship 399 2. Roman Dedication Rites 3. Gallican Dedications 407

CHAPTER XIII. THE CONSECRATION OF VIRGINS. § 1. The Profession of Virgins 419 2. The Rites of the Velatio Virgium (1) The Roman Use, p. 424; (2) The Gallican Use, p. 425


APPENDIX. 1. The Roman Ordines from the Manuscript of St. Amend 455 2. The Roman Ordor for the Three Days before Easter 3. The Dedication Ritual in the Saeramentory of Angouleme 4. The Dedication Ritual according to the Use of the Bishop of Meta 5. Order of the Offices at Jerusalem towards the End of the Fourth Century 6. The "Apostolic Tradition" of Hippolytus 7. The Exultet of Bari 537 Translator's Note. Early Greek form of the Ave Maria, English Translation of No. 5 (Pilgrimage of Etheria (Silria)) 541 Additional Notes INDEX 577

Review: Pg-257 "There is no authoritative tradition bearing on the day of the birth of Christ. Even the year is uncertain. The latter, however, was determined at an early date from a consideration of two texts, Luke iii. 1, and Luke iii. 23, which imply a synchronism between the thirtieth year of Jesus. and the fifteenth year of the rule of Tiberius (28-29). As for the month and the day, Clement of Alexandria speaks of calculations which result in fixing these as the 18th or 19th of April, or even as the 29th of May. But these were private calculations upon which no festival observance could be made to depend. The book called De Pascha Computus, put forth in 243, either in Africa or in Italy, states that our Lord was born on the 28th of March."

Review: Pg-258 "Christmas was originally a festival peculiar to the Latin Church. St. John Chrysostom states, in a homily delivered in 386, that it had not been introduced into Antioch until about ten years before, that is, about 375. there was no observance of this feast either at Jerusalem, or at Alexandria. It was adopted at the latter place about 430. The Armenians did not observe it either.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 40_Christian-Apology-V3.pdf A Christian Apology, Volume 3: The Church PAUL SCHANZ, D.D., D.PH. FifthEnglish 656
Chapter-01: FINALITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHRISTIAN REVELATION 1 The Tutorship of Revelation ceasing with the Advent of Christ — 2 Revelation completed and closed by Christ: Christian Revelation Absolute and Final— 3 John the Baptist the Last of the Prophets: Christ the Fulfilment of all Prophecy — 4 The Reason being His Divine Sonship —5 The Advent of the Holy Ghost not for the Purpose of a New Revelation, but for the complete Understanding of Christ's Revelation —6 Proof from the Words and Practice of the Apostles — 7 Proof from the Post Apostolic Age: the Church claimed to teach no other Doctrine but that delivered by the Apostles — 8 Private Revelations of no account to the Catholic Deposit of Faith — 9 Christian Revelation, though materially Absolute and Perfect, does not exclude Formal Perfectibility —10 Christ implanted a New Vital Principle both in the Individual Man, and in the Church as a Living Society — 11 Development and Growth a Necessary Consequence - The Law of Progress recognised by the Apostles — 12 The Apostolic Deposit not delivered by way of a Full and Perfect Doctrinal System —13 The Contents of the Divine Deposit require Unfolding at the Hand of a Living, Intelligent Agent, and under the Assistance of the Holy Ghost — 14 The Rule of S. Vincent of Lerin: Quod Semper, etc. — 15 His Analogy from Living Organisms applied to the Growth and Development of Dogma: Development not Change — 16 The Principle of Tradition, that it, the Combination of Conservatism with Progress, distinguishes the Catholic Church from All Other Communions — 17 Development due to Causes Internal and External— 18 Heresies, according to the Fathers, are an Occasion for Development — 19 History confirms it — 20 The Various Stages of Development may be traced in the Chief Doctrines on the Trinity and Incarnation —21 Prohibition of the Council of Ephesua to add to the Nicene Creed — 22 The Living Spirit in the Church never Inactive — 23 Development in the Dogma of Grace, Free Will, Justification, Sacraments —24 Development in Cultus, Worship, Life of the Church —25 Difference between Catholic Church and Other Communions in this respect —26 Development the Law of every Religion —27 The Catholic Church holds the Golden Mean between the Fossil Conservatism of Greek and Protestant Churches, and the Infinite Material Perfectibility of Rationalism —28 Protestantism puts the Individual Subjective Spirit in Place of the Spirit of the Church —29 The Distinction between Fundamental and Non-Fundamental Truths a Snare and a Delusion —30 The Vatican Council on Development
Chapter-02: THE KINGDOM OF GOD 1 The Messianic Kingdom predicted by the Prophets: A Kingdom of Peace and Justice —2 The Name "Kingdom of Heaven" first in Daniel: Established by the "Son of Man" —3 Jewish Hopes of a New Kingdom —4 The Kingdom of Heaven in the Gospel of S. Matthew —5 In the Gospels of the other Evangelists —6 Further Desciiption by S. Matthew: The Eight Beatitudes —7 The Spiritual Character of the New Kingdom —8 Obligations and Duties in the New Kingdom on Earth —9 Internal and External Aspects of the New Kingdom: Its Visibility —10 Conditions of Membership: Confession of the Name of Jesus, Baptism, Observance of Precepts —11 Visible Sign of Communion I Eucharist —12 The Fortunes of the New Kingdom as illustrated by the Parables— 13 External and Internal Growth —14 Value of the Kingdom of Heaven —15 The Kingdom of God according to the Apostolic Epistles —16 Both a Heavenly Gift and a Visible Community — 17 Christ's Disciples the First Beginning of this New Society or Kingdom — 18 Disciples in the Narrow and Wider Sense; Election of the Twelve; Their Gradual Understanding — 19 Unity between Disciples and Believers —20 Tbe Good Shepherd —21 Definition of the New Kingdom
Chapter-03: THE CHURCH ACCORDING TO SCRIPTURE I The Word "Church", and its Meaning in the Gospel of S. Matthew —2 Twice used with Reference to Hierarchy —3 Omitted by Other Evangelists from Causes External; Substitution of the Phrase, "Kingdom of God" —4 Incidents in the Gospel of S. John having Reference to the Church, e.g. In scription on the Cross; Seamless Garment; Words of Jesus to His Mother standing by the Cross; Piercing of the Side —5 The Church as represented in the Acts of the Apostles —6 The Church Universal and the Churches Particular —7 Organization of New Christian Communities: Ecclisia Decent it Disctns —8 The Church and the Churches in the Pauline Epistles; All One Great Brotherhood; the Church of God —9 Rare Occurrence of the Word in the Epistles of James and John— 10 Further Details on the Nature of the Church, especially from S. Paul — 11 Metaphor of Edifice— 12 Metaphor of Organism, Body— 13Metaphor of Matrimony— 14 The Church as the Continuation of the Incarnation, ai the Intermediary Organ of applying the Work of Redemption— 15 Real Truths underlying all those Metaphors —16 Religious Life in the Apostolic Church; Prayer and the Breaking of Bread in Separate Assemblies— 17 The Lord's Supper as the New Paschal Feast —18 Visible Guidance of the New Community by the Holy Spirit, communicated by Ordination —19 External Organization Necessary for the Continuance of the Gospel; Collections for the Poor in Jerusalem — 2O Definitions of the Church: Catholic Definitions —21 Non-Catholic Definition
Chapter-04: MARKS OF THE TRUE CHURCH 1 The Existence of False Churches, Sects, and Heresies renders it necessary to have Evident Signs of Recognition or Distinctive Marks —2 Such are Sanctity, Unity, Apostolicity, Catholicity—3 Indicated in Scripture, and urged by Fathers: Ignatius, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origen, Jerome, Augustine, Vincent of Lerin —4 The Same mentioned in Nicene Creed —5 The Vatican Council on the Subject —6 The General Motiva Credibilitatis also of Use: The Notes themselves are Motiva Credibilitatis —7 Degree of Credibility derived from Them —8 Distinction between Marks and Properties —9 The Mutual Relations between the Two, and between the Several Marks Themselves
Chapter-05:THE CHURCH APOSTOLIC - I - Testimony of Scripture 1 The Apostles are Witnesses for Christ and Representatives of Him, and Dispensers of His Mysteries: Their Office must continue —2 They are Witnesses, internally qualified by the Gift of the Holy Ghost, and by the External Commission or Authority of Christ —3 Proof from Gospels and Acts —4 The Apostolate, not a mere Missionary Duty, but an Ecclesiastical Office and Dignity —5 Objection against the Corporate Character of the Apostolate —6 The Apostolate, not the Result of Historical Development, but a Divine Institution —7 Apostles Proper, and in the Wider Sense: Barnabas —8 Conditions of the Apostolate —9 The Manner of Exercising It, no Proof against It: The Apostles are Representatives of God, not of the Community — 11 The Need of being taught by Apostles never ceases; Apostles, Prophets, Teachers: the Latter Two not necessarily Ecclesiastical Offices —12 Continuity of Apostles in Post-Apostolic Times— 13 Not merely in Their Writings, but rather in an Organized Ministry —14 Proof from Acts, Epistles, especially Pastoral Epistles
Chapter-05: II— Testimony of the Fathers— 15 Clement of Rome on the Apostolic Office —On Bishops, Presbyters, and Deacons— 16 Ignatius, Bishop and Martyr— 17 Apostolic Succession of Supreme Importance with the Fathers: Historical Proofs of Succession given by Hegesippus and Irensus —18 Apostolic Succession Part of the Living Faith of the Church, especially Succession in the Roman Church— 19 The Apostle's Creed —20 Irenaeus on the Apostolic Succession as the Organ of Truth and Rule of Faith— 21 Tertullian on the Same —22 Cyprian —23 The Alexandrian Fathers: Clement —24 Origen —25 Apostolicity applied to the Canon of Scripture —26 Augustine —27 His Main Argument not weakened by Collateral Arguments from Scripture —28 The Schoolmen: S. Thomas
Chapter-05: III— Testimony of Heretics 29 Early Heretics —30 Protestants —31 British and Northern Sects, False Idea of Apostolicity
Chapter-06: THE CHURCH ONE 1 Love and Selfishness Causes of Union and Division: Babel and Confusion of Tongues —2 Religious Divisions —3 God's Care for Restoring Unity in the Old Testament —4 Greek Language and Roman Empire a remote Preparation— 5 Prophecies concerning the One Messianic Kingdom —6 Christianity the Fulfilment of the Prophecies: Unity of God, of Truth, of Church —7 Unity of Faith, Life, Constitution, a Mark of the Church — 8 Proof of Unity from the First Pentecost —9 Baptism and Eucharist as Means of Union— 10 The Apostleate as a Means of Union between Jews and Gentiles: Warning against Schism and Heresy— 11 Unity of Faith in the Church as a Whole— 12 Baptism the Symbol of Unity —13 Not of itself, but by means of the Visible Church guided by the Holy Ghost— 14 The Enemies of the Church favour Separatist Tendencies; Julian the Apostate— 15 The Fathers of the Church connect the Proof of Unity with that of Apostolicity; Ignatius, Polycarp— 16 Hegesippus, Justine, Hermas, Cyprian —17 Heresies a Witness to the Unity of the Church— 18 Cyprian on the Unity of the Church — 19 the Donatists and St. Augustine— 20 Greek Schism —Western, or Papal Schisms —22 Reformation
Chapter-07: THE CHURCH CATHOLIC 1 The Name not Biblical; but Universality of the Church clearly predicted by the Prophets —2 The First Traces of the Word in the Ignatian Epistles, and in the Account of the Martyrdom of Polycarp: Its Meaning —3 Also in the Fragmcntum Muratori —4 The Term applied to the Canonical Epistles — 5 The Apostolic and Nicene Creeds— 6 Patristic Explanations of the Catholicity of the Church: Augustine —7 Heretics obliged to call the Church by that Name— 8 The Argument from Catholicity as used by the Fathers against Heretics —9 Numerical Preponderancy of the Catholic Church— 10 Territorial Universality as compared with that of Sects— 11 Missionary Activity of the Catholic Church: The Sects generally recruit from the Church— 12 Protestant Missions: The formula Concordia— 13 No Change in the Primitive View of the Church Catholic— 14 Nothing short of a Community will satisfy the Cravings of the Human Heart
Chapter-08 THE CHURCH INFALLIBLE I Absolute Revelation and Infallible Authority: Are they Correlatives? The a priori Argument II —Infallibility of the Apostles, and the Apostolic Church —2 Infallibility promised to the Apostles, and to the Apostolic Church, in Perpetuity —3 Testimony of Dollinger: Vain Attempts at explaining away the Promises —4 Promises how applied to All the Faithful— 5 The Apostles claimed Infallibility —6 Peter's Uncertainty as to the Reception of Heathens I No Argument to the Contrary —7 Paul's Rebuke of Peter according to Ancients and Modern —8 Apostles, though Infallible, not all at once Perfect in the Knowledge ot how Revealed Truths were to be applied —9 Difference between the Infallibility of the Apostles and that of the Church
Chapter-08 II Formal Proof for the Infallibility of the Church 10 Historical Proof; Irenaeus; Tertullian; Origen; Laclantius —11 How the Fathers conceived it, and to whom they attributed it —12 Infallibility manifested in (Ecumenical Councils) — 13 Augustine on the Authority of Bishops and Councils— 14 Councils never erred: Chalcedon and Constantinople on the Three Chapters— 15 Councils of Constance and Lateran on the Superiority ol Councils over the Pope— 16 Councils of Ariminum and Seluicia— 17 The Lalrocinium of Ephesus— 18 Adverse Statements at the Time of the Western Schism: Pierre d'Ailly and Nicolas of Cusa; S. Antoninui of Florence— 19 Middle Ages —20 Council of Trent —21 Infallibility and the Reformers: Their Own Infallibility—22 Infallibility of the Bible
Chapter-08 III Material Proof 13 Proof from the Actual Fact —24 Millenium not to the Point —25 Constitution of Church ever the same —26 Pelagianism of the Schoolmen a Fiction —27 Base's Objection against Infallibility: Forsaken by Scripture —28 Unsupported by Firm Tradition —29 Made to rest only on a Philosophical Basis of Supposed Necessity —30 A Brilliant Dream to suit Circumstances
Chapter-08 IV Nature and Extent of Infallibility 31 Assistance, not Revelation, or Inspiration; In Matters of Faith and Morals; In formal definitions —32 Further Explanation as to Who is Infallible, How, and When?
Chapter-09 THE CHURCH NECESSARY FOR SALVATION 1 The Old Theocracy Exclusive and Particularistic —2 Its Tendency to Universality in the Future —3 The New Israel both Universal and Exclusive —4 The Teaching of the N. T. as to Salvation in Jesus alone —5 John's Gospel lays stress on the Necessity of Faith, Baptism, and Eucharist —6 Testimonies of the Apostles on the Subject: S. John —7 S. Paul —8 S. Peter —9 S. James— 10 Marked Opposition between the Church and the World foretold by Christ —11 S. Paul on Christians as the Elect —12 Baptism as the Symbol and Cause of our Death and Life in Christ —13 What is True of Christianity, is True of the Church— 14 Application of this Principle by the Apostles Themselves —The Post-Apostolic Age knows of No Christianity outside the Church: Ignatius, Polycarp, Clement of Rome, Irenxus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria — 16 The Sects not the Cause, but the Occasion for affirming That Doctrine— 17 The Example of Noah's Ark used by the Fathers, especially S. Cyprian — 18 S. Cyprian and Augustine deny True Martyrdom to Heretics— 19 Augustine's View of Heretical Baptism: Valid, but Ineffectual, and Unprofiting outside the Church— 20 Augustine on Invisible Members of the Church: Fulgentius of Ruspe —21 The Greek Fathers on the Subject —22 First Ecclesiastical Utterances in Africa —23 The Athanasian Creed —24 Boniface VIII. 's Dictum a mere Summing Up of an Old and General Doctrine: Tertullian, Augustine —25 Ecclesiastical Decision on the Subject Unnecessary. Some, however, exist: Lateran Council, Professio fidei required of the Waldenses, Council of Trent, Creed of Pius IV. —26 Modern Theologians on "Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Sulus" —27 Reformers equally Exclusive: Confessio, Apologia, Luther, Calvin —28 Laxer View adopted by later Protestants— 29 Non-Catholic Theologians of Modern Days less Unjust to the Catholic Doctrine —30 Real Meaning of the Catholic Principle: Principle and Application, Augustine— 31 S. Thomas— 32 Modern Theologians: Pius IX. Syllabus —33 Various Kinds of Members of the Church —34 God's Providence and Saving Will Universal —35 The Church's Attitude towards Sinners —36 Treatment of Heretics in General —37 Extreme Penalty of Death: View of the Fathers —38 The Doctrine and Practice of the Middle Ages —39 The Inquisition: Protestant and other Impartial Testimonies —40 Religious Toleration: Protestant Views of it —41 Conclusion: The Catholic Doctrine thoroughly Consistent.
Chapter-10 THE CHURCH HOLY 1 Holiness both a Property and a Mark of the True Church —2 Early Heretics have misapplied this Mark —3 The Sanctity of the Church as understood by the Fathers: First Element Her Doctrine —4 Second Element Her Means of Grace —5 The Sacramental System as explained more fully by the Schoolmen with Holy Eucharist as Centre —6 Congruity of Seven Sacraments according to Roman Catechism —7 Goethe on the Wonderful Organism of the Catholic Sacraments —8 Influence of the External Worship upon the Internal and Moral Life: Holiness In the Moral Sense shown forth in the Members of the Church —9 The Fathers on this Holiness— 10 Practice of the Evangelical Counsels— 11 The Saints of the Past and from the Beginning belong to the Catholic Church —12 The Church on Earth comprises Saints and Sinners— 13 Corruption of the Church in the 16th Century much exaggerated: The so-called Reformation No Advance towards Holiness —14 Contempt of the Reformers for Evangelical Counsels —15 True Reformation on the Side of the Council of Trent —16 Church's Holiness as Independent of that of her Members— 17 Bellarmine on Sanctity as a Note of the Church —18 Statistics of Holiness Impossible -19 Statistics of Crime Unreliable —20 Miracles as a Sign and Means of Further Holiness; Irenaeus; Luther —21 The Church Militant and Triumphant; Eight Beatitudes; Roman Catechism —22 Purgatory, or, the Church Suffering — 23 Definition of Holiness.
Chapter-11 SCRIPTURE AND TRADITION 1 Grace and Truth Destined for All Men: How are they to reach the Individual? Historical Solution of the Question
Chapter-11I In the Time of Christ and the Apostles 2 Personal Teaching of Christ —3 Christ, though familiar with the Written Method, left No Writings —4 Reasons Why? The Might of the Living Word; Example of Other Founders of Religion— 5 Apostles not commanded to Write, but to Preach and Teach: Reasons Why? —6 Living Tradition, especially Necessary in Matters of Worship —7 External Reasons such as Fear of Profanation of the Divine Mysteries —8 Measures taken by the Apostles to provide for the Future: Appointment of Pastors and Teachers— 9 The Apostolic Epistles merely Occasional —10 Gospels not a Substitute for Preaching— 11 But intended to deepen and strengthen Oral Teaching— 12 Apostolic Preaching implies Authority and Assistance of the Holy Ghost: Teaching by the Power of the Spirit— 13 The Scripture Principle, therefore, Unbiblical and Unhistorical.
Chapter-11 II In the Anti-Nicene Age 14 The Principle of Faith according to the Apostolic Fathers, Clement of Rome, Ignatius Martyr: Truth is with the Apostolic Succession —15 The Epistle to Diognetus: Papias— 16 Polycarp: The Clementines— 17 Tradition the Ordinary Method of Faith— 18 Irenseus— 19 Tertullian — 20 Testimony of the Church —21 Origen confesses to the Principle of Tradition with Scripture in Support —23* A Change of Principle Impossible
Chapter-11 III Objections considered 23 Alleged Protest of the African Church against the Sovereignty of Tradition —24 Tertullian's Objection against Custom —25 Cyprian's Objection against Custom in Matters of Re-Baptism —26 Firmilian's Objection against the Roman Tradition — 27 Augustine on Cyprian's Attitude: On the Creed as an Epitome of Scripture Truths —28 Cyril of Jerusalem: Instruction of Catechumens —29 The True Scriptures are received at the Hands of the Church: Faith without Authority unknown to the Ancients —30 Reading of Scripture Unpracticable: True Position of Scripture as an Instrument of Doctrine for the Magisterium Ecclesiasticum —31 The Schools of Antioch and Alexandria: Arius —32 No Change at Nicaea —33 Eusebius of Emesa— 34 Augustine's Dictum, "Faith will totter if the Authority of Scripture begin to shake" —35 Sufficientia Scriptura
Chapter-11 IV — In the Post-Nicene Age 36 Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, Chrysostom, Theodosius —37 Vincent of Lerin: His Canon and Commonitorium —38 Augustine's Canon: Negative and Positive Element in Tradition —39 Tradition in Matters of Sacred Liturgy: Basil —49 The Apostolic Constitutions —41 Lex Supplicandi est Norma Credendi —42 The Schoolmen on the Principle of Faith —43 Opposition Insignificant: Abaelard, Nominalists
Chapter-11 V At the Time of the Reformation and Since 44 Luther's Material and Formal Principle —45 Many Contradictions involved in His System —46 It undermines the whole Fabric of the Church —47 Tradition and the Council of Trent— 48 Further Inconsistencies of the Reformers —49 Hase's Contention that Both the Catholic and Protestant Churches have acted consistently with regard to Tradition —50 Catholic Tradition even humanly considered the Highest Guarantee Possible of Truth: Kepler's Testimony— 51 The Catacombs— 52 Historical Demonstration from Tradition at times Difficult —53 Tradition and Development go hand in hand— 54* Alleged Doctrines in which the Principle of Tradition is said to break down —55 Twofold Character of Tradition; Divine and Human Element —Witnesses not All of the Same Authority —56 Contents of the Catholic Faith the Same Now as in Antiquity —57 The Church Her own Witness to Tradition; Vatican Council —58 R. H. Hutton on Tradition, Development, and Authority of the Church
Chapter-12THE PRIMACY OF S. PETER 1 A Visible Church requires a Visible Head —2 Direct Scriptural Evidence for Peter's Pre-eminence: His Call according to Matthew and Mark —3 His Call according to Luke —4 His Position in the Apostolic College— 5 His Confession of Faith— 6 Peter at the Transfiguration and at the Passion: Denial —7His Position after the Resurrection —8 Cumulative Evidence from all the Various Incidents —9 The Special Petrine Texts of Scripture: Matthew xvl. 18-19 —10 Historical-Grammatical Interpretation decisive against all Evasions —11 The Patristic Interpretation of the Passage —12 Metaphorical Character No Difficulty —13 Foundation a Relative Term: Applied to Christ, Peter, Apostles; Explanation of S. Leo, Augustine, Thomas —14 Relation of Peter to the other Apostles —15 Metaphor of the Keys, of Binding and Loosing —16 Key of Knowledge too Narrow and Interpretation —17 The Fathers on the Subject —18 Matthew xviii. 18, no Objection —19 Patristic Appeal to Matthew xvi. for Episcopal Succession in General —act The Second Great Petrine Text : Lake xxii. 31, 32; Repetition of the Promise of Primacy —21 The Third Special Petrine Text: John xxi. 15-17; Fulfilment of the Promise; Collation of Primacy —22 Patristic Interpretation —23Extension of the Text to the Church at large —24 Peter's Primacy one of Real Jurisdiction— 25 Juxta-Position of Peter and Paul in the Roman Church —26 The Exercise of the Primacy in Apostolic Times —27 According to the Acts of the Apostles —18 According to the Pauline Epistles —29 Dispute at Antioch —30 Vatican Definition
Chapter-13 THE PRIMACY OF THE POPE I* The Church being Perpetual, Peter's Primacy must needs be Perpetual —2 The Primacy more Necessary in Post-Apostolic Times than in the Apostolic Age —3* Its Perpetuity not a mere Inference from Reason or Scripture, but directly declared in Scripture —4 The Primacy is the Only Means of continuing the Apostolate which is certainly Perpetual— 5 Historical Conviction of the Perpetuity: Consensus Potrum
Chapter-13 II The Roman Succession 6 Who are Peter's Successors? Answer from History: The Roman Bishops by Right Divine and Apostolic —7 Indirect Evidence from New Testament as to Peter's Roman Sojourn: The Acts and Epistle to the Romans —8 First Epistle of S. Peter; Babylon; Gospel of S. John —9 Tradition Unanimous as to Peter's Roman Sojourn; Clement; Ignatius ; Papias — 10 Further Testimonies: Dionysius, Ireaaeus, Tertullian, Cajus— 11 Verdict of Protestant Historians —12 Peter's Roman Episcopate of Twenty-five Years —13 Papal Catalogues and Roman Succession
Chapter-13 III Evidence for the Existence and Development of Papal Primacy 14* Gradual Development of the Primacy — 15 Earliest Testimonies: Clement of Rome and Ignatius M.— 16 Classical Passage of Irengeus— 17 Cyprian —18 Ambrose— 19 Jerome —20 Augustine —21 General Councils —22 Testimony of Eastern Church —23 Eastern Councils: Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus, Chalcedon, Antioch A.D. 340, Sardica A.D. 344—24 African Church in the Pelagian Controversy —25 Reasons why Rome elected as Seat of the Primacy; Leo the Great; Political Recognition of the Primacy— 26 Papal Titles —27 Testimony of Heretics: Roma semper Victrix —28 Papal Supremacy in the Middle Ages; Nicholas I. —29* Pseudo-Isidore, and the False Decretals —30 The Schoolmen: Bonaventure, Thomas— 31 Mediaeval Councils ; Lateran iv., v.; Council of Florence; Trent —32 Council of the Vatican summing up the Entire Previous Tradition —33 Conclusion: Discourse of S. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury
Chapter-14 THE INFALLIBILITY OF THE POPE 1* Impossible to define It priori every single Right included in the Primacy; Schulte; History must be consulted —2* The Infallible Magisterium a Chief Function of the Primacy: Consequently subject to Development like the Primacy —3 Internal Connexion between Magisterium and Primacy: The Power of Teaching an Act of Order and Jurisdiction
Chapter-14 I. Evidence of Scripture 4 Papal Infallibility implied in Matthew xvi. 16-19 —5 Likewise in John xxi. 15-17 —6 Directly taught in Luke xxii. 31, 32; Dollinger on the Text —7 Infallibility attached to the Apostolate (John xiv.-xvii.); but the Apostolate survives only in Peter's Successor, the Pope —8 Patristic Interpretation of Luke xxii., 31, 32 ; Ambrose, Chrysostom, Theodoret, Leo, Pelagius II., Martin I., Agatho —9 Evidence summed up by Cardinal Manning
Chapter-14 II Evidence of Tradition in the First Seven Centuries 10 Necessity for carefully sifting the Evidence of Tradition; Two Faults to be avoided; Case as stated by Cardinal Manning in his Religio Viatoris— 11 Ecclesia Romano, Meaning of the Expression; Irenaeus, Ambrose, Jerome —12 Augustine on the Ecclesia Romano— 13* Testimony of the Earliest Greek Church, Ignatius, Clement, Irenaeus; Unique Testimony of Irenjeus— 14 The Greek Fathers: Epiphanius, Gregory Naz., Theodoret, Ephrem, Stephen of Dori, Abbot Maximus —15 Testimony of the Popes: Julius I., Innocent I., SixtusIII., Leo I., Felix II., Gelasius —16 Formula Hormisda testifies to Infallibility as a Historical Fact and as a Dogmatic Necessity; Pope Agatho determines the Elements of Infallibility; Subjectum, Objcclum, Causam et Conditionem ; Bishop Hefele on Agatho's Letter; Roman Synod under Agatho— 17 Popes not always deciding Questions of Faith in Synod— 18* Councils and Synods not Useless on the Hypothesis that the Pope is Infallible— 19 There are not Two Infallibilities in the Church, as there is but One Apostolic Magisterium —20 History of Pope Honorius: Effect of His Letter upon the Catholic World at the Time; His Condemnation by the 6th General Council —21 Various Methods adopted by Catholic Apologists to meet the Difficulty against Papal Infallibility— 22 Hefele's Solution preferred —23 Subsequent Effects of the Condemnation upon East and West
Chapter-14 III Evidence of Tradition in the Middle Ages 24 Distinction between Personal and Official Infallibility ; Possibility of a Heretical Pope —25 Official Infallibility recognized in the Middle Ages: Aldhelm, Theodore Studita, Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople, Nicholas I., .(Eneas of Paris, Peter Damian, Leo IX. —26 Langen's Misrepresentation of Papal Infallibility— 27 New Stage of Development in the 13th Century; Doctrine of S. Thomas; Janus' Imputation—28 S. Bonaventure: Duns Scotus —29 The Gallican Reaction explained —30 The Definition of the Vatican Council
Chapter-15 THE CHURCH AND CIVILIZATION I The Church is the Mother of True Civilization —Necessity for insisting on the Fact —2 The Influence of Religion in general recognized by Antiquity —3 The Old Religions incapable of regenerating the World —Christianity alone able to accomplish it —4 Example of Jesus— His Kingdom Spiritual— 5 The Apostolic Church and Her Example —Charity and Care of the Poor— Deacons —6 Christianity and Slavery —Christian Relationship between Master and Slave —Universal Brotherhood —7 Complete Revolution of Ideas —Care for Sick and Poor —8 The Early Apologists:— M. Felix— Tertullian —Cyprian—Gregory of Naz. and Nyssa on the Subject —9 Bishops the Fathers of the Poor and Widows —Early Attempts at Organized Charity —10 Testimony of Julian the Apostate — it Monasteries became New Homes for the Poor —12 The Church not encouraging Indolence, but ennobling Labour -13 Her Influence upon the whole System of Political Economy —14 Gradual Abolition of Slavery —15 Universal Regeneration of Society —16 Islam arresting the Work of Civilization— 17 Christianity and the Position of Woman— 18 Christianity and Civil Legislation— 19 The Compact Organization of the Catholic Church alone could save Europe from a Return to Barbarism —20 Christian Virtues the Seed of True Culture —21 Social Regeneration of Mankind used as an argument by the Early Apologists for the Truth of Christianity —22 Gradual Relaxation of Christian Morals —23 Christianity a Source of Intellectual Progress —24 Conversion of Many Philosophers —25 Contempt of the Fathers for Philosophy explained —26 Faith and Philosophy join hands —Augustine, Thomas —27 Modern Philosophy indebted to Christianity— 28 Study of Classics in the Church —29 Study of Nature and Natural Science encouraged by Bible, Fathers, Church —30 Judgment of Fathers liberal, though, at times, severe —31 The same Principles ever maintained in the Church —32 Prohibition of the Study of Physical Science in the Middle Ages explained —33 Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon —34 Christopher Columbus, Vasco de Gama, Copernicus, Kepler —Men of Faith as well as Science —The Works of Missionaries, especially Jesuits— 35 The First Reformers had no part in this Scientific Movement of the Age —36 Giordano Bruno Galileo— 37 Conflicts at times unavoidable —38 The Church and the Fine Arts 32 The Church brings into Harmony all the Powers of Man —40 The Vatican Council on Faith and Reason —Christian Nations are still heading the March of Civilization —Jesus Christ the Alpha and Omega
Chapter-16 Appendix - I The Anglican View of the Pope's Primacy, by Dr. W. Bright
Chapter-17 Appendix - II The Reunion of Christendom


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 41_Devil-in-the-Church.pdf The Devil in the Church Norman Morand Roumane, 1870 - AMERICAN PUBLISHING COMPANY, PATRIOTIC AND POPULAR BOOKS AND BIBLES, BEAVER Springs, Pa. ThirdEnglish 345
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: The crimes of priests
Chapter-02: The confessions of nuns
Chapter-03: The wicked lives of the popes
Chapter-04: Horrors of the Inquisition
Chapter-05: Sham miracles, image worshippers and other Roman Catholic fallacies
Chapter-06: Awful deeds of priests in the Philippine Islands
Chapter-07: Romanism, an avowed enemy of our public schools
Chapter-08: Auricular confession, the devil's invention
Chapter-09: Rome's opposition to American secret societies
Chapter-10: The evil influence of Roman Catholicism upon our country

Review: The title of the book also has following description: A History of Romanism for Nineteen Hundred Years; Its Opposition to Our Public School System and Effect Upon Our People and Government. INCLUDING AN ACCOUNT OF PRIESTLY MISRULE IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AS MADE PUBLIC BY THE U. S. GOVERNMENT.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Origin of the present Controversy —Unitarian Christian’s Belief — Proofs from Scripture ot the Divine Unity
Chapter-02: What is Trinitarianism?
Chapter-03: The Doctrine of the Trinity not taught in the Scriptures
Chapter-04: The Inferiority of Christ to the Father, proved by his own Declarations
Chapter-05: The Titles and Epithets given to Christ in the Scriptures, no Proof of his Deity
Chapter-06: No Poof of the Deity of Christ, to be found in the Epistle to the Philippians
Chapter-07: No Proof of the Deity of Christ, to be found in 1 Tim. iii, 16; 1 John v. 20; nor in John xx. 28—xiv.9
Chapter-08: The Beginning of John’s Gospel, contains no Proof of the Deity of Christ
Chapter-09: No, Proof in the Scripture, that Christ is eternal and self-existent
Chapter-10: Keno Proof in Scripture that Christ possessed the Divine Attribute of Ommpresence or Omniscience
Chapter-11: Christ not the Creator of the Universe — nor Omnipotent
Chapter-12: No Proof in Scripture, that Christ was worshipped as the Supreme God
Chapter-13: The Trinity, a Human Invention - a Mystery, and therefore no subject of Christian Belief
Chapter-14: General Reasons for Rejecting the Doctrine of the Trinity
Chapter-15: The Superior Excellence, and Cheering Prospects of Unitarianism

Review: Quote from chapter [section] II: WHAT IS TRINITARIANISM? The Scriptures are silent. They never present God under any aspect but that of unity. Of a plurality of persons in the Godhead they know nothing. The doctrine of the Trinity then, informs us that the Godhead - consists of “three persons, Of one substance, power, and eternity”. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.”

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 42_Dead-Dea-Scrolls-NT.pdf THE/DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND THE NEW TESTAMENT William Sanford Lasor ThirdEnglish 279
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: What It’s All About, The Big Question, America Discovers the Scrolls, Enter the Sensationalists, John Marco Allegro, What We Want to Do and How, Where Does It Lead Us?
Chapter-02: What Are the Dead Sea Scrolls? The First Dead Sea Scrolls, The Damascus Document or Zadokite Fragments (CD), Exploration of the Caves, Location of the Caves, The Discoveries, The Ruins of the “Monastery”, The Date of the Dead Sea Scrolls, What Has Been Done with the Qumran Discoveries? Summary
Chapter-03: “The Community of God”, The Origin of the Qumran Sect, The Names of the Qumran Sect, Aaron and Israel, The Many, Order of Precedence, Admission to the Sect, Organization of the Community, Summary
Chapter-04: “The Penitents of Israel”, Separation from the World, Community of Goods, Poverty, Celibacy and Marriage, The Study of the Law, The Sabbath, Sacrifices, Spiritual Sacrifices, Ritual Washing or Baptism, The Purity, Holy Days of the Calendar, The Ceremony of Passing Over into the Covenant, Punishment and Excommunication, Summary
Chapter-05: “The God of Knowledge”, The Qumran Doctrine of God, Qumran Dualism, Satan, Belial, Mastema, and the Angels
Chapter-06: “A Slice of Clay”, The Qumran Doctrine of Man, Salvation, Justification, and Good Works, Gnosis and Gnosticism, The Secret Knowledge of Qumran
Chapter-07: “The Last Generation”, The End-Time Community, The Judgment, The Rewards of the Righteous, The Messiah, The Messiah of Aaron, The Messiah of Israel, The Son of Man, Other Eschatological Persons, Summary
Chapter-08: The Teacher of Righteousness in the Qumran Texts, The Teacher of Righteousness in the Habakkuk Commentary, The Teacher in the Damascus Document, The Remaining Texts Containing the Expression, The Teacher in the War Scroll, The Teacher in the Thanksgiving Hymns, Summary
Chapter-09: The Teacher of Righteousness in Composite Portrait, Was the Teacher the Founder of the Sect? Was the Teacher a Prophet? Was the Teacher a Priest? Was the Teacher a Lawgiver? Was the Teacher Crucified? The Resurrection of the Teacher of Righteousness, The Return of the Teacher of Righteousness, The Teacher and the Mother of the Messiah, Summary
Chapter-10: Possible Non-Qumran Sources Concerning Qumran, The Sources, The Essenes: General Description, Communal Life, Marriage and Children, Admission to the Essene Sect, A Typical Day in Essene Life, Religious Beliefs and Practice, Ranks, Precedence and Discipline, Similarities between the Qumranians and the Essenes, The Differences between the Qumranians and the Essenes, Summary
Chapter-11: John the Baptist and Qumran, John the Baptist in the Sources Possible Contacts with Qumran: the Desert Tradition, The Use of Scripture, Ascetic Life, Baptism with Water, Baptism with the Spirit and with Fire, Summary
Chapter-12: The Early Church and Qumran, The "Church Idea", Membership in the Fellowship, Organization, Worship and Ritual, The Holy Spirit, Summary
Chapter-13: The Pauline Writings and Qumran, Justification by Faith, The Flesh and the Spirit, Other Suggested Parallels, Summary
Chapter-14: The Epistle to the Hebrews and the Qumran Writings, Hebrews Addressed to Former Qumranians? An Examination of Yadin's Thesis, Summary
Chapter-15: The Johannine Writings and the Qumran Discoveries, The Gospel of John, The Epistles of John, Dualism in John and in Qumran, The Last Supper in John and in the Synoptics and the Qumran Calendar, Summary
Chapter-16: The Life of Jesus Christ and the Qumran Writings, The Birth of Jesus, The Boyhood of Jesus, The Manhood of Jesus, The Ministry of Jesus, The Death of Jesus, The Resurrection of Jesus
Chapter-17: The Teachings of Jesus Christ and the Qumran Writings, The Selection and Training of Disciples, The Teachings of Jesus, The Parables, The Miracles, The Example
Chapter-18: The Redemptive Work of Jesus Christ and the Qumran Writings, The Incarnation, Obedience, The Sacrificial Death, The Resurrection, The Gift of the Holy Spirit, The Second Coming, Summary
Chapter-19: Specific Points of Comparison between Jesus and Qumran, "To Men of Good Will", The Sermon on the Mount, Other Parallels, Significant Contrasts, Summary
Chapter-20: Summary and Conclusions, Summary (in tabular form), Conclusions
Appendix-I The Dead Sea Scrolls - The New Testament and Historical Method, The Texts We Have Used, History and the Scientific Method, The New Testament and Historical Method, The Man from Outer Space, What Are the Controls on Historical Method?


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 41_Canon-Law-Elements.pdf THE ELEMENTS OF CANON LAW OSWALD J. REICHEL, B.C.L., M.A. 1889English 327
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: The Relation of Canon Law to other Branches of Law. 1. Divine Law 2. Human Law 3. Canon Law
Chapter-02: Division of the Surject. 1. Fourfold Division of the Subject 2. Canons Generally and Canon Law 8. General Government of the Church 4. Essentials of the Church's Maintenance and Holiness 5. Mediaeval and Modern Extensions of Church Organization
Division I — Of Canons Ggenerally, their Meaning, Sources, and Authority.
Chapter-03: Of Canons Generally 1. The Term Canon defined 2. New Testament Use of the term 3. Modern Use of the term
Chapter-04: The Church. 1. Definition of the Church 2. Objects of the Church 3. The Church an outward Society
Chapter-05: Constitution of the Church. 1. Unity 2. Holiness 3. Catholicity 4. Apostolicity
Chapter-06: The Church's Power of Making Canons. 1. The Church's Power of making Canons limited 2. By Legislative Authority 3. Power of Repealing Canons
Chapter-07: The Sanction attaching to Canons. 1. Sanction of Conscience 2. Sanction of Spiritual Censure 3. Civil Sanction
Chapter-08: The Legislative Authority in the Church. The Collective Episcopate. 1. Share of the Clergy and Laity 2. The Initiative rests with the Episcopate 3. Rests with it collectively 4. Is properly exercised in a General Conncil
Chapter-09: Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction. The Diocesan Episcopate. 1. All Jurisdiction is derivative 2. And subject to revision by the Co-episcopate 3. Through Episcopal Intermediaries
Chapter-10: Authoritative Sources of Canons. 1. Canons of Councils 2. Papal Decretals
Chapter-11: Sursidiary Sources of Canons. 1. Customs 2. Rules of Interpretation
Chapter-12: The Canon Law of the Church a Stream. 1. Church Legislation followed the Accidents of the World 2. Isolation on the breaking up of the Soman Empire the cause of Provincial Canons 3. Canon Law the Outcome of Intercommunication 4. Canon Law a stream
Chapter-13: Collections of Canons. 1. The Codes of the African Church 2. The Codes of the Roman Church 3. The Codes of the Spanish Church 4. The Codes of the Cisalpine Church 5. Minor Collections
Chapter-14: Codification of Canons. 1. Collections of Capitularies and Penitentials 2. Methodical Collections 3. Gratian's System
Chapter-15: The Corpus Juris Canonici. 1. Definition of Corpus Juris Canonici 2. Parts of the Corpus 3. Mediaeval Canonists 4. Modern Canonists
Chapter-16: The Decretum Gratiani. 1. Compilation of the Decretum about 2. Division of 3. Value of
Chapter-17: The Decretals of Gregory IX. 1. Supplementary Collections after Gratian's time 2. Reduced to order by Gregory's Chaplain 3. Contents of his Work
Chapter-18: The Sext of Boniface VIII. 1. Compilation of the Sext 2. Subsidiary Collection
Chapter-19: The Clementines
Chapter-20: The Extravagantes
Chapter-21: Authority of the Corpus Juris Canonici. 1. Legal Authority 2. Ecclesiastical Authority
Chapter-22: Legal or Civil Authority of Canon Law. 1. Given by Statute or Custom 2. How Enforced
Chapter-23: Legal Value of Corpus Juris Canonici. 1. To what extent received 2. Modifications of Civil Authority
Chapter-24: Legal Authority of the Canon Law in England. 1. Theoretically accepted 2. Supplemented by Legatine Constitutions and Canons Provincial 3. Curtailed by Statute
Chapter-25: Authority of Canon Law as affected by Acts of Supremacy and Submission. 1. Act of Supremacy 2. Act of Submission 3. Present position of Canon Law
Chapter-26: Ecclesiastical Authority of Canon Law. 1. Canons expressing a Divine Law absolutely binding 2. Canons disciplinary binding whilst in force 3. Obligation internal as well as external 4. Even Overriding Statute Law
Chapter-27: Canon Law as a Whole. 1. Canon Law variable 2. Canon Law the Case Law of the Church 3. Canon Law revocable Canon Law tending to Uniformity
Chapter-28: Of Church Authority. 1. The Church a Divinely Appointed Society 2. Its aim to promote Holiness 3. Certain Essentials thereto
Chapter-29: The Apostles ahd the Episcopate. 1. Christ's Charge to His Apostles 2. A continuing charge to the Collective Episcopate 3. To the Episcopate only
Chapter-30: Order and Jurisdiction. 1. Difference between Order and Jurisdiction. 2. Order 3. Jurisdiction 4. Relation of Order to Jurisdiction
Chapter-31: Varieties or Jurisdiction. 1. Jurisdiction extends to different classes of Subjects 2. Jurisdiction exercised in several different ways 3. Public and Private 4. Contentious and Voluntary 5. Ordinary and Delegated 6. Direct and Intermediate
Chapter-32: Acquisition of Jurisdiotion—Titles. 1. A real Title 2. How acquired 3. Conditions precedent 4. Institution
Chapter-33: The Exercise of Jurisdiction ry Episcopal InterMEDIARIES. 1. The Collective Episcopate alone has Universal Jurisdiction 2. Intermediaries in Jurisdiction 3. Sum total of the Intermediaries form the Hierarchy 4. No Member of the Hierarchy absolute
Chapter-34: The Great Patriarchs. 1. The Three greatest 2. Relation to their Subordinates varying 3. Inequalities between the Three
Chapter-35: The Pope. 1. Owes his position to Christ's Command 2. Canons of Councils 3. His Primacy of Honour 4. Primacy of Jurisdiction
Chapter-36: The Roman Curia. 1. The Roman Curia 2. Cardinals 3. Congregations 4. Roman Tribunals 5. Ministers not of the Curia
Chapter-37: Lesser Patriarchs of Greater Prelates. 1. Patriarchs 2. Primates 3. Duties of a Patriarch
Chapter-38: Archbishops and Metropolitans. 1. Distinction of the two 2. A Metropolitan's Jurisdiction not autocratic 3. A Metropolitan's Interference limited to three Cases 4. Visitati on 5. Devolution 6. Appeal
Chapter-39: The Officials op Metropolitans. 1. Courts and Officials of a Metropolitan 2. The Archbishop's Commissary's Court 3. The Metropolitan's Court 4. The Primate's and Legatiue Courts
Chapter-40: Diocesan Bishops. 1. Diocesan Bishop's position and appointment 2. Concurrence of the Laity — Patronage 3. Share of the Clergy — Election 4. Appointment by the Co-episcopate — Confirmation 5. Investiture
Chapter-41: Election or Bishops. 1. Concurrence of Laity and Clergy 2. Action of the Laity 3. Formal Election by Clergy 4. Formal Election 5. Irregular Mode of Appointment 6. Rules of Election
Chapter-42: Confirmation, Translation, and Besignation of Bishops. 1. The Metropolitan's Confirmation confers Jurisdiction 2. Translation usually forbidden 3. Renunciation
Chapter-43: Diocesan Jurisdiction. 1. The Diocese, the Unit of Church Government 2. A Bishop's Jurisdiction limited 3. The Bishop and Chapter together are the governing Body 4. Creations of New Sees
Chapter-44: The Chapter. 1. The Members of the Chapter 2. The Jurisdiction of the Chapter 3. Its Concurrence necessary to bind the Church
Chapter-45: Episcopal Officers. 1. Coadjutor or Suffragan Bishops 2. The Vicar-General and Official Principal 3. Rural Deans 4. Officials of the Outplaces
Chapter-46: Diocesan Officers. 1. Diocesan Officers are Officers of the Church 2. The Arohpriest or Dean 3. The Archdeacon 4. A Vicar-General confirmed by the Chapter
Chapter-47: Pakochial Clergy. 1. Are Officers of the Laity 2. Ministering as the Bishop's immoveable Curates
Part III—Of Certain Essentials for the Holiness and Main tenance of the Chdrch upon Earth
Chapter-48: Of Graces, Gifts, and Censures. 1. The Church's Mission in the World 2. The Means of Grace 3. Spiritual Gifts 4. Discipline and Censures
Chapter-49: Sacraments, Sacramental Acts, and Public Worship. 1. Sacraments 2. Sacramental Acts 3. Public Worship
Chapter-50: The Sacraments. 1. Holy Baptism 2 Holy Eucharist 3. Validity of Sacraments
Chapter-51: Baptism. 1. Essentials of Baptism 2. Mode of Baptizing 3. Minister of Baptism 4. Qualification of Candidates 5. Time for Baptism 6. Places for Baptism
Chapter-52: The Holy Eucharist. 1. Material Forms of the Eucharist 2. Seasons for Communicating 3. Ministers of the Eucharist 4. Rules to be observed 6. Reservation
Chapter-53: Sacramental Acts. 1. Two Sacramental Acts 2. Subsidiary Sacramental Acts
Chapter-54: Confirmation. 1. Ceremonial Acts following Baptism 2. Confirmation and the Completion Baptism 3. Minister of Confirmation 4. Time for Ministration of Confirmation
Chapter-55: Unction and Extreme Unction. 1. The Anointing of the Sick 2. Extreme Unction 3. A Branch of Penance
Chapter-56: Holt States of Life. 1. The bestowal of Spiritual Gifts a Sacramental Act 2. The two cases of Orders and Matrimony
Chapter-57: Orders Generally. 1. Orders defined 2. Orders founded by Christ 3. Holy and Minor Orders 4. Canonical Rules as to Orders
Chapter-58: Holy Orders. 1. Holy Orders defined 2. Ordination 3. Two Holy Orders 4. Ordination not to be repeated 5. Disabilities and Privileges of Orders
Chapter-59: The Priesthood. 1. Nature of the Priesthood 2. Exercise of the Priesthood 3. Two degrees in the Priesthood 4. Ordination and Consecration 5. By whom conferred
Chapter-60: Qualifications for the Priesthood. 1. Disqualification for Orders 2. Rules to be observed by the Clergy 3. Clerical Continence 4. Marriage forbidden for the Higher Orders
Chapter-61: Or Clerical Irregularity. 1 - Definition of Irregularity 2. Irregularities of two kinds arising from Defects or Crimes 3. Two special causes of Irregularity Ill-repute and Lenity 4. Irregularities determined in one of four ways
Chapter-62: Bishops. 1. A Bishop is one who has the Plentitude of the Priesthood 2. He is appointed to a See vacant 3. He has Jurisdiction within his Diocese 4. And he alone can ordain within it 5. He is also a member of the Apostolic College
Chapter-63: Qualifications for a Bishop. 1. Personal Qualifications 2. Episcopal Consecration
Chapter-64: A Bishop's Duties. 1. Towards the Church at large 2. Towards his Diocese 3. Preaching 4. Ordination 5. General Administration in Visitation 6. Assistance of Presbyters
Chapter-65: The Diaconate. 1. The Diaeonate a Holy Order 2. Duties of the Diaconate 3. Importance of the Diaconate 4. The Subdiaconate
Chapter-66: Minor Orders. 1. Minor Orders defined 2. Readers in the Eastern Church 3. Acolytes, or Attendants 4. Exorcists 5. Readers 6. Doorkeepers 7. Psalmists, Sacristans and Custodians
Chapter-67: Matrimony. 1. Matrimony a Sacramental Aot, consisting of two parts 2. The Betrothal 3. The Espousal also consisting of two parts 4. The Spiritual Gift in Matrimony 5. Consequences of the Christian view of Marriage
Chapter-68: Judicial Power or the Church. 1. The Church's power to define Doctrine, and make Disciplinary Rules 2. Church Discipline exercised hy those holding Jurisdiction 3. Certain points to which it specially applies
Chapter-69: Subject-matter op the Church's Judicial Power. 1. Private Censures, or Penance 2. Public Censures, or Discipline 3. Procedure
Chapter-70: Ecclesiastical Offences. —Sins Venial and Mortal. 1. Distinction between Venial and Mortal Sins 2. Anciently all Discipline public, and limited to Idolatry. Murder, and Adultery 3. Public Discipline extends to the three corresponding classes of sins, and also to Ecclesiastical Offences
Chapter-71: Private Discipline.—Penance. 1. Penance is the private administration of Church Censures 2. At first it was always public 3. Then administered by a Penitentiary Presbyter 4. Rise of Indulgences in Mediaeval times 5. Confession not of Christ's appointment 6. Universally ordered by the 4th Lateran Council
Chapter-72: Public Discipline. 1. Ancient disputes as to the Lapsed, and the Traditores 2. The Church's rules a Compromise 3. Strict rules against Sham Conversion 4. Different treatment of Clergy and Laity
Chapter-73: Discipline of the Clergy. 1. Clerical Discipline vindictive 2. Administered by the Clergy anciently 3. Persons disqualified to bring Charges 4. Provisions in case of differences of Opinion 5. Trial and previous Monition necessary
Chapter-74: CEN8UEES ON THE CLERGY. 1. Suspension 2. Deprivation 3. Degradation
Chapter-75: Censures on the Laity. 1. Confined to Public Offences 2. Excommunication of two degrees 3. The greatest Excommunication 4. The Interdict 5. Sentences valid everywhere
Part IV—Or certain extensions of Church Organisation in Medieval and Modern Times
Chapter-76: Change in the Church's position in the 12th Century. 1. Nature of the change 2. Points affected by the change
Chapter-77: The Endowment of the Church. 1. Acquisition of Property by other bodies than the Diocesan Unit 2. Modification of the Diocesan System in consequence
Chapter-78: Church Property. 1. The Church as an Owner of Property 2. Corporations disqualified by Law 3. English Law does not allow the Church Corporation to possess property 4. It does recognise Bishops, Archdeacons, Parsons, and Colleges
Chapter-79: Property of the Church-Unit, the Diocese. 1. Bishop and Chapter a Corporation together 2. Division of their property 3. The Common Law does not recognise the trusts imposed by the Canon Law
Chapter-80: Effects of Church Property. 1. Worldly position of the Clergy enhanced 2. Clergy brought under Control of the Civil Power 3. Subordination of Church to State
Chapter-81: The Parish. 1. Threefold aspect of the Parish 2. The Parson, its legal Head 3. Parish Priest, its spiritual Head 4. The Benefice his endowment
Chapter-82: The Parochial Corporation. —The Parson. 1. Parochial endowment not Church Property 2. Appropriation 3. Impropriation 4. The Vicar, as well as the Parson, a Corporation
Chapter-83: Parochial Benefices. 1. A Benefice a Freehold Estate 2. Two kinds of Benefices 3. Effect of a Parochial Benefice 4. Institution and Induction 5. Exchange 6. Residence 7. Patron's Interest in a Benefice
Chapter-84: The Spiritual Charge of Parishes. 1. Position and Duties of a Parish Priest 2. Subdivisions of a Parish 3. Assistant Curates 4. Episcopal and Chapter Patronage 5. Outsiders
Chapter-85: Besignation. 1. Definition of Resignation 2. Made by one holding a spiritual Charge 3. Essentials for Regularity 4. Causes allowed as justifying Resignation 5. Superior's acceptance necessary 6. Personal appearance required before the Superior or a Notary
Chapter-86: Foundations. 1. Rise of Foundations 2. Varieties of Foundations
Chapter-87: Colleges and Societies. 1. Nature of a Society 2. Nature of a College 3. Different kiuds of Colleges and Societies
Chapter-88: Beligious and Monastic Orders. 1. Religious Orders 2. A Society the Unit of an Order 3. Approval of the Collective Episcopate necessary 4. Orders best known
Chapter-89: Substitutions of Public Worship for the Euchabistic Service. 1. The Eucharistic Service 2. Size of Dioceses a hindrance to Attendance at 3. Other Services
Chapter-90: Public Wobship and the Parochial System. 1. Ministrations away from the Cathedral 2. Rules for such Ministrations
Chapter-91: The Divine Office. 1. The Liturgy or Missal 2. Antiquity of this Service 3. Diocesan Varieties 4. The several Parts of 5. Best known uses
Chapter-92: The Hour Services. 1 Date from 5th century 2. Introduced by S. Benedict 3. Adopted by Capitular Clergy 4. The Breviary
Chapter-93: Holy Places. 1. Churches 2. The Cathedral 3. Parts of 4. Apsidal Chancels 5. Division of Choir
Chapter-94: The Benediction and Consecration of Churches. 1. The Bishop's Leave 2. Benediction 3. Consecration 4. Privileges of Consecrated Places
Chapter-95: Holy Times.— Feasts and Fasts. 1. Observance of Days 2. Days and Seasons of ancient Observance 3. Subsequent Additions
Chapter-96: Observance of Holy Times. 1. Daily Eucharist in Apostolic Times 2. Services in lesser Churches 3. Mode of Observance 4. General Rule as to greater Festivals 5. Special Festivals
Division III—Medieval and Modern Administrition of Church Discipline
Chapter-97: Extension of the Church's Judicial Functions. 1. Extension of the Church's Judicial Functions 2. Crimes and Civil Cases 3. Spiritual, Mixed, and Temporal Cases 4. Requisites for Procedure
Chapter-98: Courts Christian. 1. Did not exist in earliest times 2. Rise of Spiritual Courts 3. Proceedings in 4. Summary and Ordinary Procedure 5. Canonical Penalties
Chapter-99: Jcdges of Competent Jurisdiction. 1. Various kinds of Judges 2. Competence of a Judge 3. Competent jurisdiction of a Court 4. Objections to a Judge 5. Requisites in a Judge
Chapter-100: Plaintiffs and Defendants. —Proctors and Advocates. 1. Disqualified Plaintiffs 2. Free action of 3. Proctors 4. Advocates
Chapter-101: Complainants in a Civil Case. 1. Distinctions between Criminal and Civil Cases 2. Two conditions must be fulfilled by a Complainant in a Civil Case 3. Complaint introduced by a Libel 4. Effect of a Libel 5. The Oath of Calumny
Chapter-102: Criminal Procedure. —Accusation. 1. Three modes of Criminal Procedure 2. Essentia] features of an Accusation 3. Accusation discouraged since 11th century 4. Accusation introduced by Articles 5. Effect of an Accusation
Chapter-103: Criminal Procedure. —Denunciation. 1. Denunciation is giving private Information 2. Two kinds of Denunciation 3. Obligation to denounce 4. Action of a Superior on receiving a Denunciation
Chapter-104: Criminal Procedure. —Inquisition. 1. Inquisition is Procedure by Inquiry 2. It should not be undertaken without grounds 3. And should be conducted with regard to the Rule of Charity 4. Oath of Purgation
Chapter-105: Amenarility of the Accused. 1. A Defendant may be out of the Jurisdiction 2. Or have no one to accuse him
Chapter-106: Criminal Procedure. —Promoting the Judge's Office. 1. The Judge's office promoted by a Libel and a Citation 2. A Libel defined 3. The Judge's Discretion 4. A Citation and its Effects 5. Exceptions and Objections
Chapter-107: Criminal Procedure. —Trial. 1. Joining Issue defined 2. Proof by Evidence 3. The Defence
Chapter-108: Criminal Procedure. —Judgment. 1. Sentence 2. Execution of the Sentence 3. Appeal
Chapter-109: Statutory Limitations or Courts Christian in England. 1. Withdrawal of Cases from the Cognisance of Courts Christian 2. Royal Supremacy 3. The Court of Delegates 4. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Chapter-110: Statutory Begulations of Ecclesiastical Procedure in England. 1. Procedure modified by Statute and Decisions 2. A Commission of Inquiry precedes a Criminal Suit 3. A Citation commences the Suit 4. The Libel, Articles, or Allegation 5. Joining Issue 6. Admission of the Pleas 7. Evidence 8. Appeal and Prohibition
Chapter-111: General Beview op the Subject. 1. Extreme Justice and Charity of Canon Law. 2. Nature allowed for as being the Divine Natural Law 3. Religion not confounded with Morality 4. Dignity of the Society under its Sway

Keywords: Canon Law, Human Law, Ecclesiastical Law

Review: The subject-matter of Canon Law naturally falls into the following three divisions: (1) the first dealing with Canons generally and Canon Law; (2) the second dealing with the general Government of the Church and Jurisdiction; (3) the third treating of certain Essentials for the Church's holiness and maintenance upon earth; to which may be added (4) a fourth, treating of certain extensions of Church organisation in medieeval and modern times. Pg-6: The term Canon, from the Greek word kavwv, a carpenter's rule is ordinarily used to express a rule of conduct sanctioned by the Church at large, whether by enactment or by custom. Pg-7: In the New Testament a rule of doctrine or article of faith is also called a Canon, and in this sense the term is used by the Tridentine Council, and in more recent times by the Council of the Vatican. Pg-9: The Church is a divinely instituted, voluntary Society of persons gathered out of the world and placed in the way of salvation by being admitted within its fold.

Pg-12: The Church is One, seeing that there is "One Lord, One faith, One baptism", and that Christ prayed that His disciples all might be One. Hence expressions like the Eastern Church, the Western Church, the Church of Jerusalem, or Antioch, are inaccurate and misleading so far as they seem to imply a plurality of Churches. For no such plurality can exist, the Body of Christ being One, of which they all are parts. Pg-13: The Church is Catholic, which means (1) that it embraces men of all nations, herein differing from the older society of the Jewish covenant which was limited to one nation only, that of the Jews and (2) that it consists of the main body of the Christian society, steadfastly cleaving to the Apostles' doctrine and fellowship.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS Fragmentary character of early Christian literature; the writings of the sub-apostolic age neglected [1]. The epithet ‘apostolic’ [2]. The title ‘Apostolic Fathers’, writings so designated [3—6]. Their external form [6]. Their internal character and spirit [7, 8]. Their relation to the apostolic teaching and the Canon [8—11]. Their currency and importance [11—13].
Chapter-02: CLEMENT THE DOCTOR Story of Clement the bishop in the Clementine romance [14-16]. It leads us to the imperial palace [16]. The stemma Flaviorum, and Flavius Clemens [16—21]. The identification of Clement the bishop, theories disposed of [22—25]. His social status [25]. Christianity in the imperial household [25—29]. Its upward social tendency [29, 30]. Pomponia Grecina, a Christian [30—33]. Flavia Domitilla and Flavius Clemens, Christians [33—35]. The evidence of the catacombs to other Christian Flavii [35—39]. Domitian’s assassination due to his treatment of Flavia Domitilla [39—42]. Domitilla the Virgin [42—44]. Her existence traceable to Eusebius, and improbable; Eusebius’s authorities Bruttius and Africanus [45—51]. Clement the consul and Clement the bishop distinct ([52—58]. The writer of the Epistle a Hellenist Jew [58—60]. Probably a freedman of the household of Flavius Clemens [61]. Social status of early bishops [61, 62]. Date of Clement’s episcopate and order in the episcopal succession (63—67]. Nature of his episcopal office [67—69). The Roman Church at this time [69—72]. Events in his life; S. Peter and S. Paul at Rome, the Neronian persecution, the episcopates of Linus and Anencletus [72—81]. His episcopate and the persecution of Domitian [8]. His Epistle to the Corinthians [82—84]. His death [84]. Legend of his martyrdom and reliques [85—91]. His basilica at Rome [91—95]. Characteristics of his Epistle [95—98]. His memory neglected in the West [93] Writings assigned to him [99—102]. The designation ‘the Doctor’ [103]. NOTICES RELATING TO THE PERSECUTION UNDER DOMITIAN, AND THE FAMILY OF FLAVIUS CLEMENS. Dion Cassius [104]; Melito [104]; Tertullian [105]; Lactantius [105]; Eusebius [105—108]; Ilieronymus [108]; Theodoret [109]; Antiochene Acts of Ignatius [109]; John Malalas [109]; Chronicon Paschale [110]; Georgius Syncellus [110]; Georgius Hamartolus [111]; Acts of Nereus [111]; Suetonius (111, 112); Quintilian [112]; Philostratus [112, 113]; Trebellius Pollio [113]; Anthologia Latina [113]; Inscriptions [114, 115].
Chapter-03: MANUSCRIPTS AND VERSIONS The three authorities [116]. (1) Alexandrian Manuscript; history and date (116, 117]. Position and title of the Clementine Epistles (117, 118). Collations and facsimiles [118—120]. Character of the text [120, 121). (2) Constantinopolitan Manuscript; history, contents and discovery [121—123]. The Clementine text independent of the Alexandrian Manuscript, but inferior [123, 124]. Its characteristic features [124—128]. Its importance [129]. (3) Syriac Version; the manuscript [129, 130]. Position and title of the Clementine Epistles (131, 132]. Date and headings [133]. The table of lessons [134]. The Clementine Epistles not part of the Harcleo-Philoxenian version [135]. Character of the version [136—138]. The underlying Greek text, its independence and characteristics [138—142). Our three authorities compared [142—145]. Date and corruptions in the archetype (145, 146]. Possibility of other manuscripts and versions [146, 147]
Chapter-04: QUOTATIONS AND REFERENCES Barnabas [148, 149]. 2 Ignatius [149]. 3 Polycarp [149-153]. 4 Hermas [152]. 5 Second Clementine Epistle [153]. 6 Justin Martyr (153) 7 Letter of the Smyrnwans [153]. 8 Hegesippus (153, 154). 9 Dionysius of Corinth [154, 155]. 10 Theophilus of Antioch [155]. 11 Irenzeus [156, 157]. 12 Clementine Homilies and Recognitions [157, 158). 13 Clement of Alexandria [158—160]. 14 Tertullian [160]. 15 Clementine Epistles to Virgins [160]. 16 Hippolytus [161]. 17 Origen (161, 162]. 18 Dionysius of Alexandria [162]. 19 Apostolical Constitutions [162, 163]. 20 Peter of Alexandria [164]. 21 Eusebius of Cwsarea [164—167). 22 Cyril of Jerusalem [167, 168). 23 Liberian Chronographer [168]. 24 Ephraem Syrus [168]. 25 Basil of Casarea [169] 26 Epiphanius (169, 170). 27 Pseudo-Ignatius [171]. 28 Optatus [171]. 29 Philastrius (172). 30 Ambrosius [172]. 31 Hieronymus [172, 173]. 32 Macarius Magnes [174]. 33 Augustinus [174]. 34 Paulinus of Nola [174). 35 Rufinus [174, 175]. 36 Pseudo-Tertullian [176). 47] Didymus of Alexandria [176]. 38 Zosimus (176). 39 Preedestinatus [177]. 40 Eucherius of Lugdunum [177] 41 Synod of Vaison [179]. 42 Pseudo-Justin [178—180]. 43 Timotheus of Alexandria [180—182]. 44 Euthalius (182). 45 Severus of Antioch (182, 182]. 46 Anonymous Syriac writers (183—186). 47 Liber Felicianus [186]. 48 Gregory of Tours [186]. 49 Gregory the Great [187]. 50 Joannes Diaconus [187]. 51 Apostolical Canons [187]. 52 Stephanus Gobarus [188]. 53 Leontius and Joannes [188—190]. 54 Dorotheus Archimandrita [190]. 55 Chronicon Paschale [190]. 56 Isidorus of Seville [190]. 57 Maximus the Confessor [191]. 58 Liber Pontificalis [191, 192]. 59 Earlier Western Martyrologies [192]. 60 Beda [192, 193]. 61 John of Damascus [193, 194]- 62 Georgius Syncellus [195] 63 Theodorus Studita [195]. 64 Nicephorus of Constantinople [195, 196]. 65 Georgius Hamartolus [196]. 66 Photius [197, 198]. 67 Anonymous Chronographer [198]. 68 Arsenius [199]. 69 Antonius Melissa [199]. 70 Menzea [199, 200]. Concluding remarks [200].
Chapter-05:EARLY ROMAN SUCCESSION The literature [201, 202} (1) The Earliest Lists of Hegesippus, Irenzus, Julius Africanus and Hippolytus [202—206] (2) The Eusebian Catalogues, in (a) the History (206, 207] (6) the Chronicle. The two parts of the Chronicle, titles and versions [207—212]. (i) Armenian Version [212—216]. (ii) Hieronymian Version [217, 218] (iii) Syriac Version [218—221]. Their mutual relation [231]. Did Jerome readjust Eusebius’ papal chronology? [222, 223]. The schematism theories of Harnack, Lipsius and Hort (223, 224]. The theory of two recensions by Eusebius [224]. The divergences explainable by textual corruption [225—231]. Results; our combined authorities represent the single judgment of Eusebius alone (232]. Comparative chronological accuracy of the documents. Lipsius’ theories [232— 240]. Light thrown by Eastern Papal Catalogues [240—246]. The Eusebian Catalogue restored [246]. (3) The Liberian Catalogue. The document of which it forms part, transcripts, manuscripts, contents [246—252]. Text of the Liberian Catalogue [253—258]. Relation of the Chronicle of the World to the Catalogue; Hippolytus author of the Chronicle and his papal list embodied in the Catalogue [258—262]. The three continuators of the Catalogue [263, 264]. Examination of the document. (a) The earlier period: S. Peter to Pontianus, (i) consulships [264]. (ii) Imperial synchronisms [265]. Months and days [266—269]. Names and years [270—284]. Result; the original list coincides with the Eusebian Catalogue [284]. (4) The later period: Pontianus to Liberius [284—300]. Conclusion as to the document: stages and corruptions [300—3203]. (4) The Liber Pontificalis. The authorship [303, 304]. The earlier edition, or Felician Book, extant in two abridgments [304—306]. The later, or Cononian, edition [307—309]. The editions compared [309, 310]. The Liber Pontificalis founded on the Liberian and Leonine Catalogues [310, 311]. History of the Leonine Catalogue [311—318]. The papal frescoes (318—320]. Names and order of bishops in the Liber Pontificalis derived from the Liberian Catalogue [321]. Term-numbers from the Leonine Catalogue [321] A Syriac papal catalogue [322—325]. (5) Aéstortcal Results. The one original list of the first twelve episcopates [325, 326]. This list the list of Hegesippus preserved in Epiphanius [327—333]. The two documents in the hands of Eusebius: (i) A Catalogue [333]. (ii) A Chronicle (334]. Lipsius’ theory [334—337]. This Chronicle the Chronography of Julius Africanus, perhaps based on Bruttius [337—339]. Africanus’ papal chronology taken from Hegesippus [339]. Hegesippus’ list, its sources and contents [340, 341]. Its accuracy to be tested by independent dates [341, 342]. Date of Clement’s episcopate [343]. His position in the various catalogues [343, 344]. Three divisions in the episcopal list up to Constantine, and mutual relation of Eastern and Western catalogues [344, 345].
Chapter-06: THE LETTER OF THE ROMANS TO THE CORINTHIANS The date [346—358]. The authorship [358—361]. The genuineness and integrity [361—365]. The ecclesiastical authority [366—378]. The purpose and contents [378-381]. The liturgical ending [382—396]. The doctrine [396—400]. The printed text and editions [400-405].
Chapter-07: THE LETTERS ASCRIBED TO S. CLEMENT The First Epistle to the Corinthians [406]. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians [406]. The Two Epistles on Virginity [407—414]. The Epistle to James the Lord’s brother [414, 415]. A second Epistle to James [415, 416]. Popularity of these letters [416—418]. Other letters forged for the False Decretals [419]. ‘The two letters of Clement’, meaning of the expression [419]. Lost letters once circulated in Clement’s name [420].


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 41_Bible-Manuscripts-V2.pdf OUR BIBLE AND THE ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS FREDERIC G. KENYON, M.A., D.Litt. ThirdEnglish 345
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: VARIATIONS IN THE BIBLE TEXT The existence of variation— Examples — Their origin — Mistakes of copyists: (1) Errors of hand and eye. —(2) Errors of mind. —(3) Errors of deliberate alteration. —Early MSS. the most free from error. —Method of recovering the true text. —Textual errors do not endanger doctrine.
Chapter-02: THE AUTHORITIES FOR THE BIBLE TEXT The Authorities classified —1. Manuscripts —2. Versions. —3. Quotations in the Fathers
Chapter-03: THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE Writing in early times: the Tell el-Amarna tablets. — Writing in Babylonia. — In Egypt. — In Palestine - Form of the original manuscripts of the Bible.
Chapter-04: THE HEBREW TEXT The Hebrew characters. —The Hebrew language. —Classification of the books of the Old Testament into three groups. —These groups represent three stages in the formation of the Hebrew Canon: (1) The Law; (2) The Prophets; (3) The Hagiographa. —Dates of these stages, from which the care for the text may be supposed to commence. —Stages in the history of the Hebrew text. —1. The Targums.— 2. The Talmud. — 3. The Massoretes. — The extant Hebrew text entirely Massoretic. —The text, once fixed, copied with extreme care. —The extant MSS. comparatively late, but faithful. —Causes of disappearance of older copies. —The extant MSS., how classified -Description of the chief MSS.— The printed text. —Summary: the extant MSS. contain a faithful representation of a text which can be traced back to about A.p. 100; but they do not enable us to follow it further
Chapter-05: THE ANCIENT VERSIONS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT The versions the only means for arriving at a pre-Massoretic text 1—The Samaritan Pentateuch. Its origin. — Its discovery — Its character. —Its manuscripts. 2—The Septuagint and other Greek versions. Origin of the Septuagint. —Its contents. —Becomes the Bible of the Christian Church. —Consequently rejected by the Jews. —Rival translations in the 2nd century: (1) Aquila, (2) Theodotion, (3) Symmachus. — Origen’s Hexapla: its great effect on the Septuagint. —Editions of the Septuagint in the 3rd century: (1) Eusebius, (2) Lucian, (3) Hesychius. — Present state of the Septuagint: The extant MSS. —The printed editions.—Reconstruction of the ancient editions from the MSS. —The Septuagint and Massoretic texts 3. —Other Eastern Versions. The Syriac version. —The Coptic versions. — The Ethiopic version. — The Gothic and other versions 4. —The Latin Versions, (a) "The old Latin Version." —(b) The Vulgate 5. —Condition of the Old Testament Text. Summary of the evidence of the versions. —Most of them too late to be of use. —Evidence of the Samaritan Pentateuch. —The real issue: Septuagint v. Massoretic. —The Hebrew text certainly corrupt in places: but the Septuagint not always trustworthy. — Additions and corruptions in Septuagint. —Deliberate falsification of Hebrew text not proven. —Summing-up
Chapter-06: THE TEXT OF THE NEw TESTAMENT The original MSS. of the N. T. —Circumstances under which the early copies were written. —Careful copying begins in the 4th century. —Transmission from 4th to 15th century. —The earliest printed texts. —The “received” text. —Its deficiencies.—Materials for correcting it: the chief manuscripts (uncial and cursive), versions, and Fathers. —Grouping of authorities. — Westcott and Hort’s theory. —Distinction of Syrian, Western, Alexandrian, and Neutral groups. —Importance of this theory. — Objections to it. — The oljections considered
Chapter-07: THE Manuscripts OF THE New TESTAMENT Codex Sinaiticus (N). —Codex Alexandrinus (A). —Codex Vaticanus (B). —Codex Ephremi (C).—Codex Bezse (D). —Codex Claromontanus (D2). —Other uncial MSS. —Cursive MSS.
Chapter-08: THE ANCIENT VERSIONS OF THE New TESTAMENT — The Eastern Versions, I. Syriac Versions. The Old or Curetonian Syriac. — The Peshitte. — The Philoxenian or Harkleian Syriac. —The Palestinian Syriac. —II. Coptic Versions. The Memphitic or Bohairic. —The Thebaic or Sahidic. —The Fayyumic, Middle Egyptian, and Akhmimic Versigns, —III. Other Eastern Versions. Armenian. —Gothic. —Ethiopic. —Arabic, etc. 2. The Western Versions (a)The Old Latin - Various Forms of it —(b) The Vulgate —The Principal MSS. —Various forms of Codex Amiatinus
Chapter-09: THE VULGATE IN THE MIDDLE AGEs Importance of the Vulgate as the Bible of the West. — Simultaneous use of The Old Latin and Vulgate. — Consequent mixture of texts. — Spanish and Irish MSS. —Irish illuminations in English MSS. —Texts of English MSS. derived from Italy. —The Lindisfarne Gospels. —Eminence of English scholarship in the 8th and 9th centuries. —Charlemagne’s effort to improye the Vulgate. —Alcuin’s revision. —The Golden Gaspels. —Thepdulf’s revision. —The school of St. Gall. — Snbsequent deterioration. — Revision in the 18th century by the University of Paris —The earliest printed Latin Bibles. — The Sixtine Vulgate —The Clementine Vulgate
Chapter-10: THE ENGLISH MANUSCRIPT BIBLE The conversion of England. —Caedmon’s Bible paraphrase. —The Psalter of Aldhelm. —Bede. —Alfred. —Interlinear glosses in Latin Bibles. —The Gospels of the 10th century. — Alfric’s Old Testament. —Progress suspended by the Norman Conquest. —Verso translations in the 13th century. —Translations of the Psalms. —Revival of religion in the 14th century. —Wycliffe. —Tho earlier Wycliffite Bible —The later Wycliffite Bible —Theory that the Wyecliffite Bible is not really Wycliffe’s. —Examination of the theory
Chapter-11: THE ENGLISH PRINTED BIBLE The invention of printing and the revival of learning. —The Reformation. —The struggle for a translation of the Bible —(1) Tyndale’s New Testament, 1525. —His Pentateuch, 1530. —Revised New Testament, 1534, 1535. —Tyndale’s Bible the direct ancestor of the Authorised Version. —(2) Coverdale’s Bible, 1535. —(3) Matthew's Bible, 1537. —(4) The Great Bible, 1539-1541. —(5) Taverner’s Bible, 1539. —Progress suspended during reigns of Edward VI. and Mary. —(6) The Geneva Bible, 1557-1560. —(7) The Bishops’ Bible, 1568. —(8) The Rheims and Douai Bible, 1582-1609. —(9) The Authorised Version, 1611. —Its excellence and infiuence. —Acceptance of the Authorised Version. —Causes necessitating a revision in our own time. —(10) The Revised Version. —Its characteristics — Changes in text.—Changes in interpretation. — Changes in mnermage. —Summary. —Reception of the Revised Version.


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 42_Christ-Worship-Origin.pdf CHRISTIAN WORSHIP: ITS ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION* Mgr. L. DUCHESNE ThirdEnglish 0619
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: ECCLESIASTICAL AREAS. 1. Jewish and Christian Communities 2. Local Churches—Episcopal Dioceses 3. Ecclesiastical Provinces 4. Patriarchates—National Churches
Chapter-02: THE MASS IN THE EAST 1. The Liturgy in Primitive Times 2. The Syrian Liturgy in the Fourth Century 3. The Oriental Liturgies (1) Syria, p. 65; (2) Mesopotamia and Persia, p. 69; (3) Caesarea and Constantinople, p. 71 ; (4) Armenia, p. 73 4. The Alexandrine Liturgy (1) The Buchologion of Sarapion, p. 75 ; (2) Later Liturgies, p. 79 5. Later Modifications
Chapter-03: THE TWO LITURGICAL USES OF THE LATIN WEST. 1. The Roman and Gallican Uses 2. Origin of the Gallican Use 3. Fusion of the Two Uses.
Chapter-04: LITURGICAL FORMULARIES AND BOOKS. 1. The Forms of Prayer 2. The Lections 3. The Chants
Chapter-05: ANCIENT BOOKS OP THE LATIN RITE. 1. Roman Books (1) The Gregorian Sacramentary, p. 120; (2) The Gelasian Sacramentary, p. 125 ; (3) The Missale Francorum, p. 134 ; (4) The Leonian Sacramentary, p. 135 ; (5) The Roll of Ravenna, p. 144; (6) The Ordine Bomani, p. 146 1 2. Gallican Books (7) The Missale Gothicum, p. 151 ; (8) Tho Missale Gallicanum Vetus. p. 152; (9) Masses published by Mone, p. 153; (10) The Lectionary of Luxeuil, p. 154; (11) The Letters of St Germain of Paris, p. 155 ; (12) British and Irish Books, etc., p. 156; (13) The Bobbio Missal, p. 158; (14) Ambrosian Books, p. 160
Chapter-06: THE ROMAN MASS
Chapter-08: THE CHRISTIAN FESTIVALS. 1. Usual Observance of tho Week 2. The Ember Days 3. Holy Week 4. Movable Feasts (1) The Computation of Easter, p. 236; (2) Eastertide, p. 239; (3) Lent, p. 241; (4) Holy Week, p. 247 6. The Immovable Feasts (1) Christmas and Epiphany, p. 257; (2) The Festivals after Christmas, p. 265b ; (3) The Festivals of the Virgin and St. John Baptist, p. 269 ; (4) The Festival of the 1st of January, p. 273; (5) The Festivals of the Holy Cross, p. 274; (6) St. Michael and the Maccabees, p. 276; (7) The Festivals of the Apostles, p. 277; (8) The Martyrs and other Local Festivals, p. 283; (9) Fasts, Octaves, and Litanies, p. 285; (10) Calendars and Martyrologies, p. 289
Chapter-09: CEREMONIES OF CHRISTIAN INITIATION. 1. Baptism according to the Roman Usage (1) Bites of the Catcchumenatc, p. 295; (2) Preparation for Baptism, p. 298; (3) Blessing of the Holy Oils, p. 305; (4) Baptism, p. 308; (5) Confirmation, p. 314; (6) First Communion, p. 315 2. The Gallican Baptismal Rite (1) The Catechumenate, p. 317; (2) Preparation for Baptism, p. 319; (3) Baptism and Confirmation, p. 320 3. The Initiatory Rites in the Churches of tbe East 4. Comparison of Rites, and their Antiquity 5. The Reconciliation of Heretics
Chapter-10: ORDINATION. 1. The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy 2. Latin Ceremonies of Ordination 3. Ordinations at Rome (1) The Minor Orders, p. 302; (2) The Ordinalious at the Einbrr Seasons—that is, of Priests and Deacons, p. 353; (3) The Ordination of Bishops, p. 359; (4) Ordination of the Pope, p. 362 4. Ordinations according to the Gallican Rite 5. Ordinations in the East
Chapter-11: LITURGICAL VESTMENTS (1) The Tunicle and the Tlaneta, p. 379 ; (2) The Dalmatic, p. 382; (3) The "Mappula" and the Sleeves, p. 383; (4) The Pallium, p. 384 ; (5) The Stole, p. 390 ; (6) Shoes and Head dress, p. 395; (7) The White Saddle-cloth of the Roman Clergy, p. 396; (8) The Crozier and Ring, p. 397
Chapter-12: THE DEDICATION OF CHURCHES 1. Buildings consecrated to Christian Worship 2. Roman Dedication Rites 3. Gallican Dedications
Chapter-13: THE CONSECRATION OF VIRGINS. 1. The Profession of Virgins 2. The liitea of the Velatio Virginum (1) The Roman Use, p. 424; (2) The Gallican Use, p. 425
Appendix: 1. The Roman Ordines from the Manuscript of St. Amand 2. The Roman Ordines for the Three Days before Easter 3. The Dedication Ritual in the Sacramentary of Angouleme 4. The Dedication Ritual according to the Use of the Bishop of Metz 5. Order of the Offices at Jerusalem towards the End of the Fourth Century 6. The Canons of Hippolytus 7. The Exutet of Bari, Translator's Note. Early Greek form of the Ave Maria, English Translation of No. 5 (Pilgrimage of Etheria (Silvia))



Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 42_Convent-Life-Duties.pdf CONVENT LIFE* REv. F.R. ARTHUR DEVINE FourthEnglish 366
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: ON THE RELIGIOUS STATE. Its signification —The Approbation required —The different kinds of Approbation —The Origin of the Religious State —All that is required to constitute a true Religious Institute
Chapter-02: THE VOCATION TO THE RELIGIOUS STATE. The nature of a Divine Vocation to Religion —The internal and external obstacles to a Vocation —The signs of a true Vocation —The motives for entering Religion —The conditions and qualities of a Vocation —The Obligation of corresponding to a Religious Vocation
Chapter-03: PERFECTION AND ITS OBLIGATION. The meaning of Religious Perfection —The Obligation of acquiring Perfection —How may Religious sin against this Obligation
Chapter-04: CN THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE RULE. The nature of this Obligation –How may a Religious sin by transgressing the Rule –The signs of contempt of the Rule –The evils which follow from neglect of observance —Remedies of this neglect —Motives for keeping the Rule
Chapter-05: ON THE RECEPTION of Novices. The conditions required for the reception of Novices —They should be of irreprehensible lives and free —How is the leave of Parents required —The age required —The consent of the Bishop and of the Nuns— The number to be admitted- A list of questions on which the Postulant may be examined –The Episcopal Examination —The Retreat or Spiritual Exercises before reception and its object
Chapter-06: ON THE NOVITIATE. The year's Novitiate always necessary - The prolongation of the time of Novitiate; whether lawful —The interruption of the Novitiate —How are Novices bound to the Regular Observance –Those who enter ficto animo; that is, without the intention of becoming Nuns —The case of delicate Novices —Profession when in danger of death, and its result —The place of Novitiate —The Habit -The privileges of Novices
Chapter-07: THE NOVITIATE (continued). Its Temporal affairs —The Renunciation of the Temporal Possessions and the Dowry of Novices —The Renunciation according to the law of the Council of Trent —When valid —Its extent and the permission required for making it —Does the law of the Council of Trent apply in the case of Convents with only Simple Vows —The Dowry —It is lawful to give and take it —Even wealthy Convents can receive Dowries, but the necessity of a Dowry does not apply to them —The amount of Dowry —The Regulations of the old Canon Law in regard to Dowries —Rules that apply to Convents with Simple Vows only —When the Nuns leave or change from one Convent to another, what is the claim as regards Dowry
Chapter-08: THE NOVITIATE (continued). Its Spiritual obligations —The virtues suitable to the state of Noviceship —In imitation of the Infant Jesus. Humility, Chastity, Poverty, and Obedience —The Novice should endeavour to advance in Wisdom and Grace, and prepare to be crucified with Christ
Chapter-09: ON THE PROFESSION OF NUNS. The Profession should be freely made -Grave error, deceit and ignorance would cause the Profession to be invalid —The particular constitutions of the Institute should be observed —The ratification of a Profession —A Novice unjustly rejected can appeal to the Bishop —The Profession of a Novice who has been ill —The Episcopal examination to be observed before Profession —The effects of a valid Profession —Words of advice to the Novice on the day of her Profession
Chapter-10: *ON THE OBLIGATIONS or NUNS IN REGARD To ENCLOSURE. Nuns with Enclosure —What is meant by Enclosure -To whom does it belong to watch over and enforce the observance of Enclosure —The permission required to enter —The persons to be admitted and the reasons for admitting them, and what is to be observed on such occasions —The Enclosure as to egress- The penalties incurred by breaking the Enclosure
Chapter-11: Nuns without Enclosure. They are Religious in the true sense of the word —Enclosure is not necessary, and it would be an obstacle to their work —They have all the means of Religious perfection —They are enriched with many privileges and blessings
Chapter-01: ON Vows IN GENERAL. The signification of a Vow explained —Its conditions —The division of Vows —The Obligation of a Vow —What is considered grave, and what lignt matter in regard to this obligation —The conclusions given by St. Liguori on the obligation of a Vow
Chapter-02: Vows MADE IN RELIGION. The difference between Vows made in Religion, and Vows made in the world —Temporary and perpetual —Solemn and simple Vows explained —Declaration of the S. Congregation with ten important rules in connection with the simple Vows of Religious —Whether Religious with simple Vows can be sent away without a just cause -In what does the solemnity of a Vow consist, and what are its effects —The usual three Vows of Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience taken in all Religious Institutes
Chapter-03: THE Vow of POVERTY. Its Nature and Obligation —The meaning of Religious Poverty and its four grades. The consequences of the Vow in the case of solemn, and in that of simple Vows —The Obligations of the Vow of Poverty —The quantity required for a mortal sin –Bouix estimate —Exchanging and appropriating things —Is restitution to be made —The case of idle Religious - Can the Obligation of this Vow be abrogated by custom
Chapter-04: THE Vow of POVERTY (continued). The Peculium, Permissions, and Gifts —The meaning of Peculium, and the conditions under which it can be allowed —Annuities and Incomes —Refusing goods left by Will, or debts due —Permissions — The express, tacit, and interpretative Permissions explained - Gifts —The Constitutions of Clement VIII and Urban VIII. in regard to Gifts and Donations from Religious —Cases in which Religious can give things summarised —The Penalties enjoined for violating this Vow
Chapter-05: THE VIRTUE of Poverty. What is meant by it, and how commended by our Saviour —Sin against this Virtue —Community Life —The perfection of Religious Poverty and its grades —The difference between the Virtue and the Vow of Poverty —How this Virtue affects the Community —The Active, Contemplative, and Mixed Orders or Congregations in their relation to Poverty
Chapter-06: ON CHASTITY. The Three Vows that relate to this Virtue —The Obligations of the Vow of Chastity and its consequences - The gravity of Sins against this Vow —The Analysis of a Sin of Thought —The Virtue of Chastity and its degrees —The means of preserving and increasing this Virtue in the soul —The danger to which this Virtue is exposed, and the admonitions of the Abbe de Rancé in regard to it
Chapter-07: ON THE Vow of OBEDIENCE. The nature of this Vow and the threefold Obedience distinguished by St. Thomas —The Power of Commanding —Jurisdiction —The Power of the Keys —Dominative Power —The subject of Obedience —The Superiors to be obeyed —The relations of Nuns under a Mother -General to the Ordinary in Temporal affairs —The Canonical Visitation —Relations of Nuns towards Ecclesiastical Prelates
Chapter-08: THE Vow of OBEDIENCE (continued). The object of Obedience —Its meaning —The Commands of the Suerioress binding in conscience —The Refusal of office —he Revealing a Natural Secret —The Formula of commanding -Obedience in regard to the Holy Communion
Chapter-09: IHE VIRTUE of OBEDIENCE. —Its Explanation, and the difference between it and the Vow —The Perfection of this Virtue and its degrees —The Execution of the command –Obedience of the will –Obedience of the intellect —Motives to practise this virtue
Chapter-10: THE CESSATION OF THE OBLIGATION OF RELIGIOUS Vows. The three ways in which this Obligation may cease —The Invalidation of Vows —What is meant by it, and who can annul the Vows of Religious —The Dispensation in regard to Solemn, and in regard to Simple Vows —The Commutation of Vows and the changing from one Order to another –Either stricter, less strict, or equally strict -Expulsion, Apostacy, and Perseverance —The Obligation of Persevering in Religion, and the Motives to secure it
Chapter-01: THE DIVINE OFFICE AND THE LITTLE OFFICE OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN. The Obligation of Reciting the Divine Office in regard to Nuns —What Omission would be grave —The reasons that would exempt from this obligation —The obligation of saying the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin —The Manner of saying Office —The intention and at tention required —Method of assisting in Choir from the Manuale Sacro of St. Leonard of Port Maurice
Chapter-02: MENTAL PRAYER OR MEDITATION. Its Meaning —The Three parts of Meditation -The preparation —The Five Acts to be recited —Remarks —The Meditation proper —The exercise of the Three Powers of the Soul, the Memory, the Understanding, and the Will explained -Example from the Passion of our Lord —Remarks on this part —Thanksgiving –Three Acts at the Close of the Meditation —Remarks on this part
Chapter-03: THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE. How often should Nuns receive the Sacrament —The different kinds of Confession The manner of making the Confession with fruit, and the qualities of a Good Confession —Some special questions about the integrity —The obligation and manner of saying the Penance
Chapter-04: THE CONFESSOR AND SPIRITUAL DIRECTOR. The Dispositions of the Canon Law in regard to the Confessors of Nuns —The Ordinary and Extraordinary Confessors —Their Confessions when out of the Convent —Spiritual Direction -There should not be two Spiritual Guides for a Convent —The relative authorities of the Confessor and the Superioress in regard to Penances, the Holy Communion, and the Manifestation of Conscience –Cases that need special direction —The Scrupulous —Those specially favoured by Visions and Supernatural Manifestations —Exemplified in the Devotion to the S. Heart as Revealed to B. Margaret Mary Alacoque.
Chapter-05: THE Holy EUCHARIST. How often should Nuns go to Communion —The Dispositions required —Fasting-The State of Grace —Confession before Communion —Other dispositions —Excuses for omitting Communion refuted by St. Leonard –The Immediate Preparation for Communion and Thanksgiving after it —The effects of a good Communion -Spiritual Communion explained
Chapter-06: THE HoLY SACRIFICE OF THE MASS. The Nature of the Sacrifice —The Obligation of hearing Mass as it affects Nuns —The Intention and Attention required —Being present the whole time of Mass —What omissions grievous The effects of the Holy Mass —Its fruits and its value -The manner of hearing Mass as taught by St. Leonard of Port Maurice
Chapter-07: ON THE OBSERVANCE OF FASTs AND FEASTs. The observance of Fasts —The Law of Fasting and Abstinence —Lenten Indult for England —One meal a day —The sin against this Law —The collation, its quantity and quality —The Hour for Dinner on Fast Days —Causes that exempt from Fasting —Who can dispense —Are Nuns under twenty one and over sixty bound to the Fasts of Rule -Mortification its nature, its division and necessity—The Rule to guide us in Bodily Mortification —Interior Mortification and its three grades —Feast Days —Their Observance —The servile work prohibited —Causes to justify it —Grave matter — How to sanctify those days
Chapter-01: THE ELECTION of SUPERIORs. The importance of these Elections —The Obligations of those who are to Vote —The manner to proceed in the Election —The virtues and qualities of those worthy to be Elected, and the unworthy -Prudence and Experience required for a Superior —The Obligation of preserving the secret of the Chapter
Chapter-02: THE OBLIGATIONS AND DUTIEs oF THE SUPERIOR. In regard to transgressions open and occult —Whether capable of exercising any spiritual jurisdiction in regard to dispensations from Fasting and from Vows —The administration of the goods of the Convent —The distribution of the goods of the Convent to her Community —What Contracts can she enter into and how is the Convent bound by them -The relation of the Convent to the parents of the Professed Religious
Chapter-03: THE SUBORDINATE OFFICIALS IN A CONVENT. SEC. I. —THE ASSISTANT AND DISCREETS. Can the Assistant command the Sisters under Obedience? —Are the Assistant and Discreets bound to attend when called by the Superior for consultation? —Can they remain silent when something is proposed that would be to the injury of the Convent? SEC. II. —THE MISTRESS of Novices. The manner of electing her —Her qualities and term of Office —Whether she should rule with mildness or severity —How she should act in doubtful cases and in regard to occult impediments -to profession on the part of the Novices SEC. III. —THE BURSAR. Her office -1. In disposing of goods –2. In their distribution –3. In providing for the needs of the Religious -4. In regard to the sick -5. In giving alms SEC. IV.—THE SACRISTAN. The nature of this office –Her Duties: to keep the lamps burning before the B. Sacrament, to serve Mass from a distance; in regard to the vestments, Sacred Vessels, Altar Cloths, Altar Bread and Altar Wine, The Candles for Mass and Exposition SEC. V. —THE INFIRMARIAN AND THE SICK. The importance of this office –The Sick and their obligation to obey the Doctor not by reason of the Vow —To make use of the remedies prescribed —Their exemption from Office and from the Fasts —When and how often are they to receive the Holy Viaticum —The Infirmarian bound to ordinary and not extraordinary care of the Sick —She is obliged to apply all the necessary remedies —Sometimes exempt from Mass, Fasting, and the Office —Her obligation in regard to a Contagious Disease —Admonition about the care of the Dying
Chapter-04: On THE LAY SISTERs. What is to be observed in the reception of Lay Sisters —In what sense are they Religious —Are they obliged to recite the Prayers prescribed by Rule —Can a Choir Sister be changed to the state of a Lay Sister, and a Lay Sister to that of a Choir Sister —Their obligations in regard to the duties in the Convent —Their exemption from fasting on account of hard work
Concluding Chapter ON CHARITY TOWARDS GOD AND oUR NEIGHBOUR. Parr I. —CHARITY TOWARDS GOD. Its definition and division —The love of Benevolence or disinterested love, and the love of Concupiscence or interested love —The errors of the Quietists and Semiquietists —Madame de Guyon, and Fenelon —When the precept of Charity obliges —The manner in which God is to be loved explained according to the text: Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole mind (Matt. xxii. 37). PART II. —FRATERNAL CHARITY. Its explanation and its parts as given by Benedict XIV. —The precept of Charity towards our Neighbour —The acts of this virtue and the order of Charity —Its motive and rule —This virtue as it exists in a Religious Community -Described by St. Paul –Fraternal correction and its conditions —The manifestation of faults when lawful —The sins against Charity —Fr. Faber's Notes on Fraternal Charity —The degrees of this virtue, and the reasons for practising it
* OR THE DUTIES OF SISTERS DEDICATED IN RELIGION TO THE SERVICE OF GOD intended chiefly for superiors and confessors WITH COMMENTARY On the Decree “Quennadmodum."

Keywords: Celibacy, Note of Sanctity

Review:Pg-13: The Religious State is a condition of life approved by the Church in which, by the observance of vows and rules, one tends towards evangelical perfection. Pg-16: Its divine origin is clearly proved from those texts of scripture in which our Saviour teaches the evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience. He recommends poverty and its profession in St. Matthew, Go sell what thou hast and give to the poor. Pg-17: Religious bodies such as Jesuits, Passionists, Redemptorists, etc. all of which are true Religious Orders or Congregations approved by the Holy See, in which profession is made of perpetual vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, together with a fourth vow regard ing the particular and special end and spirit of the Institute.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Distinctive Character of the Two Systems
Chapter-02: Objects of Worship - Section I. Trinity in Unity, Section II. The Mother and Child, and the Original of the Child, Sub-Section I. The Child in Assyria, II. The Child in Egypt, III. The Child in Greece, IV. The Death of the Child, V. The Deification of the Child, Section III. The Mother of the Child
Chapter-03: Section I. Christmas and Lady-Day, II. Easter, III. The Nativity of St. John, IV. The Feast of the Assumption
Chapter-04: Doctrine and Discipline. Section I. Baptismal Regeneration, II. Justification by Works, III. The Sacrifice of the Mass, IV. Extreme Unction, V. Purgatory and Prayers for the Dead
Chapter-05: RlTES AND CEREMONIES- Section I. Idol-Processions, II. Relic-Worship, III. The Clothing and downing of Images, IV. The Rosary and the Worship of the Sacred Heart, Y. Lamps and Wax-Candles, VI. The Sign of the Cross
Chapter-06: Religious Orders. Section I. The Sovereign Pontiff, II. Priests, Monks, and Nuns
Chapter-07: TnE Two Developments Historically and Prophetically Considered. Section I. The Great Red Dragon, II. The Beast from the Sea, III. The Beast from the Earth, IV. The Image of the Beast, V. The Name of the Beast, the Number of his Name, —the Invisible Head of the Papacy

Keywords:Hindoos, Chaldee, Brahma, Crishna, Mystery of iniquity, Sanscrit, Brahm, Rahm, Buddha

Review:This is another book dealing with the myths of Christism where the author cannot do it without usurpring the rituals and traditions of other cultures an paganism. Pg-3: It has been known all along that Popery was baptized Paganism; but God is now making it manifest, that the Paganism which Rome has baptized is, in all its essential elements, the very Paganism which prevailed in the ancient literal Babylon, when Jehovah opened before Cyrus the two-leaved gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron. Pg-21:when the different statements in regard to Brahm are carefully considered, it becomes evident that the name Brahm is just the Hebrew Rahm, with the digamma prefixed, which is very frequent in Sanscrit words derived from Hebrew or Chaldee. Rahm in Hebrew signifies "The merciful or compassionate one." But Rahm also signifies the womb or the bowels as the seat of compassion. Now we find such language applied to Brahm, the one supreme God, as cannot be accounted for, except on the supposition that Brahm had the very same meaning as the Hebrew Rahm.

Pg-24: The Papacy has in some of its churches, as, for instance, in the monastery of the so-called Trinitarians of Madrid, an image of the Triune God, with three heads on one body. The Babylonians had something of the same. Pg-25:In India, the supreme divinity, in like manner, in one of the most ancient cave-temples, is represented with three heads on one body, under the name of "Eko Deva Trimurtti," One God, three forms." In Japan, the Buddhists worship their great divinity Buddha, with three heads, in the very same form, under the name of San Pao Fuh.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: INTRODUCTION Conception, Contents, and Extent of Biblical Archeology, Organic Connection and Division, Principle and Method, Sources, History and Literature - THE SCENE OF THE BIBLICAL HISTORY --- The Geographical Position of the Holy Land, The Political Position of Israel in Palestine, The Appropriateness of the Holy Land for the Destiny of Israel
Chapter-02: THE NATURAL CONDITION OF THE HOLY LAND The Configuration and Nature of the Soil of Palestine, Climate and Temperature of Palestine, The Natural Products of Palestine —Minerals and Plants, The Animal Kingdom of Palestine, The Influence of the Land of Canaan on the of lsrael, The Trespass-offering, II. The Burnt-offering, III. Peace-offerings. Their Material and Ritual, Idea and Object of the Peace-offerings, The Meaning of the Ritual of the Peace-offerings, IV. The Meat-offering and the Drink-offering, The Typical Character of the Four Kinds of Sacrifices
Chapter-03: THE COVENANT SACRIFICES AND DEDICATION OFFERINGS The Dedication Offering of the People at the Ratification of the Covenant, The Sacrifice offered at the Consecration of the Priests
Chapter-II-01: THE SO-CALLED LEVITICAL PURIFICATIONS The Legal Prescriptions regarding Defilements and Purifications, The Object and Meaning of the Levitical Purifications, The Puritication of those defiled by Contact with the Dead, The Purification of those who have recovered from Leprosy, The Purification of those who were defiled by Sexual Discharges
Chapter-II-02: THE PURIFICATIONS IN THE CASE OF A WOMAN SUSPECTED OF ADULTERY AND OF A PERSON SUSPECTED OF MURDER. The Jealousy-offering, Purification of a Community from the Suspicion of Blood-guiltiness
Chapter-III-01:RITES OF A SACRAMENTAL NATURE Circumcision, Anointing as an Act of Consecration, The Baptism of Proselytes
Chapter-III-02: RITES OF A SACRIFICIAL NATURE Vows,The Nazarite’s Vow, The Services of the Women in the Tabernacle, Fasting, The Anathema, Firstlings, First-born, and Tithes
Chapter-III-03: OBSERVANCES OF A LITURGICAL NATURE Prayer and Benediction, Singing and Instrumental Musie in Publie Worship
Chapter-IV-01: THE REGULATION OF THE WORSHIP ACCORDING TO PARTICULAR TIMES AND SEASONS. The Division of Time among the Israelites, The Daily Worship, The Cycle of Feasts prescribed in the Law


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 66_The-Day-of-Crescent.pdf THE DAY OF THE CRESCENT - GLIMPSES OF OLD TURKEY G. E. HUBBARD - English 285
Table of Contents
Chapter-00: INTRODUCTION A literary "find." The old travel-books and their authors. The Turkish Peril. How the Grand Turke addressed the Princes of Christendom. The taint of Byzantium. Turkish militarism. The fate of an empire.
Chapter-01: A LITTLE CONDENSED HISTORY The period of the book. Last of the Crusades. "The scourge of God." Selim the Grim. Suleyman the Magnificent. An example of chivalry. Conquests and reforms. A dramatic death scene. The story of Count Christopher. A series of royal degenerates. Murad the Fourth. A family of great Vizirs. The second siege of Vienna. Decapitation of an ostrich. A terrible record. The end of an era.
Chapter-02: THE OLD SERAGLIO AND THE ADVENTURES OF AN ORGAN-BUILDER A city of fair fame. Sandys describes the seraglio. A perilous pleasaunce. A Sultan's pay-roll. The palace pages. A drastic curriculum. Master Thomas Dallam. A gift to the Sultan. The wonderful organ. The dress rehearsal. Seeing round the palace. Sultanas at play. Chased by blackamoors. Safely home.
Chapter-03: THE SULTAN'S ARMIES Origin of the Janissaries. A ceremony of initiation. Life in the ranks. The regimental cauldron. The Janissary's charter. From body-guard to regicide. Spahis and piades. A prototype of the Red Knight. Artillery. A remarkable gun-team. The corps of "Mad-caps." The Tartar auxiliaries. Licensed freebooters.
Chapter-04: A PALACE AUDIENCE A stir in the bailaggio. The crossing of the Golden Horn. Through old Stamboul. Entering the Seraglio. The two courtyards. The Janissaries' dinner-call. Admittance to the divan. A cabinet meeting. Business of state. A gargantuan feast The Sultan on his throne. A dazzling spectacle. A diplomatic reconciliation.
Chapter-05: AN EMBASSY TO THE GRAND TURKE (1) Truce between Turkey and the Empire. The new ambassador. Journey to Constantinople. Dr Quackquelben's misadventure. Bulgarian costumes. The Sultan's zoo. The credulous hyena. Suleyman at Amadia. A Persian banquet. An unpropitious reception. Portrait of Suleyman. Homeward bound. An agonizing sight The price of a nose. A brief respite.
Chapter-06: AN EMBASSY TO THE GRAND TURKE (2) "A bushel of troubles." Pertinacity in adversity. An invaluable recipe. Gloomy quarters. The embassy menagerie. The pig and the door-keeper. Affection in a crane. Gentle horses. Morale of the Turkish army. A damaging comparison. The symbolic melon. Outwitting a chaoush. A military march-past. A row with the Janissaries.
Chapter-07: AN EMBASSY TO THE GRAND TURKE (3) The relics of a fleet The fate of the prisoners. A work of humanity. A puritanic monarch. The Pestilence. Escape to Prinkipo. A fisherman's paradise. The fat Franciscan. Story of the Hoji's sleeve. The end in sight. A surly farewell. Amenities of the road. Henry and the hatchet. A satisfactory ending.
Chapter-08: TWO MARTIAL ADVENTURES (1) The book-shelves of the "Green Dragon." A philosophic globetrotter. By caravan to Turkey. Serajevo. Falling in with the army. Company for the Devil. A short way with miscreants. A grisly tower. Luxurious ''bashaws." Wives and Catimites. The pasha's offer. A bloody revenge. A reluctant parting.
Chapter-09: TWO MARTIAL ADVENTURES (2) War between the Poles and Turks. The armies meet. The opening attack. Running the blockade. A mediaeval trench raid. The Turks' "big push." Holding the breach. Behemoth bound. A petulant Sultan. Reception of the messengers. An elephant as a peace-offering.
Chapter-10: A PERSIAN INTERLUDE The history of " Long Hassan." Il Magnifico Barbaro starts on his mission. Cyprian politics. Across Asia Minor. Ambushed by Kurds. Arrival at Tabriz. The garden-palace. An exciting tournament. The envoys from India. A punitive expedition. Fete champetre. A monstrous cake. The return to Venice.
Chapter-11: THE SULTAN'S NAVY A Pera "chestnut." Origin of the Turkish navy. The Barbary corsairs. Barbarossa. An apprenticeship in piracy. Doriaenters the stage. Well-matched opponents. Barbarossa and Suleyman. The great Capudan Pasha. Battle of Prevesa. The church-bells of Nice. Mat rai's ul bahr. Captains Courageous. Indian adventures. Account of a cyclone. Ceding the trident. The victims of Jerba. The last fight of "The three halfemoones." The feat of John Foxe, Gunner.
Chapter-12: A DRAGOMAN'S DIARY The election of a bailo. A magnificent send-off. Overland to Stamboul. Conflicting astrologies. Sports on the At Maidan. Speeding the pilgrims. Preparations for war. Scenes at the camp. The Sultan's secret. An ill-omened start. The court at Belgrade. Premature rejoicings. The saving of Vienna. The Sultan's home-coming. The return of the Embassy.
Chapter-13: A BELATED CRUSADE How Crete fell to Venice. The Turkish invasion. Candia besieged. The crusaders leave Toulon. An escapade in Sardinia. The landing at Candia. A discreditable episode. Manning the walls. The great sortie. A hopeless struggle. Calling the roll. A cosmopolitan garrison. Successive misfortunes. A survivor's quarantaine.
Chapter-14: A BUNDLE OF GLEANINGS An adventurous Don. The circumcision of a Prince. Pyrotechnical marvels. Presents at a wedding. The cats' table d'hote. "Fruits on a Dunghill." A lesson in modesty. Grelot's adventure. The imam's lamps. Sketches of dervishes. A colony of sorceresses. Mohammed's fowls. A Pasha in a powdering-tub
Chapter-15: A PRISONER IN THE GALLEYS, etc. (1) Christian prisoners in Turkey. The mission to Constantinople. The mission is interned. Spying on the Turks. A shameless betrayal. The arrest of the mission. Threatened with "gauching." Refusal to apostate. The arsenal prison. Mass under difficulties. The eating of "Marko." Condemned to the galleys. Life of a galley-slave. Hunger and torture. Locked in the Black Tower. The agha of the Tower. A living purgatory. A heartless joke.
Chapter-16: A PRISONER IN THE GALLEYS, etc. (2) A ray of hope. Disillusionment follows. The new Grand Vizir. A petition and its answer. Summoned to the divan. A friend in need. Freedom from fetters. The adieux at the Tower. Marching with the army. Promises of liberty. A serious hitch. Escape from the army. Encounter with Tartars. Saved by a thunderstorm. Crossing the lines. A target for cannon-balls. Safe among friends. Arrival at Prague. A great-hearted Englishman. Faith in captivity. Exeunt omnes.


BYZANTIUM AND THE ARABS IN THE SIXTH CENTURY by IRFAN SHAHID - Volume I - Part 1: Political and Military History

INTRODUCTION: The Sources, The Sixth Century: A Synoptic View - PART ONE: POLITICAL AND MILITARY HISTORY I. The Reign of Anastasius -The Foedus of 502 -The Persian War, 502-506 -Byzantium and the Lakhmids: Mungir -Byzantium and Kinda Procopius -Appendices -Wahb ibn-Munabbih: Kitab al-Tijan, Mungir's Invasion of Palestine, An "Indian" Elephant in Gaza

II. The Reign of Justin I: The Ghassanids -The Withdrawal of the Ghassanids -The Conference of Ramla -Byzantine-Lakhmid Relations -Jabala, the Ghassanid Federate King -Procopius on the Reign of Justin I. Appendices -Latin Limes, Syriac Limifon -The Pella Inscription. III The Reign of Justinian: Introduction A. The First Persian War (527-532) -The Return of the Ghassanids -The Expedition against Mungir, Winter 528 -Thanniiris, the Battle of the Ditch, Summer 528 -Mungir's Invasion of Syria Prima, March 529 -The Samaritan Revolt of 529 -The Basileia of Arethas, 529 -The Two Basileiai: Ghassanid and Byzantine -The Usays Inscription -Abu Karib -The Battle of Daras, 530 -The Battle of Callinicum, 531 -The Embassy of Julian -Byzantium and Kinda -Byzantium and Ma'add (the Maddinoi) -Saracen Pockets in the Three Palestines -Malalas on the Federate Arabs -Appendices: Justinian in Oriens -Phoenicia Libanensis: The Two Dukes -Zacharia of Mytilene on Timostratus and Jabala -Ma'add

B. Rubin on the Battle of Callinicum: The Inter-War Period (532-539) I.The Vandal War, 533-534 II. Choricius of Gaza III. The Saracen Invasion of Euphratensis, 536 IV. Novel 102 on Arabia V. Edict 4 on Phoenicia Libanensis VI. Novel 103 on Palestine Byzantine-Ghassanid Relations in 536.

C. The Second Persian War (540-545) I. The Strata Dispute II. The Campaigns of the War and the Prodosia Theme III. The Assyrian Campaign of 541 IV. The Campaign of 542 V. Procopius and Mungir VI. Appendix: An Arabic Ekphrasisof the Battle of Antioch, A.D . 540

D. The War of the Federates (546-561) I. Introduction II. The First Phase, 545/46-550/51 III. The Second Phase, 550/51-555/56 IV. Inter-Phylarchal Strife in Oriens: The Vita Euthymii V. The Third Phase, 556/57-561 VI. Concluding Remarks VII. Appendix: B. Rubin on the Lakhmid-Ghassanid War E. The Last Years of the Reign (561-565) I. The Peace of 561 II. Arethas in Constantinople, 563 III. The Byzantine Titles of Arethas IV. Procopius and the Arabs

IV. The Reign of Justin II: I. Introduction II. The Lakhmids III. The Ghassanids IV. The House of Ayyub V. Justin H's Daughter, 'Arabia VI. The Expedition against Khaybar, 567(?) VII. The Harran Inscription VIII. Menander and the Arabs IX. The Death of Arethas, 569 X. The Accession of Mungir, 569 XI. The Lakhmid-Ghassanid Conflict, 569-570 XII. The Souring of Ghassanid-Byzantine Relations XIII. The Withdrawal of the Ghassanids, 572-575 XIV. The Persian Conquest of South Arabia, 570 XV. The Co-Rulership of Tiberius, 574-578 XVI. The Ghassanid Return to the Byzantine Fold XVII. Mungir in Constantinople, 575. Appendices: The Ghassanid Capture of Hira, 575 -On the Name of Justin's Daughter, Arabia

V. The Reign of Tiberius: I. Sophia and Maurice II. The Persian Front, 578-580 III. The Ghassanid Crown: Constantinople in 580 IV. The Campaign of Ctesiphon, 580/81: The Antecedents V. The Course of the Campaign VI. Some Problems of the Campaign VII. Mungir's Last Victory over the Lakhmids, 581 VIII. Mungir's Generalship: An Evaluation IX. Prodosia X. The Fall of Mungir XI. The Ghassanid Revolt: Nu'man XII. The Byzantine Response to the Ghassanid Revolt XIII. An Ayyiibid Ambassador in Constantinople: 'Adi ibn-Zayd XIV. The Ghassanid Matrimony XIV. Greek Federate Epigraphy XV. The Patriciate of Mungir. Appendices: I. The Two Federate Crowns II. Noldeke on the Titles and Ranks of Mungir III. Flavius Seos, Epitropos IV. J. G. Wetzstein and R. Brunnow on al-Burj V. R. Mouterde on Nu'man VI. The στσατηλασια of Nu'man

VI. The Reign of Maurice - I. Maurice and Nu'man II. Laesa Maiestas:The Trial of the Two Ghassanids III. Amid Alien Com: Mungir in Sicily IV. The "Dissolution" of the Ghassanid Phylarchate: John of Ephesus V. The Arab Foederatiduring the Reign of Maurice VI. The Restoration of the Ghassanids VII. The Strategikon VIII. John of Ephesus on the Ghassanids: An Evaluation IX. Two Greek Historians: Evagrius and Theophylact X. John Moschus: Pratum Spirituale XI. Pope Gregory and Mung.ir: July A.D. 600 XII. The Controversial Reign of Maurice. Appendices: I. Maurice, the Arabs, and Arabissos II. On the Stirrup III. The Ghassanids in Recent Scholarship

VII: The Reign of Phocas - I. The Return of Mung.ir from Exile, 602 II. The Persian War III. The Ghassanids and Phocas IV. Appendix:Ibn Hamdis on Sicily VIII: The Reign of Heraclius I. The First Decade II. The Second Decade III. The Third Decade IV. Saracen Pockets in Palaestina Prima V. Appendix:The Saracens in the Acta of St. Anastasius. Lists and Stemmata. Maps. Index.


INTRODUCTION - IX: The Reign of Anastasius I. Within the Empire II. Outside the Limes III. Appendix: "The Camp of Anasartha": A Cautionary Note. X: The Reign of Justin I - I. Within the Empire II. Outside the Limes III. Appendix:The Four Hundred Virgins

XI: The Reign of Justinian. Introduction A-The First Phase (527-536) I. Introduction II. Early Ghassanid-Imperial Contacts: Justinian and Theodora III. The Ghassanid Episcopate IV. The Monophysite Confessions of Faith B-The Second Phase (536-553): I. Introduction II. Arethas and Ephraim III. Arethas and the Consecrations of 542/43: Jacob and Theodore IV. The Trio: Arethas, Jacob, and Theodore V. The Last Decade, 543-553 VI. Appendix: Sergius, Bishop of Hirta. C: The Third Phase (553-565) I. Introduction II. The Fifties III. The Sixties IV. The Letter of Arethas to Jacob Baradaeus V. Bishop Theodore and Patriarch Paul

XII: The Reign of Justin II -A. The First Phase (565-569) I. Introduction II. Constantinople and the Monophysites III. The Patriarchate of Paul: Inter-Monophysite Dissension IV. The Ghassanids and Tritheism V· The Subscriptions of the Archimandrites of Arabia VI. The Monastery and the Church of the Arabs VII. Antiochus of Arabia VIII. Abu Karib and Theodore: Codex Syriacus DLXXXV, Theology, British Museum IX. Theodore, the Arab Bishop of the Limitrophe: ca. 540-570 B. The Second Phase (569-578) I. Introduction: The Accession of Mungir, 569 II. Mungir: gloriosus, Christophilos, patricius III. The Apostasy of Patriarch Paul, 5 71- 575 IV. The Ghassanid Episcopate V. The Schism within the Patriarchate of Antioch: Paulites versus Jacobites, 575-578 VI. Appendix:The Episcopate of the Golan

XIII: The Reign of Tiberius I. Introduction II. The Bienniumof 578-580 III. The Conference of Constantinople: 2 March 580 IV. The Sequel to the Conference V. The Bienniumof 580/81: The Anticlimax. XIV: The Reign of Maurice I. Introduction II. The Chalcedonian Attempt to Convert the Ghassanids III. The Role of the Ghassanids in Inter-Monophysite IV. Controversies : Damian of Alexandria and Peter of Callinicum V. Pope Gregory and the Provincia Arabia: The Ghassanid VI Profile

XV: The Reign of Phocas I. The Return of Mungir from Sicily II. Ghassanid Monophysitism during the Reign. XVI: The Reign of Heraclius I. Introduction II. The Arab Foederatiin a Heraclian Victory Bulletin III. The Translation of the Relics of St. Anastasius the Persian IV. The Ghassanid Defeat in Oriens, Easter Sunday, 634. XVII: The Arab Foederatiand the Christian Saints I. The Arabs and St. Sergius II. Two Arab Saints: Cosmas and Damian III. St. Simeon the Younger and St. Julian. XVIII: Arab Christianity in Sinai I. The Peninsula II. The Twin Cities: Pharan and Raithou III. The Pastoralists of Sinai: The Saracens IV. Procopius and Eutychius on Mount Sinai V. The Ghassanid Profile VI. Theodore of Pharan VII. The Image VIII. The Sinai Peninsula and Archaeology.

EPILOGUE: The Arab and the German Foederati: Monophysitism and Arianism I. Introduction II. Theodoric and Clovis III. Jabala IV. Conclusion.
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 41_Christ-Life-of-Lives.pdf THE LIFE OF LIVES F. W. FARRAR D.D., F.R.S. ---English 594
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: THE DIVINE BIRTH Belief of the Best, Wisest, and Greatest of Men in Divine Providence —Miracles the Outcome of a Natural Law —The Birth of Christ and the Destinies of Mankind —Testimony to Him of History, of Poetry, of Philosophy, of Art, of Science, of Philanthropy —The Witness of the Human Heart
Chapter-02: THE UNIQUE SUPREMACY OF JESUS His Sinlessness —His Superiority to Sakya Muni, to Confucius, to Mohammed, to the Best and Greatest of the Greeks and Romans
Chapter-03: THE UNIQUE SUPREMACY OF JESUS (continued) His Unapproachable Superiority to the Saints and Prophets of the Old Dispensation and to the Best of the Rabbis —His Infinite Supremacy compared with the Saints of Christendom
Chapter-04: THE TESTIMONY OF SCEPTICS AND FREE INQUIRERS Utterances of Spinoza, Leasing, Rousseau, Voltaire, Kant, Schelling, Strauss, Goethe, Channing, Renan, J. S. Mill, Keim, Theodore Parker, Dr. Congreve. Dr. Martineau, Matthew Arnold, and the author of Supernatural Religion
Chapter-05: THE GOSPELS The Substantial Truth of the Gospels Vindicated by Modern Criticism —The Synoptists —The Fourth Gospel —Contrast between the Genuine and the Apocryphal Gospels
Chapter-06: THE CLAIMS OF JESUS AND THE SPELL HE ExERCISED His Sinlessness not a Miraculous but an Achieved Sinlessness —The Witnesses to it —His Seven "I Ams" —Other Declarations Concerning Himself —The Validity of His Words and Promises abundantly justified
Chapter-07: THE HUMAN EDUCATION OF JESUS The Silence of Mary as to His Childhood —St. Luke's the one reference in the Gospels to His Infancy —How Jewish Boys at that Day were Trained —The Probability that Christ spoke both Aramaic and Greek —Teaching Children the Mosaic and Levitic Law —Attendance at School and Synagogue —Simplicity of the Worship of the Synagogue
Chapter-08: THE FIRST ANECDOTE Jesus Goes with His Parents to Jerusalem —The Journey —The First Sight of Jerusalem and of the Temple —What He must have Seen and Heard—The Temple —Eating the Paschal Meal —Lost, and Found in the Temple —His Docility towards the Rabbis —His Submissiveness towards His Parents
Chapter-09: LESSONS OF THE UNRECORDED YEARS The Reticence of the Evangelists as to His Youth and Early Manhood a Proof of their Truthfulness —Years of Preparation, of Poverty, of Obscurity, of Manual Toil —The Scenery around Nazareth —Christ's Loving Observation of all that went on around Him
Chapter-10: THE HOME AT NAZARETH Poverty and Insignificance of Nazareth —A Peasant's Home Described —Mr. Holman Hunt's Picture of a Carpenter's Shop
Chapter-11: THE FAMILT AT NAZARETH Joseph—Mary, the Wife of Cleopas —Probably a Sister of the Virgin —The "Brethren of Jesus — St. James —St. Jude —The Descendants of St. Jude —The Virgin Mary —Mariolatry Alien from the Teaching of the Gospel —Mary at the Cross — The Human Aspect of Christ
Chapter-12: THE CONDITION OF THE WORLD The Gentiles— The Jews in Palestine —The Jews of the Dispersion —The Samaritans —The Galileans
Chapter-13: THE STATE OF RELIGION IN PALESTINE The Zealots —The Essenes —The Sadducees —The Herodians —The Pharisees —Pharisaism the Direct Antithesis of the Teaching of the Prophets
Chapter-14: THE MESSIANIC HOPE An Age of Expectancy —The Older and the Newer Messianic Idea —Expectation not Confined to the Jews —How Christ reversed the Messianic Conceptions of the Age
Chapter-15: JOHN THE BAPTIST "God Called forth a Man" —The Essence of John's Teaching — His Aspect —Religions Awakenment the Object of his Preaching —His Protest against Shows and Shams —His Calls to Repentance —His Belief that the Deliverer was at Hand —His Life not a Failure
Chapter-16: THE BAPTISM OP JESUS Theories as to the Meaning of our Lord's Baptism —John Decreases —His Failure to Enter into the Kingdom
Chapter-17: THE TEMPTATION Jesus Goes into Solitude to Meditate upon His Mission —The Temptation Real, and yet an Illustration of His Sinlessness —The First Temptation an Appeal to the Desire of the Flesh —The Second to the Pride of Life —The Third a Suggestion to Make Concession to Earthly Prejudices
Chapter-18: SCENES OF CHRIST'S MINISTRY "The Galilean Spring " —The Plain of Gennesareth —The Sites of Chorazin. Bethsaida, and Capernaum —Jesus Leaves the Synagogue and Teaches in the Open Air —The Four Places where it is Known that His Feet have Stood
Chapter-19: CHRIST'S METHODS OF EVANGELISATION The Simple Humanity of His Procedure —His Teaching suggested by Immediate Circumstances —His Insistence upon Spirituality, Simplicity, and Sincerity
Chapter-20: THE FORM OF CHRIST'S TEACHING His Teaching as Varied and as Simple in Form as in Method —His Use of Aphorism and of Paradox —His Assurances and Plays on Words —His Spontaneous Poetry —His Use of Parallelism
Chapter-21: THE FORM OF CHRIST'S TEACHING (continued) The Parables —Not a Single Parable in the Apocryphal Gospels —Why our Lord Adopted this Form of Teaching —The Story of the Prodigal Son —The Parables Classified —How they were Influenced by Circumstances
Chapter-22: THE SUBSTANCE OF CHRIST'S TEACHING Christ's Relation to the Priests and the Legalists —His Severity towards the Pharisees— The Laws of His New Kingdom
Chapter-23: THE UNIQUENESS OF CHRIST'S TEACHING Its Insistence upon the Love of God and the Duty of Man —Christ's Attitude towards the Ancient Scriptures —His Proclamation of the Fatherhood of God —Man's Duty to God Involved in the Relation of God to Men —The Beatitudes a Reversal of the Judgments of Men
Chapter-24: THE TITLES OF JESUS AND THE BROTHERHOOD OF MAN "The Son of David," "The Son of God," "The Word," "The Son of Man " —What the Last Title Implies —Christ's Attitude towards the Samaritans, the Gentiles, the Common People, the Publicans, Women and Children
Chapter-25: CHBIST'S CONDEMNATION OF PHARISAIC RELIGIONISM His Antagonism to the Pharisees —How they Magnified the Oral Law —His Attitude towards Ceremonial Purifications; towards the Distinction between Clean and Unclean Meats; towards Fasting; toward the Rabbinic Exegesis
Chapter-26: CHRIST AND THE SABBATH Pharisaic Rules as to the Day of Rest —Christ's Principle. "It is Lawful to do Good on the Sabbath." and How He Exemplifies it —Wherein Pure Religion Consists
Chapter-27: THE MIRACLES OF CHRIST "Powers," "Wonders," "Signs," "Works" —The Miracles Not Intended Primarily as Evidences of His Divinity —A Classification: Miracles on Nature, on Man, on the Spirit -world —Why they had not a more Decisive Effect
Chapter-28: THE GLADNESS AND SORROW OF THE CHRIST The Elements of Simple Gladness to be Seen throughout His Ministry —Only Recognises Fasting as the Natural Expression of Natural Grief —His Afflictions Caused by the Wickedness of Men —His Pity, His Surprise, His Grief and Anger, His Indignation, His Selfrestraint —The Expressions of His Emotion
Chapter-29: THE APOSTLES A Division into Tetrads —The Little we Know of the Majority of the Apostles —Whence they Derived their Amazing Influence
Chapter-30: ST. PETER, ST. JOHN, AND JUDAS St. Peter's Strength and Weakness —St. John's Faults and Distinguishing Glory —The Traitor —His Remorse the Measure of what his Better Feelings must have been
Chapter-31: THE APOSTOLIC COMMISSION The Power of the Keys —The Power to Loose and Bind —The Power to Forgive Sins Conferred upon the Disciples Generally —How it is to be Interpreted
Chapter-32: ORDER OF EVENTS IN OUR LORD'S LIFE Date of our Lord's Birth —Length of His Ministry —Its Division into Four Periods
Chapter-33: THE CLOSING DAYS Arrival at Bethany —Palm Sunday —A Day of Parables —The Day of Temptations —A Day of Seclusion —Preparing for the Paschal Feast
Chapter-34: THE LAST SUPPER Washing the Disciples' Feet —Partaking of the Last Supper —Christ's Final Revelations —Singing a Hymn —The Great High -Priestly Prayer
Chapter-35: GETHSEMANE The Agony —The Arrest —The Final Triumph Won
Chapter-36: THE TRIALS BEFORE THE JEWS The Illegality of the Trials —Character of Annas —The Trial before Annas—The Trial before Caiaphas —The Trial before the Sanhedrin
Chapter-37: THE TRIAL BEFORE PILATE The Three Charges Brought against Jesus —The Remission to Herod Antipas —Again before Pilate —Pilate's Attempt to Save Him —The Scourging —"We have no king but Caesar!" —Pilate's Weakness
Chapter-38: THE SUFFERINGS OF JESUS An Enumeration of His Sorrows and Distresses —The Final Cry from the Cross
Chapter-39: THE BIGHT VIEW OP CHRIST'S SUFFERINGS The Deification of Pain —Christ's Agony not Self-sought —His Death not to be Separated from His Life —His Sufferings a Revelation of Victorious Majesty —The Error of Dwelling too exclusively upon His Anguish
Chapter-40: THE ATONEMENT False Conceptions of the Doctrine —Christ's Death a Transcendent Fact not to be Strictly Categorised —The Atonement Apprehensible only in its Effects
Chapter-41: THE RESURRECTION The Resurrection as Important in the Teaching of the Apostles and Evangelists as the Crucifixion —The Central Event in the History of the World —The only Pledge of Man's Immortality —The Evidence for it Distinct, Decisive, and Varied —Its Cumulative Effect
Chapter-42: THE ASCENSION The True Meaning of Christ's "Ascension" —Only a bare Reference to the Manner of the Ascension, and that by but a Single Evangelist —Transcendent Importance of the Fact of the Ascension
Chapter-43: THE FINAL ISSUES The Crime of Calvary the Beginning of the End of the Old Dispensation —Christianity a Transfiguration of Life —What it has Done for the World


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 61_Dawn-Over-Samarkand.pdf DAWN OVER SAMARKAND JOSHUA KUNITZ ThirdEnglish 345
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: OLD AND NEW — IMPRESSIONS I THE EMIR - Flght of Emir —Spiritual Ruler —Temporal Ruler II MILLIONS OF DAYS - Noble Bokhara - Peoples and Conquerors —The White Czar III CONTRASTS - Water and Blood —In the Shadow of the Ark —Unreasonable Human Herd
Chapter-02: STRUGGLE FOR POWER IV GATHERING OF THE STORM --- Bold Spirits —Emir's Futile Incantations —United in Revolution V FIRST THUNDERBOLT --- Emir Ponders —Parting of Ways —In the Shadow of Empires VI A COLOSSUS PROSTRATE --- Not All Lenins —Speculating on Difficulties —Barking Jackals —The Basmachi -Perfidious Albion — Vulture’s Feast VII ANOTHER VICTORIOUS PAGE --- Britain's Outraged Dignity —The Emir is Disconsolate —Under the Walls of Bokhara -Epilogue and Prologue VIII RECEDING VERSUS EMERGENT --- Revolution in a Quandary - The Thief and the Unique Rose —Moslems of the World Unite —Here a Moslem Saint is Buried —A Ticket to Heaven —Consolidating Forces —Bolshevik Technique —Showing way to Millons —A Wrong Made
Chapter-03: COMPLETING THE BOURGEOIS REVOLUTION IX WHERE COTTON IS KING --- White Gold —White Plague -For Cotton, For Socialism. X LAND AND WATER --- Art and Propaganda —Poor Beys —Poor Mullahs —The Intelligensta Too! -Like a Dream Come True Xl TOWARD SOCIALISM --- Fear of the Unknown —Dizziness from Success —Fascination of Tractors —MTS and Co-optratives —Planming made Possible
Chapter-04: BUILDING SOCIALISM IN TADJIKISTAN XII A BOLSHEVIK IN STALINABAD --- Structures and -Superstructures —National in Form, Socialist in Content —In Happy Exile —Ibrahim Bek Again! —A Bolshevik Legend. XIII DUSHAMBE VERSUS STALINABAD --- Donkeys: Camels —Mullahs: Merchants —No Mosques, No Churches, No Synagogues —Stalinabad Press: Self-Criticism —For Sanitation! For Education XIV. A SHEAF OF TRAVEL NOTES XV NEW WOMEN IN OLD ASIA --- Gray or Dark-Blue Coffins —Green Frogs and Free Women —Tact and Revolution —Husbands and Schools —A Transition Generation. XVI THE END OF THE BASMACHI --- A Touch of the Exotic —Two Documents —A Memorable Night
Chapter-05: SOVIET ASIA—1934 XVII A FANTASY BASED ON FACT --- Poignant Thoughts Bitter Thoughts —A Soviet Rhapsody —We Have Been Victorious. XVHI SOVIET ASIA SINGS --- Songs of Sorrow and Revolt —Songs of Freedom —Songs about Lenin —New Contents: New Forms
Chapter-06: POSTSCRIPT XIX UNITY THRU SELF-DETERMINATION --- Growth of Nations under Soviet Centralism —The Stalin Constitution —Unity of Nationalities Guarantees Victory. MOSLEMS AS FIGHTING PATRIOTS --- Call to the Faithful —Tears of Hatred —An Uzbek Major General —Mothers and Sisters Come Forward —Song of the Soviet Land

Review: Humanity is plagued by four evils — fleas, bedbugs, mullahs, and the Emir’s officials. —Tadjik proverb. The opening of the book is like this: "The Bokhara Emirate was overthrown in September, 1920. The Emir, abandoning his hundred wives, but taking along his letter of credit on the English bank (fifty-four million gold rubles), fled from his capital, followed by a host of officials, mullahs, merchants, and several of his comeliest bachi (young boys). The news spread like wildfire: The Djadids (bourgeois progressives) have seized power in Bokhara; they are being helped by the Bolsheviks."

More quotes: "Fearful that secular modern education, that science would undermine the established feudal order, the Emir and his mullahs fiercely opposed every tendency in that direction, Education was religious education. Culture was traditional culture. The sole function of the few elementary schools, conducted by mullahs or students from the religious acadenues, was to give the squatting pupil a smattering of religious dogma, a fair knowledge of Mohammedan ritual and practice, and a familiarity with a few Moslem prayers."

The Genealogical History of the Tartars, Translated from the Tartar Manuscript Written in the Mughal Language by Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur, Khan of Khowarazm CONTAINING The ANTIQUITIES of the Moguls and Tatars from Adam, according to the Account of the Mohamme dan Tatars. A curious Description of all the Tribes into which the Turkish Nation is divided: The Life of Zingiz Khan the Great, and of his Successors in the four Parts of his Empire. Together With a complete History of the Uzbek Khans of Khowarazm, and in a good measure of the Khans of Great Bukharia, from the first Conquest of those Countries under Shah Bakht Sultan in 1494. to the Death of Abu'l Ghazi Bahader Khan, the Author, in 1663.

Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur (or Ebulgazi Bahadir Han, 1603-63) was the ruler of the Khanate of Khiva (present-day Uzbekistan) and a prominent historian of the Turkic peoples who wrote in the Old Turkic (Chagatai) language. The son of ʻArab Muhammad Khan, Abu al-Ghazi was caught up in a dynastic struggle with his brothers following the death of their father and forced to flee to the Safavid court in Isfahan (in present-day Iran), where he lived from 1629 to 1639. He eventually ascended to the throne of the Khanate of Khiva in 1644 or 1645, which he ruled until his death. He was the author of two works that are important sources for Central Asian history, Shajare-i Tarākime or Secere-i Terakime (The genealogical tree of the Turkmen), completed in 1659, and Shajare-i Turk (The genealogical tree of the Turks), which he left incomplete and which his son, Abu al-Muzaffar Anusha Muhammad Bahadur, completed in 1665.
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 61_Arab-before-Mohammad.pdf ARABIA BEFORE MUHAMMAD DE LACY O’LEARY, D.D. ---English 242
Table of Contents
Chapter-01:ARABIA AND THE ARABS (a) Area of Arab occupation (b) The Peninsula of Arabia (c) The Semitic Race (d) The Arab Community (e) Percolation of Culture into Arabia
Chapter-02: EGYPTIAN PENETRATION OF ARABIA (a) Nautical Enterprise of the Egyptians (b) The Land Route by Sinai (c) Egyptian Use of Incense
Chapter-03: MESOPOTAMIAN PENETRATION oF ARABIA (a) Early contact between Egypt and Mesopotamia (b)Magan and Me-lukh- Icha (c)The Assyrian conquest of Arabia. (d)Taima, Additional note to Ch. III: Hawilah and the gold supply
Chapter-04: THE ROUTE TO INDIA (a)The Sea Route to India (b) The Land Route to India (c)Alexander (d)The division of Alexander's Empire (e)The Ptolemies and the Red Sea (f)The Red Sea under Roman rule (g)Hippalus (h)The Nabataeans
Chapter-05: THE KINGDOM OF SOUTH ARABIA (a)Saba (b)Minaea (c)Qatabania and Yemen (d)Hadramaut (e)The Himyarites (f)Land Routes through Arabia
Chapter-06: ARABIC TRADE IN THE DAYS OF JUSTINIAN (a)The Age of Justinian (b)The Silk Trade (c)The Abyssinians and the Red Sea (d)The Plague
Chapter-07: CHRISTIANITY AND THE ARABS (a)The Greek element in Christianity (b)The Syriac Church (c)The Nestorian Church (d)The Monophysite Church (e) Christian Penetration of Arabia
Chapter-08: THE ARAB AND THE BORDER SETTLEMENTS (a)Conditions favouring the formation of border states (b)The Arabs of Hira (c)The Arabs of the Syrian frontier
Chapter-09: JEWISH PENETRATION OF ARABIA (a)Hellenistic elements in Judaism (b)Jews and Idumaeans (c)Jewish colonies in Arabia
Chapter-10: MECCA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTRE (a)The Hijaz Trade Route (b)The city of Mecca (c)The trading caravans
Chapter-11: EVIDENCE FROM PRE-ISLAMIC RELIGION (a)Evidence from social conditions (b)Possible evidence from Religion (c)Arabian Deities (d)The Pilgrimage (e)Infanticide
Chapter-12: BEGINNING OF THE PROPHET's MINISTRY (a)Political State of West Asia at the beginning of the Prophet’s ministry (b)Sources for the life of the Prophet


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 61_Ancient-History-Arabia.pdf HISTORY OF ARABIA ANDREW CRICHTON Vol-1English 414
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: INTRODUCTORY VIEW OF ARABIAN HISTORY Arabia —Peculiarities in its History and Manners —Interesting Aspect of the Country —Its Connexion with many Scenes and Events in Holy Writ —Distinguished as the Birthplace of Mohammed —Rapid and extensive Conquests of the Saracens —Instabihty and Downfall of their Empire —Their singular Passion for Learning —Munificent Endowment of Schools —Causes why their History has been little studied in Europe — Ignorance of their Language and Literature —Religious Prejudices against their Character —Efforts of Scholar's and Literary' Associations to illustrate Arabian History —Valuable Discoveries of recent Travellers —Unexplored Tracts in the Central Deserts —Prospects of further Discoveries —Increased Facilities for Modem Research —Reflections on the Preceding Survey
Chapter-02: DESCRIPTION OF ARABIA Name —Boundaries —General Features —Ancient Geographical Divisions —Arabia Petraa —Deserta —Felix —Modem Divisions —Hejaz— Tehama —Yemen —Hadramant -Oman -Lahsa or El-Hassa —Nejed —Peniosula of Sinai —Ancient Bed of the Jordan —Mounts Sinai and Horeb —View from their Top —Various Opinions as to their Identity —Climate of Arabia —Heat —Rains —Rivers —Winds —The Simoom —Arabian Seas —Persian Gull —Red Sea —Coral Banks —Passage of the Israelites —Dangerous Navigation —Steam Communication with India
Chapter-03: PRIMITIVE INHABITANTS OF ARABIA Obscurity of Arabian Antiquities -Want of written Records —Aborginal Tribes —The old extinct Arabs —The pure Arabs —The mixed or naturalized Arabs —Their Attention to their Genealogies —Birth and Expulsion of Ishmael —Building of the Kaaba or Temple at Mecca —Death of Ishmael —Genealogy of Mohammed -The Koreish -Reflections on the National Descent of the Arabs
Chapter-04: ANCIENT KINGS OF ARABIA Subdivision of Arabian History -Want of Written Records -Defective Information of the Greeks and Romans —Confused Chronology of the Arabs -The Kings of Yemen, or Dynasty of the Hamyarites -The Flood of El Arem, and Destruction of Mareb -Exploits of Abucarb -Revolution under Dunowas -Persecution of the Christians -Invasion and Conquest of Yemen by the Abyssinians -Expedmon of Abraha -War of the Elephant -Persians seize the Government of Yemen -The Kingdom of Hira or Irak -Kingdom of Gassan -The Nabathaean or Ishmaelite Arabs -Their Wars with the Jews and Romans -Expedition of Aelius Gallus -Perpetual Independence of the Arabs -Reflections on Gibbon's Skepticisin Scent Discovery of Petra -Description of its Magnificent Ruins
Chapter-05: CHARACTER, MANNERS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE ANCIENT ARABS Two Classes of Arabs-The Bedouins or Pastoral Tribes - Their Mode of Life -Their Love of Freedom -The Agricultural and Mercantile Classes -Commerce of the Ancient Arabs -Their early Intercourse with India -Wealth and Luxury of the Sabaeans -Exaggerated Accounts of the Greeks and Romans -Neither Gold nor Silver Mines in Aabia -Principal Articles of Trade - Frankincense - Myrrh - coffee -Vines- Sugar- Chief Marts on the coast- Caravans- Propensity of the Arabs for Robbery and War -Their Quarrels and Revenge -Their sacrecl Months -Their Hosptality -Fire-signals -Liberality of Hatim Tai- Fondness of the Bedouins for Eloquence and Poetry — The Moallakat, or Seven Poems of the Kaaba -Origin and Copiousness of the Araic Language -Learning and Morals of the Ancient Arabs —Their Division of Time —Their Superstitions —Charms — Sortilege —Divination by Arrows —Worship of the Stars and Planets —Popular Idols and Images —Planting of Christianity in Arabia —Labours of Origen —Bishops' Sees —Schisms and Heresies in the Arabian and Eastern Churches
Chapter-06: LIFE OF MOHAMMED Contradictory Views of Mohammed's Life and Character —His Birth and Education —Visits Syria as a Merchant —Marries Kadiiah —Affects an austere and retired Life —Proposes to reform Rehgion —Assumes the Title and Office of the Apostle of God —His first Converts —Announces publicly his prophetic Mission —His unfavourable Reception —His Proselytes increase —Miracle of spliting the Moon —The famous Night Journey to Heaven —His Secret League with the Medunian Converts —The Koreish resolve to put him to Death —His Escape and Flight to Medina —Proclaims a Holy War against the Infidels — Battle of Bedr —Defeat of the Moslems at Ohud —Quairrel with the Jews —Siege of Medina —Expedition to Mecca, and Truce with the Koreish — Siege and Capitulation of Khaibar —Attempt to poison the Prophet —Mohammed sends Letters and Ambassadors to Foreign Courts —Respect shown him by his Followers —Battle of Muta —Capture of Mecca by the Moslems —Demolition of Idols and Images -Battle of Honain —Surrender of Taif —Expedition to Tabuc —Increased Power and Success of Mohammed —His valedictory Pilgrimage to Mecca —His Sickness and Death —His personal Appearance —His private Character and Habits —His Wives and Concubines —His supposed Ignorance of Letters —Concluding Reflections
Chapter-07: THE KORAN The Koran —Its reputed Origin —Held in great Veneration by the Moslems —Its literary Merits —European Translations, "Du Ryer's, Maracci's, Sale's, Savary's —Sources whence its Doctrines were borrowed —Its leading Articles of Faith —Angels and Jin or Genii —Examination of the Dead by Munkir and Nakir —Intermediate Stale of the Soul —The Resurrection —Signs that precede it —Ceremonies of the Final Judgment —The Judicial Balance —The Bridge Al Sirat —Torments of the Wicked —Luxuries and Enjoyments of the Happy State —Women not excluded from the Mohammedan Paradise —Pre-destination — Prayer —The Mohammadan Sabbath —Ablutions —Circumcision —Alms —Fasting —Festivals —Prohibitions as to Food, Intoxicating Liquors, and Games of Chance —Civil and Criminal Code of the Moslems —Laws respecting Marriage —Theft —Courts and Officers of Justice —Traditions- Mohammedan Sects —The Sormees and Sheahs —Their Hatred of each other
Chapter-08: CONQUESTS OF THE SARACENS Disputes in choosing a Successor to Mohammed —Abu Beker elected Caliph —Ali refuses Submission —Turbulent State of the Empire —Invasion of Syria —Success of the Saracens - Capture of Bosra —Siege of Damascus —Battle of Aiznadin —Surrender of Damascus —Death of Abu Beker —Accession of Gmar —Pursuit and Plunder of the Damascene Exiles —Action at the Fair of Abyla—Battle of Yermouk —Siege and Capitulation of Jerusalem —Journey of the Caliph to that Capital —Surrender of Aleppo —The Castle besieged and taken by Stratagem —Reduction of Antioch —Flight of Heraclius — Subjugation of Syria and Palestine —Disgrace and Death of Khaled —Invasion of Persia —Battle of Cadesia —Occupation of Madayn -Immense Booty —Battle of Nahavund —Defeat and Death of Yezdijird —Final Conquest of Persia
Chapter-09: WARS OF THE CALIPHS Invasion of Egypt— Reduction of Farmah or Pelusium —Siege and Capitulation of Memphis —Surrender of Alexandria -Burning of the Library —Conquest and Description of Egypt- Assassination of Omar —Accession of Othman —Capture of Cyprus, Ancyra, and Rhodes —Invasion of Africa —Defeat of the Prefect Gregory —Murder of Othman —Accession of Ali — Political Disturbances —Battle of Seffein — Moawiyah, Founder of the Ommiadan Dynasty, usurps the Caliphate —Ali assassinated — Abdication of Hassan —Death of Moawiyah —Fate of Imam Hossein at Kerbela —The Ommiades or Caliphs of Damascus —Their Character —Expelled by the Family of Abbas, who seize the Throne
Chapter-10: CONQUEST OF AFRICA AND SPAIN Renewal of the War in Africa —Victories of Akbah —Founding of Cairoan —Revolt of the Africans —Reduction of Carthage —Defeat of the Saracens by the Moors —Success of Musa —Expulsion of the Greeks and final Subjugation of Africa —Invasion of Spain by Tarik —Defeat of the Goths —Rapid Conquests of the Moslems —Surrender of Cordova, Seville, and Toledo —Reduction of the Country as far as the Bay of Biscay —Recovery of Seville —Descent into Langnedoc —Preparations of the Saracens to subdue Europe —Recall and Disgrace of Musa —Arabian Settlers in Spain —Progress of the Saracens in France —Defeat of Eudes —Victory by Charles Martel at Tours —Expulsion of the Saracens from France —Success of the Moslems in the East —Sieges of Constantinople —Repulse of the Arabs —Their Conquests beyond the Oxus —Surrender of Samarcand —Invasion of India —Extent of the Mohammedan Empire


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 49_Feudalism-Theocracy-V09.pdf THE AGE OF FEUDALISM AND THEOCRACY HANS PRUTZ, PH.D. V9English 0453
Table of Contents
Chapter-02-09: FREDERICK I. BARBAROSSA (A.D. 1152 - 1190)


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 49_The-Road-to-Serfdom.pdf THE ROAD TO SERFDOM FRIEDRICH A. HAYEK SixthEnglish 254
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: The Abandoned Road
Chapter-02: The Great Utopia
Chapter-03: Individualism and Collectivism
Chapter-04: The "Inevitability" of Planning
Chapter-05: Planning and Democracy
Chapter-06: Planning and the Rule of Law
Chapter-07: Economic Control and Totalitarianism
Chapter-08: Who, Whom?
Chapter-09: Security and Freedom
Chapter-10: Why the Worst Get on Top
Chapter-11: The End of Truth
Chapter-12: The Socialist Roots or Naziism
Chapter-13: The Totalitarians in Our Midst
Chapter-14: Material Conditions and Ideal Ends
Chapter-15: The Prospects of International Order
Chapter-16: Conclusion


African Slaver Captain Canot

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Slavery as ancient as authentic history —Slavery in Patriarchal times, Slavery among the Jews —Two different classes —Status of the Hebrew servant —Of the Heathen slave —Negro slaves —Value of slaves —Public and private slaves —Manumission —Slavery in the time of our Saviour —Jewish disregard of the law of release
Chapter-02: Slavery in Egypt —Evidence of its early existence —Negro slaves—Sources of Egyptian slavery —Prejudice of color —Eunuchs —Rigorous treatment —Transition to castes —System of castes —Present condition of laboring classes —Negro and other slaves in Egypt at the present day
Chapter-03: Slavery in India —Castes —Sources of slavery —Unlimited power of the master — Manumission - Mohammedan slavery —Rules regulating it —Emancipation —Effect of British rule as to slavery —Negro slaves —Slave -trade with Africa on Eastern coast —Treatment of slaves —Eunuchs —Abolition of slavery —Its effects
Chapter-04: Slavery in the East —In Assyria —Among the Medes and Persians —Unlimited power of master —Revolts —Customs —In other countries —In China —Early existence in China —Sources of slavery —Hereditary slavery —Treatment of slaves —Enfranchisement —Effect of Grecian and Roman conquest —Of Mussulman rule —Negro slaves — Slave-trade —Japanese slavery —Classes distinguished by hair-pins
Chapter-05: Slavery in Greece —Apparent paradox —Larly existence — Frequent reference in its literature —Ante-Hellenic period —Transferred to their gods —Mercury —God of the slave —Sources of slavery —Enslavement of debtors —Relief law of Solon —Enslavement of the Heathen —Slave-stealing expeditions —The swineherd Eumzus— Piracy — Hereditary slavery —Effect of concubinage —Metics —In expiation of crime —Agrestic and domestic slaves —Origin of each —The Helots —Their treatment — The Penestze of Thessaly —The Klarote of Crete —Public and domestic slaves —Slave-markets —Negro slaves— Value of slaves —‘White’ slaves not favorites —Eunuchs —Number of slaves— Profitableness— Fugitives— Branding — Treaties as to fugitives —Insurance against escapes —Condition of slaves —Familiarity with master —Fidelity —Feasts and holidays —Affection of masters —Protection of the law —Places of refuge —Homicide —Marriage relation —Appearance in court, as a suitor, as a witness — Peculium— Sale —Labor of slaves —Laws more rigid than customs —Punishment of slaves —Manumission —Effect thereof
Chapter-06: Slavery in Rome —Very partial in early days —The elements of slavery —Paternal power —Exposure of children —Sale for debt —Difference between these and ordinary slaves —Children of debtor —Its final abrogation —Sale for crime —Conquest —Slave-dealers —Piracy —Taxation — Voluntary slavery —Source of revenue —Slave-marts— Customs incident to the sales —Terms of sale —Frauds of slave-traders —Characteristics of different nations —Slavedealing considered degrading —Negro slaves —Their early introduction —Originally all personal slaves —Public and private slaves —The difference in their condition —Treatment of convict-slaves —Rustic and city slaves —Distinctions from occupations —Number of slaves —Large number of domestics —Their names —The dotalis, or confidential slave —Preference for negroes —The literary slaves — Gladiators— Insurrections — Prices of slaves— Legal status— Disabilities —Master’s power and rights —Constitution of Antonine —Cruel treatment —General treatment —Discussions of moralists —Union with master in feasts —Peculium —Their riches —Places of refuge —Fugitives— Feasts and holidays —Intimate relation between master and slave —Instances of cruelty —Punishments of slaves —Protection of master’s life —Manumission —Condition of freedmen —Duty to patron —Libertini, Liberti, and Ingenui —Effect of manumission as to citizenship— Dedititii —Instances of freedmen acquiring distinction —Extinction of slavery in Rome —Its causes —Effect of Christianity —Discussion of slavery by Roman moralists —Later opinions,
Chapter-07: Slavery in Europe in middle ages —Universal prevalence —Difficulty of distinguishing between freemen and slaves —Causes and sources of slavery —Not the result of Roman conquest —Extended sometimes to entire districts —Aerefficit servilem statum —Wales infected —Names of slaves in different states —Slavery in Germany —Mild in its character originally —Familiar intercourse —Custom of burning slaves on funeral pyre —More rigorous subsequently — Fugitives —Extent of master’s power —Distinction in dress and ornaments —Gaming a source of slavery —Punishments of slaves —Different from those of freemen —Not allowed as witnesses —Marriage relation —Excluded from offices —Punishment of fugitives, and those aiding them —Delivery of fugitives —Manumission —Effect thereof —Amelioration of condition of German slaves —Causes assigned —Effect of Crusades —Of Christianity —Teachings of fathers —Practice of the Church —Condition of German peasantry at the present day —Slavery in Gaul—Extent of feudal system —Of frequent conquests —Condition of slaves —Opinion of Gibbon —Of Michelet —Condition of Rustic serf —Treatment by masters —Sales —Mainmorte —Origin of —Slaves of religious houses —Disposition of the children of slaves —Right of relibation —Torture —Insurrections —The Bajaudan conspiracy —The Jacquerte —Names of slaves —Slave-trade —Enfranchisement of serfs —Continuation of feudal system —Slavery in Sicily —Italy and Venice —In Poland —In Russia —Condition of Russian slaves —Emancipation— Effects —Slavery in Turkey —Present condition of the serfs of Europe —Compared with slavery —Opinion of Michaelis
Chapter-08: Slavery in Great Britain —But little known of the social system of ancient Britons —Slavery after Roman invasion —Effect of Saxon conquest —Sources of slavery —Condition of slave —Power of master over life —Sale —Excluded from the Courts as suitor or witness —Branding and yoking —Brazen collars —Holidays allowed them — Working on Sabbath —Harboring fugitives —Prices of slaves —Slave-trade at Bristol —Peculium —Punishments of slaves —Manumission —Effect of manumission —Amelioration of slavery, and transition to villanage —Base villanage only modified slavery —Condition of villain — Transition to privileged villanage —Relics of this at present day—Statutes to compel laborers to work —Slavery in Scotland —Colliers and salters —Slavery in Ireland —Their voluntary relinquishment of it —Present condition of laboring classes in Britain —The problem of misery
Chapter-09: Negro slavery and slave-trade—Harly existence of negro slavery —Its cruelties in their native land —Commencement of slave-trade in A. D. 1899 —Certainly in A.D. 1442 —Early horrors of the traffic —Success of early expeditions —Missionary pretext —Impetus to trade from discovery of America —Religious zeal the avowed object of each —lInstructions to Columbus —Enslavement of Indians —Their sufferings and extinction— Recommendation of Las Casas —Negroes introduced in America in A. D. 1501 —First patent granted to individuals by Charles V —Decrease in Indian population of Hispaniola —Demand for negroes —Their superiority as slaves —Cardinal Ximenes and the trade —Early revolt of negroes —English participation in the trade —Introduction of negroes into England —Sir John Hawkins —Partnership with Queen Elizabeth —Cruelty toward negroes —Chartered companies —Royal African Company —The King a partner —Its history —Negroes declared 'merchandise' —Participation of France —Assientoes —The Spanish King and British Queen partners —Contents of the Treaty —Provisions for transportation —Sanitary regulations —War of A.D. 1789 —Acts of Parliament regulating and encouraging the trade —Negro slaves in England —The Portuguese and Dutch participation in the trade —Bounties—Introduction of negro slaves in Virginia (A. D. 1620) —Introduction of cotton-plant (A. D. 1621) —Participation of New England —Rules regulating the trade —Massachusetts laws —Slavery in Connecticut —In Rhode Island —In New Amsterdam —In New Netherlands —Bounty offered in New Jersey —Slavery in Pennsylvania —In Delaware—In North Carolina —In South Carolina —Georgia —Settled as a free colony —History of introduction of slavery —Character of negroes introduced into America —Impression as to the effect of baptism —Removal of this idea —Estimated number imported —Protest of the Colonies —Conduct of Britain —Action of Congress of 1776 —Constitutional restriction to A. D. 1808 —Action of Georgia in 1798 —Number of negroes exported from Africa —Effect of the trade on Africa —Character of tribes exported — "The horrors of the middle passage" —Sanitary provisions of British Parliament —Predominance of males among the slaves —Prices —Profits —Condition of negroes imported —Their nature rebellious —Cruel treatment in West Indies —Wars of the Maroons —Treatment by the American colonists —Comparison with the West India planters —Results in the increase of the slave population in the Colonies —Introduction of negroes in Spain, England, and France —Number in England in 1775 —Trade on eastern coast of Africa— Its origin and present state
Chapter-10: The abolition of the slave-trade —Protests of literary men against the trade —Of the Quakers —Of the American Colonies— Opposition of Britain— Action of United States —The struggle in Great Britain —Final abolition in AD 1807 —Suggestion as to real cause —Action of French government —Of Spain —Quintuple treaty of 1841 —Treaty with Netherlands and Brazil —Declared piracy by United States and Britain —Ilicit trade —Its character and effects —Its markets
Chapter-11: Abolition of slavery in some of the United States —Originated in America —War of Revolution fought on a principle —The Declaration of Independence —The result of the struggle for political liberty —Feeling of leading men —In Virginia —Ordinance of 1787 —Small number of slaves in North and East —Abolition in Vermont —Massachusetts —New Hampshire —Rhode Island —Connecticut —Pennsylvania —New York —New Jersey —Difficulty of emancipation in the South —Result of agitation
Chapter-12: Abolition in Hayti —Free negroes —The cry of the French Revolution, "Liberty and Equality" —Three parties in Hayti—Dissensions among them —Prejudice against mulattoes —Decree of 8th March, 1790 —Prejudice of color —Insurrection of 24th Aug. 1791 —Decree of 15th May, 1791 —War between whites and mulattoes —Treaty — Cruel treatment of the armed slaves Fickle policy of National Assembly —Results —Renewed civil war —Decree of 4th April, 1792 —Commissioners —Offer to deliver the island to the English —Renewal of hostilities —Voluntary exile of the whites —War between France and Spain —Slaves enrolled in Spanish army —Liberty proclaimed to all slaves who would join the army of the Republic —Six towns delivered to the English —Effect of yellow fever —Decree of 4th Feb. 1794, abolishing slavery —Agricultural regulations —Toussaint —His history —Rigaud —Their dissension —Prejudice of mulattoes against the blacks —Commencement of war between blacks and mulattoes —Triumph of the blacks —Confirmation of Toussaint by Consuls —Central Assembly —The Constitution —Provisions to enforce labor —Idleness punished with death —Peace of Amiens —Efforts of Napoleon to reconquer Hayti —Mission of Le Clere —Firmness of Toussaint —Strategy of Le Clerc —Death of Toussaint —Civil war —Death of Le Clerc —Rochambeau —His fatal policy —Success of Dessalines —Declaration of independence —Massacre of the whites—Dessalines declared emperor —His assassination —Civil war between the mulattoes and blacks —Petion and Christophe —Their variant courses, and the results —President Boyer —Revolt of Spanish colony —Conquest by Boyer — independence of Hayti acknowledged —The terms
Chapter-13: Abolition of slavery by Great Britain —Larly efforts of Clarkson and others —Compromise measures —Liberation of "Crown slaves" —Insurrection among the slaves —Gradual Emancipation Act of 1883 —Apprentice system —Compensation to masters —Failure of apprentice system —Causes alleged—Complete abolition — Difference between slavery in West Indies and in United States —Abolition by Sweden and Denmark —Their ameliorating system —Abolition in French West Indies —The history of the struggle —Report of Duc de Broglie —The law of 18th July, 1843 —Its provisions —The law of 19th July, 1845 —Their failure —Alleged causes —Subsequent agitation —Summary and unjust action of the Republic of 1848 —Final abolition in French West Indies
Chapter-14: The effects of abolition —Tendency of the negro to return to barbarism —Sad effects in St. Domingo —The reasons assigned: by emancipationists —The anticipated results from a peaceable and gradual emancipation —Effects in British colonies —Investigations by Committees of Parliament —Importation of Coolies and negro apprentices— Sad results to the negro, physically, intellectually, and morally —The end not yet seen —Guiana — Southern Africa and Mauritius —Effects of emancipation in other Kuropean colonies
Chapter-15: Effects of abolition in United States—Substantially the same to the negro as in other countries —Effect on the State different —Reasons therefor —The physical, intellectual, and moral condition of the freed negroes —Their civil and political status —Comparison with slaves of the South, as to crime, mortality, and disease
Chapter-16: Slavery in South America —Colored races in Brazil —No prejudice of color there —Character of slaves and free negroes —Colored races in New Granada —Emancipation Acts —Effects disastrous —Slaves of Chili and Peru —Numbers small, and well treated —In La Plata —Manumission during the Revolution
Chapter-17: Slavery in the United States —First Abolition Society in 1787 —Fanaticism —Contests in the National Assembly —The present state of the question —The peaceable and quiet conduct of the slaves in the United States —No Maroons, and but one insurrection —Manumissions frequent —Checks on domestic manumission —Prohibitions of non-slaveholding States to the ingress of free negroes —Liberia the only asylum of the free negro —Mild treatment of slaves —Their rapid increase —Their longevity —Their intellectual improvement —Their moral development —Slavery a missionary agent —Slavery viewed as a political institution —Its benefits and evils as such —Viewed as a social relation —Its benefits and evils as such —The future destiny of the slaves of America
Chapter-18: African colonization —Sierra Leone an admitted failure —Inauguration of the scheme in America —Cordial co-operation of the philanthropists of the entire Union —Liberia the child of philanthropy and religion —Its history prior to its independence —The material aid from the British and French Governments —From America —Its present condition —Census of 1845 —Statistics extracted from it and the reports of the American Colonization Society —The physical, intellectual, and moral condition of the Liberians —The success of the scheme problematical —Doubts expressed
Appendix-Ch-1: What is slavery; and its foundation in the natural law
Appendix-Ch-2: Negro slavery viewed in the light of Divine Revelation


African Slaver Inspection

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 61_Arabia-Cradle-of-Islam.pdf Arabia: Cradle of Islam Rev. S. M. Zwemer, F.R.G.S. --- English 303
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: THE NEGLECTED PENINSULA Arabia the centre of Moslem world —Its boundaries —The coast —Physical characteristics —Clmate —Water-supply —Geology —The Wadys —Mountains—Deserts
Chapter-02: THE GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS OF ARABIA Natural divisions —Provinces —Political geography —Important flora and fauna —Population
Chapter-03: THE HOLY LAND OF ARABIA — MECCA Its boundness —Sacredness —European travellers —Jiddah —Its bombardment —The pilgrimage —Mecca —Its location —Watersupply —Governor —The Kaaba —The Black Stone —Zemzem —Duty of pilgrimage —The pilgrims —The day of sacrifice —The certificate —Character of Meccans —Temporary marriages —Superstitions —Mishkash —Schools of Mecca —Course of study
Chapter-04: THE HOLY LAND OF ARABIA — MEDINA Taif —Heathen idols —The road to Medina —Sanctity of Medina —The prophet’s mosque —Was Mohammed buried there? — The five tombs —Prayer for Fatima —Living on the pilgrims —Character of people — Vanbo —Importance of Mecca to Islam
Chapter-05: ADEN AND AN INLAND JOURNEY The gateways to Arabia Felix - Aden —Its ancient history —Fortifications —Tanks —Divisions —Population —Journey inland —Wahat —The vegetation of Yemen —A Turkish customhouse —The storm in the wady —Taiz —The story of the books
Chapter-06: YEMEN: THE SWITZERLAND OF ARABIA The Jews of Yemen —From Taiz to Ibb and Yerim —Beauty of scenery — Climate —Ali’s footprint —Damar —Sana —Commerce and manufactures —Roda —From Sana to the coast —The terrace of Yemen - Sukel Khamis —Menakha —Bajil —Hodeidah
Chapter-07: THE UNEXPLORED REGION OF HADRAMAUT Von Wrede’s travels —Halévy —Mr. and Mrs. Bent’s journeys —Makalla —Incense-trade —The castles and palaces —Shibam —Shehr and its ruler —Hadramaut and the Indian archipelago
Chapter-08: MUSCAT AND THE COASTLANDS OF OMAN Boundaries — Population — Government Muscat Heat —The forts —The town —The gardens —Trade —The coast of Oman -The pirate-coast —The Batma —Sib, Barka, Sohar —From Muscat to Ras-el-Had —Sur—Caiter’s exploiation —The Mahrah and Gharah tribes —Frankincense
Chapter-09: THE LAND OF THE CAMEL “The mother of the camel’! —Importance of the camel to Arabia — radition as to creation —Species —The diomedaiy —An Illustration of design —Products of the camel —Characteristics —The interior of Oman —Chief authorities —Fertility —Caravan routes —Peter Zwemer’s journey —Jebel Achdar
Chapter-10: THE PEARL ISLANDS OF THE GULF Ancient history of Bahrem —Origin of name —Population —Menamah —The fresh-water springs —The pearl-fisheries —Superstitions about pearls —Value and export —Method of diving —Boats —Apparatus —Dangers to the divers —Mother-of pearl —Other manufactures —Ruins at Ali —The climate —Political history —English protection
Chapter-11: THE EASTERN THRESHOLD OF ARABIA The province of Hassa —Katar —The Route Inland —Ojeir —Journey to Hofhoof —The two curses of agriculture —The capital of Hassa —Plan of the town —Its manufactures —Curious coinage —The government of Hassa —Katif —Its unhealthfulness
Chapter-12: THE RIVER-COUNTRY AND THE DATE-PALM The cradle of the race —Boundaries of Mesopotamia —The Tigris-Euphrates —Meadow lands —The palms —Their beauty — Fruitfulness — Usefulness - Varieties of dates —Value —Other pioducts —Population —Provinces and districts —The government
Chapter-13: THE CITIES AND VILLAGES OF TURKISH-ARABIA Kuweit —Fao—Aboo Hassib —Busrah —The niver navigation —A journey —Kurna —Ezra’s tomb —Amara —The tomb of the barber —The arch of Ctesiphon —Bagdad, past and present —Population —Trade—Kelleks
Chapter-14: A Journey Down THE EUPHRATES Journey to Hillah —The route —Kerbela —Down the Euphrates —Diwaniyeh —The soldier-guard —Amphibious Arabs —Samawa —Ya Ali, Ya Hassan —Nasariya —Ur —The end of our journey —The future of Mesopotamia
Chapter-15: THE INTERIOR — KNOWN AND UNKNOWN What it includes —Its four divisions —(1)“The empty quarter” —Ignorance of this part of Arabia —(2)Nejran —The Dauasir valley and other wadys —Halevy’s travels —Aflaj —The Roman expedition to Neyran —(3)Nejd— Its proper lmits —The zephyrs of Neyd —Soil —Vegetation —Animals —The ostrich — The horse—The chief authorities on this part of Arabia —The population of Nejd —The character of government —Intercourse with Mesopotamia —Chief cities —Hail —Riad —(4)Jebel Shammar —The Bedouin-tribes —Division —Character and customs —Robbery —Unversal poverty
Chapter-16:“THE TIME OF IGNORANCE” Why so-called —The golden age of literature —The influence of Christianity and Judaism —Tribal conslitution of society —Commerce —Incense —Foreign invasions —Political commotion —The condition of women —Female infanticide —The veil —Rights of women —Marriage choice —Polygamy and Polyandry —Two kinds of marriage —Did Islam elevate woman? —Writing in “the days of ignorance" —Poetry —Mohammed’s opinion of poets —The religions —Sabeanism —The Pantheon at Mecca —Jinn —Totemism —Tattooing —Names of idols —Allah—Decay of idolatry —The Hanifs
Chapter-17: ISLAM IN ITS CRADLE —THE MOSLEM’S GOD Different views —Carlyle —Hugh Broughton —Borrowed elements of Islam —The God of Islam —Palgrave’s portrait —Attributes of God —What God is not —Analysis of Islam —Borrowed elements of Islam
Chapter-18: THE PROPHET AND HIS Book The prophet of Islam —Birth of Mohammed —His environment —Factors that helped to make the man —Political, religious and family factor —Khadyah —Mohammed’s appearance, mind and character —His transgression of law —His sensuality —His murders —Expeditions —Mohammed, as he became through tradition —His glories, favor and power as an intercessor —How Moslems regard the Koran —Its character according to Dr. Post, Goethe and Noldeke —Its names —Contents —Origin —Recension —Its beauties —Its defects —Its omissions
Chapter-19: THE WAHABI RULERS AND REFORMERS The story of past century —The Wahabis —Character of teaching -The preacher and the sword —Taking of Mecca and Medina —Kerbela —Mohammed Ali —The Hejaz campaign —Ghalye —Turkish cruelty —English expedition —Peace —The Wahab dynasty —Abdullah bin Rashid —Rise of Nejd kingdom -Character of rule —Hail conquers Riad
Chapter-20: THE RULERS OF OMAN Oman rulers —Seyid Said —Feysul bin Tarka —The rebels take Muscat —Arab warfare —European diplomacy
Chapter-21: THE Story OF THE TURKS IN ARABIA Hejaz —The Sherifs of Mecca —Othman Pasha —Threats to assassinate him —Turkish troops in Asir —Losses —The conquest of Yemen —Turkish rule —Rebellions —The rebellion of 1892 —Bagdad, Busrah and Hassa —Taxes —The Turks and Bedouins —The army —Character of rule
Chapter-22: British INFLUENCE IN ARABIA British possessions —Aden—Socotra —Perim —Konin Muna islands —Bahiein —Her naval supremacy —In the Gulf —German testimony —Survey of coasts —Telegraph and posts —Slavetrade —Commerce —British India S. N. Co —Gulf trade —The rupee —Tiade of Aden —Overland railway —Treaties with tribes —The Trucial League —England in Oman —Aden —Makalla —Method of protection —British consuls and agents
Chapter-23: PRESENT POLITICS IN ARABIA Hejaz —Future of Yemen —France in Oman —Russia in the Gulf —The Tigris-Euphrates Valley —The greater kingdom —God’s providence in history
Chapter-24: THE ARABIC LANGUAGE Wide extent —Its character —Renan’s opinion —The Semitic family —Their original home —The two theorles —Table of the group —The influence of the Koran on the Arabic language —Koran Arabic not pure —Origin of alphabet —Cufic —Caligraphy as an art —Difficulty and beauty of Arabic speech —Its purity —Literature —Difficulty of pronunciation —Of its grammar —Keith Falconer’s testimony
Chapter-25: THE LITERATURE OF THE ARABS Division of arts literature —The seven poems —The Koran —Al Harm —Its beauty and variety —Arabic poetry in general —Influence of Arabic and other languages —English influence on the Arabic —The Arabic Bible and a Christian literature
Chapter-26:The ARAB Origin of tribes —Two theories —Yememite and Maadite —The caravan routes —Bedouins and townsmen —Clark’s classification —Genealogies —Tribal names —Character of Arabs —Influence of neighbors —Their physique —Then aristocracy —Intolerance —Speech —Oaths —Robbery —Privilege of sanctuary —Generosity —Blood-revenge —Childhood —Fueside talk —Marriage among Bedouins —Position of women —Four witnesses —Doughty— Burckhaidt— Lady Ann Blunt— Hurgronje— Woman despised—The kinds of dwelling—Tents and houses —Dress —The staple foods —Coffee, tobacco and locusts
Chapter-27: ARABIAN ARTS AND SCIENCES Music of the Arabs— War chants -Instruments of music —Songs —Kaseedahs in Yemen —Mecca chants —Science of Athar and Wasm —Tracking camels —Tribal marks —Medical knowledge of the Arabs — Diseases — Remedies — A presciiption — The Koran’s panacea -A Mecca M. D —Amulets —Superstitions
Chapter-28: THE STAR-WORSHIPPERS OF MESOPOTAMIA Where they live -Their peculiar religion —Their language —Literature —A prayei-meeting of the Star Worshippers —Strange ceremonies —The dogmas —Gnostic ideas —Priesthood —Baptisms —Babylonian origin
Chapter-29: EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN ARABIA Pentecost —Paul’s journey —The Arabs and the Romans —Christian tribes of the North —-Mavia—Naaman’s edict —Christianity in Yemen —Character of Oriental Christianity —The Collytidians — Theophilus - Nejian converts — Martyrs —Abraha, king of Yemen —Marching to Mecca —The defeat —End of early Christianity —The record of the rocks
Chapter-30: THE DAWN OF MODERN ARABIAN MISSIONS Raymond Lull —Henry Martyn —Why the Moslem world was neglected —Claudius Buchanan’s sermon —The Syrian missions — Doctor Van Dyck —His Bible translation —Henry Martyn, the ploneer —His Arabian assistant —Visit to Muscat— His Arabic version —Anthony N Groves —Dr. John Wilson of Bombay —The Bible Society —Opening of doors —Mayjor-General Haig’s jounneys —Arabia open —Dr. and Mrs. Haipur and the C.M S. —A call to prayer —Bagdad occupied —The present work —Missionary Journeys to the Jews —William Lethaby at Kerak —The North Africa mission among the nomads —Samuel Van Tassel —The Christian Missionary Alliance —Mackay’s appeal from Uganda —The response
Chapter-31: ION KEITH FALCONER AND THE ADEN MISSION Keith Falconer’s character —Education —At Cambridge —Mission work —His “eccentitcity” —Leipzig and Assiut —How he came to go to Arabia —His first visit —Plans for the interior —His second voyage to Aden —Dwelling —Illness —Death —The influence of his life —The mission at Sheikh Othman.
Chapter-32: BisHop FRENCH THE VETERAN MISSIONARY TO MUSCAT "The most distinguished of all C. M. S missionaries" —Responds to Mackay’s appeal —His character —His letters from Muscat —His plans for the interior —Death —The grave.
Chapter-33: THE AMERICAN ARABIAN MISSION Its origin —The student band —The first plan —Laid before the church —Organization —The Missionary Hymn —James Cantine —Syria —Cairo —Aden —Kamil —Journeys of exploration to the Gulf and Sana —Busrah —Dr C E, Riggs —Death of Kamil —Opposition from government —Home administration - Bahrein occupied —Lanes of work —Muscat —Journey through Yemen —The mission transferred to the Reformed Church — Troubles at Muscat and Busrah —Dr. Worrall —Journeys in Oman —Scuipture-sales —First-fruits —Reinforcements.
Chapter-34: In MEMORIAM Peter John Zwemer —George E. Stone.
Chapter-35: PROBLEMS OF THE ARABIAN FIELD The general problem of missions to Moslems —The Arabian problem —What part of Arabia is accesstble —Turkish Arabia —Its accessibility —Limitations —The accessibility of independent Arabia —Climate —Moslem fanaticism —English influence —IJihtteracy-The Bedouins —The present missionary force —Its utter inadequacy —Methods of work —Medical missions —Schools —Work for women —Colportage —Preaching —Controversy —What should be its character —The attitude of the Moslem mind —Fate of converts —Thoughtless and thoughtful Moslems —The Bible as dynamite —The right men for the work.
Chapter-36: THE OUTLOOK For MISSIONS TO MOSLEMS Two views of work for Moslems —Christian fatalism —Results in Moslem lands —India —Persia —Constantinople —Sumatra and Java —Other signs of progress —The significance of persecution —Character of converts —Promise of God for victory over Islam —Christ or Mohammed —Missionary promises of the Old Testament —The Rock of Jesus’ Sonship —Special promises for Arabia —Hagar and Ishmael —The prayer of Abraham —The sign of the covenant with Ishmael —The third revelation of God’s love —The sons of Ishmael —Kedar and Nebaioth— The promises —Seba and Sheba —The spritual boundaries of Arabia —Da Costa’s poem —Faith like Abraham —O that Ishmael might live before thee. APPENDIX I—CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE II—TRIBES of NORTH ARABIA III—AN ARABIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
66_Laws-Islamic-Cult 66_Khutbat-e-Muharram-Hin.pdf खुतवाते मुहर्रम मुफ़्ती जलालुद्दीन अहमद अमजदि First Hindi 306
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: मर्तबे शहादत
Chapter-02: विसाल रसूले अकरम
Chapter-03: हज़रत अबू बकर सिद्दीक़
Chapter-04: हज़रत उमड़ फारूख
Chapter-05: हज़रत उस्माने गनी
Chapter-06: हज़रत अली मुर्तज़ा
Chapter-07: फज़ाइल अहले बैत
Chapter-08: मनाक़िबे अहले बैत
Chapter-09: हज़रत फातिमा
Chapter-10: करबला का खुनी मंजर

Review:Some chapters have been omitted and not presented here. यह पुस्तक मनुष्यों का सटीक विवरण और श्रेणी देती है: मुसलमान और काफिर। यह बहुत स्पष्ट रूप से बताता है कि धर्मत्यागियों को जीने का कोई अधिकार नहीं है। और यह आगे मुसलमानों के भीतर पदानुक्रम देता है। पुस्तक सादे हिंदी/उर्दू में लिखी गई है और अनुवाद त्रुटि और गलत व्याख्याओं पर संदेह करने की कोई जगह नहीं है।This book gives accurate description and category of humans: Muslims and Kafir. It tells very clearly that the apostates has no right to live and goes on to give the hierarchy within muslims. The book is written in plain hindi/urdu and there is no space to doubt the translation error and misinterpretions.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 62_Islam-and-Christianity.pdf ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY MUHAMMAD AMIR ALAM --- English 270
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: The Doctrine of Original Sin of Man
Chapter-02: The Doctrine of Vicarious Atonement
Chapter-03: The Doctrine of Sonship of Jesus Christ
Chapter-04: The God-head —The Doctrine of Trinity
Chapter-05: The Exclusiveness of Christianity Compared to the Universality of Islam
Chapter-06: Conclusion


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-07: AFRICA: THE LIQUOR QUESTION (continued)

Review: Whatever be the intent of the author, like almost all the Christian writers - this author also relied on showing supremacy of Christian faith over rest of the faiths. There are phrases used such as "...heathen bowing down to wood and stone, have sought to release the pagan from the cruel customs of his vitiated religion...", "... degenerated to Indian level...", "...semi-savages of Indian jungles..", "The five millions of indigenous Indian Christians are very much more potent, politically and culturally, than the 70,000,000 of Muhammadarns and the 200,000,000 of Hindus."

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Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: MEDITERRANEAN, MALAY, AND MUHAMMADAN INVADERS The origin of African man —Distribution of native races three thousand years ago —Bantu invasion of South Africa —The Phoenicians— Carthage —Hanno’s voyage —Greeks in Cyrenaica and Egypt —Persians in Egypt —Rome replaces Carthage —Malay invasions of Madagascar — Vandals in North Africa —Byzantine Greeks —Muhammadan invasions of North Africa in the seventh century —Berber dynasties which arose therefrom —Renewed Arab invasions —The Almoravide dynasty from the Niger —succeeded by the Almohades —Counter attacks of Portugal and Spain —Moorish conquests in Nigeria —Turkish intervention in North Africa —Arab settlements on Zanzibar coast
Chapter-02: THE PORTUGUESE IN AFRICA Origin of the State of Portugal —Prince Henry the Navigator —Portuguese explorations of West African coast —Rounding of Cape of Good Hope —East African conquests —Portuguese in Abyssinia —in the Congo Kingdom —in Angola —Paulo Diaz —The benefits the Portuguese conferred on Africa —Their struggles with the Dutch —Progress of their rule in West Africa —in East Africa —Monomotapa —Dr Lacerda e Almeida —Livingstone’s journeys —Present state of Mocambique— Delagoa Bay —Beira —Mouzinho de Albuquerque —Mogambique ComPany
Chapter-03: SPANISH AFRICA Spain's North African establishments in the 16th century —The Moorish Pirates —Gradual loss of Spanish possessions in Algeria and Tunis— Canary Islands — Fernando Po and Corisco
Chapter-04: THE DUTCH IN AFRICA Dutch traders on the West Coast —Dutch settle at the Cape of Good Hope —St Helena —Mauritius —The Netherland East India Co. —Huguenot colonists —Governor Tulbagh —extensions of Dutch influence —First hostile British expedition under Commodore Johnstone —First Dutch war with the Kaffirs —First British occupation of the Cape of Good Hope —Interregnum of Dutch rule —British finally annex Cape Colony —Their rulers come into conflict with the sentiments of the Dutch colonists (Boers) —The Boer Treks —Origin of Transvaal and Orange Free State republics —Annexation and revolt of Transvaal —Sir Charles Warren’s expedition —Johannesburg, the Outlanders, and Jameson’s raid —Possible future of Dutch states
Chapter-05: THE SLAVE TRADE Negro predisposition for slavery —Slave trade in the Roman world, in Muhammadan countries and India —Great development consequent on the exploitation of America —English slave traders —English Anti-Slavery movement —Author’s own experiences of slave trade —Steps taken by various European countries to abolish Slave Trade —By Great Britain in particular —Rev. S, W. Koelle —Zanzibar slave trade —Ethics of slavery —A word of warning to the Negro
Chapter-06: THE BRITISH IN AFRICA, I (West Coast, Morocco, North-Central.) on, The English in West Africa —The Gambia —Sierra Leone -Gold Coast -Lagos —Niger Delta —Mr E. H. Hewett —Nigeria —Sir G. Taubman Goldie —Great Britain and Tripoli —and Morocco
Chapter-07: THE FRENCH IN WEST AND NORTH AFRICA The Dieppe adventurers —Jannequin de Rochefort and the Senegal —Brije and the foundation of the colony of Senegal —Campagnon —Progress of French rule over Senegambia —Advance to the Niger -*Samori and Ahmadu —Timbuktu —Binger and the Ivory Coast —Samori —Timbuktu definitely occupied —Busa and the Anglo -French Convention -France and Egypt —Algiers —Development of Algeria —Tunis —The Sahara —The Gaboon —French Congo —The Shari and Ubangi —French designs on Nileland —The convention with Abyssinia —Obok and Somaliland
Chapter-08: CHRISTIAN MISSIONS Their work the antithesis to the slave trade —Portuguese missions to Congoland, to the Zambezi, to Abyssinia —First Protestant missions— —Church Missionary Society —Dr. Krapf —Wesleyans, Methodists, Society for Propagation of the Gospel —Roman Catholic missions to Algeria, Congoland, the Nile —Cardinal Lavigerie ~The ‘White Fathers’ —The Jesuits on the Zambezi —in Madagascar —The London Missionary Society —Swiss and German Protestant Missions —French Evangelical Missions —Presbyterian (Scotch) Missions —Norwegian and American Missions —Linguistic work of latter —Universities’ Mission —Plymouth Brethren —Baptists —North African Mission— Zambezi Industrial Mission —Abyssinian Christianity
Chapter-09: THE BRITISH IN AFRICA: II (South and South - Central.) Great Britain’s seizure of the Cape of Good Hope —Permanent establishment there —Abolition of slavery —Dutch grievances —Kaffir Wars — Lord Glenelg and intervention of Downing Street —Boer Treks— ponsible government in Cape Colony —Kaffir delusions as to expected resurrection of their forefathers and expulsion of English— St Helena, Ascension and Tristan d’Acunha —Discovery of diamonds in Grikwaland —History of Natal —Coolie labour and Indian immigration —Delagoa Bay arbitration - Damaraland —Origin of German entrance into South African sphere —Walfish Bay —Bechuanaland —Zambezia —Nyasaland —British Central Africa —African Transcontinental Telegraph —South African federation —The Transvaal —Sir Bartle Frere —Zululand and the Zulu War —Boer revolt —Rhodes and Rhodesia —Matabele Wars and Dr. Jameson —Mauritius
Chapter-10: GREAT EXPLORERS Old-time travellers — Herodotus — Strabo —Pliny— Ptolemy —The Arab geographers —The Portuguese explorers —Andrew Battel —British on the Gambia —French on the Senegal —James Bruce and the Blue Nile —Timbuktu —Mungo Park and the Niger —South African explorations —Portugal and Dr Lacerda —Captain Owen —Tuckey and the Congo —Major Laing —René Caillé —British Government expeditions in Tripoli, —Bomu, Lake Chad, and Sokoto —Lander and the Niger mouth —Barth and the Western Sudan —the Jewish explorer Mordokhai —Krapf, Rebmann, and the Snow Mountains —Livingstone —Burton and Speke, Speke and Grant —Samuel Baker —Livingstone and Kirk —French explorers in North-West Africa —Livingstone and Central Africa —Cameron —Rohlfs —Nachtigal —Alexandrine Tinné —Paul du Chaillu —Winwood Reade —Stanley and the Congo —Portuguese explorers —Schweinfiirth and the Welle —Nile explorers —Nyasaland explorations —Dr. Felkin—Joseph Thomson —George Grenfell —Emin Pasha —Recent explorers and explorations
Chapter-11: BELGIAN AFRICA Comité d’Etudes du Haut Congo —Mr H. M. Stanley founds. the Congo Free State —its subsequent history —Long struggle with the Arabs —Lieut. Dhanis —Rumoured atrocities —Katanga —Extension to the White Nile —Murder of Mr Stokes —Railway to Stanley Pool —Future of Congo Free State
Chapter-12: THE BRITISH IN AFRICA - III (Egypt and Hastern Africa.) England wrests Egypt from the French —Rise of Muhammad Ali —Suez Canal —Arabi’s rebellion —Tel-el-Kebir —Mahdi’s revolt —Gordon’s death —Lord Cromer —Lord Kitchener and the reconquest of the Sudan —Fashoda —Aden and Somaliland —Zanzibar —Sir John Kirk —Kilimanjaro —British East African Company —Colonel Lugard and Uganda —Sir Gerald Portal —Roddy Owen —Zanzibar administration —Dissolution of British East Africa Company
Chapter-13:THE ITALIANS IN AFRICA Italian commercial intercourse with North Africa during Crusades and Renaissance —Italy in Tunis and Tripoli —Assab Bay—Abyssinia —Eritrea —Italian reverse at Adua —Italy in Somaliland
Chapter-14: GERMAN AFRICA The Brandenburg traders and the West Coast —German aspirations after colonies in the “40’s and ‘60’s” —German missionaries in South -West Africa —Herr Luderitz —Angra Pequena —British indecision —German South-West Africa Protectorate founded —Germany in the Cameroons —in East Africa —Anglo-German partition of the Sultan of Zanzibar’s dominions —prospects of German rule in Africa —German South-West Africa —Togoland
Chapter-15: THE FRENCH IN MADAGASCAR First rumours of the existence of Madagascar —Confusion with Zanzibar and the Comoro Islands —Portuguese discovery —French Company of the East founded to colonize the Island —Fort Dauphin —Pronis, the immoral governor —Vacher de Rochelle, King-Consort of a Malagasy Queen —French East India Company founded. Ile de Bourbon colonized —The Madagascar, Pirates —French found settlement of St Marie de Madagascar—Send scientific expeditions to Madagascar which first make known its peculiar fauna —Benyowski, the Polish adventurer —The Malagasy —The Hovas —English capture Mauritius and Bourbon and turn the French out of Madagascar —French regain Bourbon and re-occupy St Marie de Madagascar —First missionaries of the London Missionary Society arrive in Madagascar (1818) —Rise of Radama and the Hova power —French repulse in 1829 —The shipwrecked sailor; Laborde —Queen Ranavalona and persecutions of the Christians —The Sakalavas —Prince Rakoto and Lambert’s frustrated coup d’état —Accession of Rakoto (Radama II) —Deposition and death —French concession repudiated and indemnity paid— The Laborde succession —Quarrel with France in 1883 —The Shaw incident— General Willoughby — England recognizes French protectorate over Madagascar —final invasion, conquest and annexation of the Island by the French
Chapter-16: CONCLUSION Three classes into which Africa falls from colonization standpoint — Healthy Africa —Yellow Africa —Black Africa —Prognostications as to future race movements —Predominant European races in the future— The seven great languages of New Africa —Paganism will disappear— Muhammadan zeal will eventually decay —The Negro will become identified in national interests with his diverse European rulers, and will not unite to form a universal Negro nation with the cry of "Africa for the Africans". Appendix I. Notable events and dates in the history of African colonization

Review: White and non-white Christians can equally claim that this book is written by a Christian and is a favour to the people of Africa! This is what Jesusism taught to their forefathers who believed in genocides and loot of precious items from all over the world. However honest a Christian writer may be, he will always demean the natives of the regions they colonized with (inhumane) practices that were in custom in those days. They forget that the Human Sacrifices are the fundamental pillars of their own religion.

As the name of the chapter suggests, it is an account of how the Europeans looted rich Africa terming the locals savage, illiterate, beast and all sort of words. I always wonder why those Christian bigots had to travel such a distance and stay among those savage people. The reason is that their Jesus facilitated or provided nothing in Europe that they can boast of and hence they have to steal riches from all of the the world to feed the resting place of Jesus [the Churches]. These are the same churches where in twenty first century Fathers sexually harass Sisters.

The slave traders were following the slavery thought in their filthy scriptures and genocidal impotent God who wants could not succeed in creating his kingdom after his first virgin birth and wants to come again to punish those who do not believe in Him by burning eternally into hell. It certainly would be very cold in heaven and need the heat from hell to keep these monsters of heaven warm!

Slave Deck Wildfire Ship

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Introduction: 1. Difficulty of refuting the Attacks of modern Unbelievers against Religion. —2. They deny the first Principles of Reason, in order to deny the Existence of Religion. —3. Proof of the Existence of God, taken from the common Consent of Mankind. —4. The Idea of the Divinity is not the Result of Ignorance or Fear. —5. Proof of the Existence of God from contingent Being. —6. The Cause of the Universe is intelligent. —7. The Universe cannot be the Result of Chance. —8. It is not unscientific to seek the Cause of the Universe beyond the physical Order. —9. Matter is not selfexisting. —10. Absurdity of an infinite Number. —11. The Principle of Causality is objectively real. —12. God is not the "Unknowable." —13. Absurdity of Pantheism. —14. Pantheism does not establish the Unity of Science. — 15. Creation is both possible and a Fact. — 16. How God contains all Perfections. —17. Principal Attributes of God. —18. Life is not the Result of mechanical Forces. —19. The Principle of Life is distinct from the Organism of the Body. —20. Simplicity of the Soul of Man. —21. Its Spirituality. —22. Difference between the Soul of Man and the Soul of the Brute. —23. The Freedom of the Will. —24. Why this Introduction was needed.
Chapter-01: On the Necessity of Worshipping God 1. In what Religion consists. —2. What Worship is. —3. Necessity of internal Worship. —4. Necessity of external Worship. —5. God does not need our Worship, but on our Part it is necessary. —6. Not Religion, but the Abuse of Religion, has caused many Evils. —7. Religion does not unfit Man for the Duties of this Life
Chapter-02: The Supernatural 1. Great Aversion of modern Unbelievers to the Supernatural. —2. Definition of the Natural and the Supernatural. —3. The natural State of Man. —4. The supernatural State. —5. Necessity of embracing revealed Religion, if given by God.
Chapter-03: The Possibility of Revealed Religion 1. The Possibility of Revelation cannot be denied save by Atheists. —2. Proof of this Possibility. —3. Definition of Mysteries Natural and Supernatural. —4. Possibility of the Revelation of supernatural Mysteries. —5. Mysteries are not altogether unintelligible. —6. The Difficulties raised against Mysteries are not insoluble. —7. Their Revelation is not useless.
Chapter-04: Means of Knowing True Revelation — Miracles Immediate and mediate Revelation. —2. Definition of Miracles. —3. Possibility of Miracles. —4. The Constancy of the Order of Nature does not exclude the Possibility of Miracles. —5. Physical Certainty is not opposed to moral Certainty. —6. The Illiterate may be competent Witnesses to a miraculous Fact. —7. All the Laws of Nature need not be known, in order to judge whether a Fact is miraculous. —8. Miracles are a certain Proof of Revelation. —9. Necessity of a Criterion to distinguish true Miracles from false Ones. —10. The Criterion to be used for this Purpose. — 11. Mesmerism. — 12. Spiritism not opposed to Miracles. — 13. Its Phenomena not new Inventions. — 14. The Explanation given of these Phenomena is not unscientific.
Chapter-05: On Prophecies 1. Definition of Prophecy. —2. Possibility of Prophecy, and its validity as a proof of revealed Truth —3. Pagan Oracles are no valid Objection against Prophecy.
Chapter-06: Necessity of Revelation 1. Distinction between physical and moral Necessity. —2. The moral Necessity proved from the Fact that all Nations deprived of Revelation fell into Idolatry. —3. Paganism was Demon-worship. —4. Paganism a School of Vice. —5. The same Effects manifested where revealed Religion is discarded. —6. The Perfectibility of Man insufficient to do away with Revelation. — 7. Man did not progress from total Ignorance to higher Knowledge. —8. Idol-worship not the primitive Religion of Mankind. —9. Pagan Philosophers never reached a sufficient Knowledge of Truth. —10. Even had they attained its full Knowledge, still Revelation is necessary. —11 . An external Rule necessary to keep down Man's Passions. —12. Without Revelation Sinners not sure of Pardon. —13. Revelation necessary for social Worship. —14. Would Revelation have been necessary, had Man been created in a purely natural State. — 15. The primitive Revelation lost through Man's Fault
Chapter-07: On the Existence of Revelation 1. The Existence of Revelation proved from its Necessity. —2. From the common Consent of Mankind. —3. From the national Traditions of Antiquity. — 4. From the Rite of Sacrifice. —5. How this Rite originated
Chapter-08: On Mahometanism 1.—There is no Need of passing in Review all religious Beliefs. —2. Idolatry evidently absurd. —3. Mahomet's Want of Credentials, and his Contradictions. —4. The Koran full of Fables. Immorality of the false Prophet. —5. Ignorance of Mahomet. —6. Recommends only external Observances. —7.Baneful Effects of Islamism. —8. Its rapid Spreading no Proof in its Favor.
Chapter-09: On the Jewish Religion. The Genuineness of the Pentateuch. 1. Genuineness of the Pentateuch proved from the Jewish Traditions. —2. The Pentateuch existed before the Schism of the Ten Tribes. —3. It is anterior to the Time of the Judges. —4. Its Author contemporaneous with the Exodus. —5. His Legislation bears the Impress of the Desert. —6. He is perfectly acquainted with Egypt. —7. The objection against the genuineness of the Pentateuch has no Weight. —8. Solution of Objections. Facts not in accordance with the Existence of the Mosaic Law. —9. The Author did not live after the Conquest of Palestine
Chapter-10: Authenticity of the Pentateuch 1. Its Authenticity rejected by Infidels, on Account of the Miracles contained in it. —2. The Pentateuch underwent no Change. —3. That Moses is a trustworthy Author is proved from his Style. —4. He could not be an Impostor. —5. The Miracles related by him are intimately connected with the History of the Jews. —6. The Jews were convinced of their Reality. —7. The Jews could not have been deceived by Moses. —8. They considered themselves bound by the Law of Moses, even after his Death. —9. The Worship of the Jews a standing Memorial of those Miracles. —10. The Sabbatic Year a constant Miracle. — 11. Mention made of Mosaic Miracles by pagan Authors.
Chapter-11: Pr1ncipal Events Related in Genesis 1. Moses a competent Witness of the Events related in Genesis. —2. The Words Elohim and Jehovah do not point to two different Authors. —3. The six Days of Creation do not furnish a valid Objection against Genesis. —4. Objections taken from ancient Chronologies and geological Facts. —5. Age of the human Race according to Genesis. —6. Chaldean Chronology. —7. Egyptian Chronology. —8. Egyptian Monuments no Argument for the great Antiquity of the human Race. —9. Chinese Chronology.— 10. Prehistoric Times. —11. Quaternary Formations of comparatively recent Date. — 12.Stone Ages no Proof of the high Antiquity of Man. —13.Fossil Remains of Man found together with extinct Species of Animals. —14. Peat Formations and Lake Dwellings. —15. The State of Civilization of ancient Nations no Proof of the Antiquity of the human Race. — 16. Traditions regarding the Deluge. —17. Unity of the human Race. — 18. Tower of Babel.
Chapter-12: The Jewish Religion, as to its Ceremonial, was to be Perfected by a New Revelation 1. The Jewish Religion, in its Ceremonial, typical of the Messiah. —2. Promise of a Messiah. —3. The Messiah believed in by the Jews. —4. Expected by the Generality of Mankind. —5. The Messiah was to give a new Law. —6.To establish a new Sacrifice and a new Priesthood. — 7. The Religion established by the Messiah a Perfection of the Mosaic One
Chapter-13: The Messiah Promised to the Jews is Already Come 1. The Advent of the Messiah proved from the Prophecy of Jacob. —2. Of Daniel. —3. Authenticity of Daniel's Prophecy. —4. Proof from the Prophecies of Aggeus and Malachias
Chapter-14: Jesus Christ is the Messiah Promised to the Jews 1. Christ alone realized what was foretold by the Prophets. —2. All the Prophecies are fulfilled in Him. —3. Dispersion of the Jews after His Death.
Chapter-15: The Genuineness and Authenticity of the Gospels 1. Genuineness of the Gospels proved by the Testimony of the Writers of the first Centuries of the Church.— 2. They could not have been Forgeries. —3 They were acknowledged by the Heretics of the earliest Ages. —4. The Jews admitted their Genuineness. — 5. So did pagan Writers. —6. The Gospels have undergone no Change. —7. Authenticity of the Gospels. —8. Christ's Miracles admitted by the Talmud. —9. Also by pagan Writers. —10. Testimony of Josephus. —11. Genealogy of St. Matthew. —12. Assertions of modern Critics of the Rationalistic School.
Chapter-16: The Resurrect1on of Christ Attests His Divine Mission I1. Christ foretold His Death and Resurrection. —2. His Death was real. —3. Christ rose from the Dead: how His Enemies account for this Fact. —4. The Apostles were not deceived. —5. Did not deceive. —6. Could not deceive, even had they wished. —7. Testimony of the Apostles confirmed by the Behavior of the Jewish Authorities. —8. They confirmed their Testimony with their Blood. —9. Why the Jews refused to believe. —10. Apparent Contradiction between St. Mark and St. John. —11. Spread of the Gospel throughout the whole World
Chapter-01: Divinity of Christ I. Importance of the Dogma of the Divinity of Christ. —2. Exposition of the Dogma. —3. Divinity of Christ supposed by the Economy of the Christian Religion. —4. Traditions of pagan Nations. — 5. Prophecies of the Old Testament proving the Divinity of the Messiah. —6. Assertions of Rationalists. —7. Divinity of Christ not invented either by St. Paul or by St. John. —8. Testimony from St. Matthew, St. Luke, and St. John. —9. From St, Paul. — 10. Traditions of the first Ages of the Church before the Heresy of Arius. —11. Solution of some Difficulties
Chapter-02: Figures by Which the Church is Expressed in the New Testament 1. The Church is a Kingdom. —2. A City. —3. A House. —4. A Temple. —5. Meaning of these Figures. —6. The Church is a Body. —7. What this Figure implies. —8. The Church a Sheepfold. — 9. A Bride. —10. Parables referring to the Church
Chapter-03: Institution of the Church as Related in the Gospels The Calling of the Apostles and their Election. —2.Promises made to St. Peter alone. —3. To all the Apostles. —4. Fulfilment of these Promises. —5. The Mission of the Holy Ghost. —6. Presence of the Holy Ghost in the Church as a Body, and in the individual Members. —7. Corollaries: the Church is one. —8. The sole Teacher of Truth. —9. She is indefectible and infallible in her Teaching. —10. Catholic. — 11. Holy. — 12. Apostolic.
Chapter-04: Unity of the Church 1. Christ willed the Church to be one. —2. She is one in Faith. —3. This Unity is indispensable. —4. The Apostles insisted on it. —5. The Church always asserted it. —6. Unity of Charity without Unity of Faith insufficient. —7. Absurdity of Unity in fundamental Articles only. —8. It cannot be determined. —9. Unity in Sacraments. — 10. In Government. — 11.Unity of Government required by Unity of Faith.
Chapter-05:Catholicity of the Church 1. Foretold in the Old Testament and willed by Christ. —2. The End Christ had in View requires it. —3. It is simultaneous. —4. How ft is simultaneous
Chapter-06: Sanctity of the Church 1. In what consists the Holiness of the Church? —2. The Unworthiness of some of her Members no Obstacle to her Holiness. — 3. This Holiness must be made visible. —4. Proved by the Gift of Miracles.
Chapter-06: Apostolicity of the Church 1. The Church apostolic. —2. Material Succession alone not sufficient. —3. Apostolicity required by all ancient Writers. —4. No extraordinary Mission to teach new Dogmas, or reform old Ones. —5. No Break in the Apostolic Succession to be feared. —6. The four Properties of the Church based on Unity. —7. The Church can never fail. —8. No dogmatical Reform needed in the Church. —9. The Promises made to the Church not conditional. —10. Reform of individual Members may at times be required
Chapter-07: The Roman Catholic Church Alone has the Properties of Christ's Church. 1. Unity of the Roman Catholic Church. —2. She has always held the same Doctrines. —3: The Catholic Church could not vary in her Doctrines. —4. Definitions of Doctrine argue no Change. —5. Catholicity of the Roman Catholic Church. —6.Her Sanctity: she makes her Children holy. —7. Converts pagan Nations. — 8. Fosters Virginity. 9. Produces Saints. — 10. Whose Sanctity is confirmed by Miracles. — 11. Her Stability. — 12. Sects constantly lose Ground. —13. Calumnies against the Church refuted. — 14. Apostolicity of the Church. — 15. Antipopes no Break in the Apostolic Succession. — 16. Nor is the great Schism of the West a Break. —17. Neither the Greek Schismatics — 18. Nor Protestants can claim to be the Church of Christ.
Chapter-08: The Roman Catholic Church Alone has the Properties of Christ's Church 1. Unity of the Roman Catholic Church. —2. She has always held the same Doctrines. —3:The Catholic Church could not vary in her Doctrines. —4. Definitions of Doctrine argue no Change. —5. Catholicity of the Roman Catholic Church. — 6.Her Sanctity: she makes her Children holy. —7. Converts pagan Nations. — 8. Fosters Virginity. —9. Produces Saints. — 10. Whose Sanctity is confirmed by Miracles. — 11. Her Stability. — 12. Sects constantly lose Ground. —13. Calumnies against the Church refuted. — 14. Apostolicity of the Church. — 15. Antipopes no Break in the Apostolic Succession. — 16. Nor is the great Schism of the West a Break. —17. Neither the Greek Schismatics — 18. Nor Protestants can claim to be the Church of Christ.
Chapter-09: Teaching Authority of the Church 1. The Church must have an Authority. —2. Different from that of civil Society. —3. Not confided to the Faithful. —4. An external Teacher required in the Church. —5. The teaching Body must be infallible, because it must be authoritative. —6. Without infallible Teaching no Faith possible. —7. Christ willed the Church to be infallible. —8. The Church always claimed Infallibility. —9. Infallibility not opposed to Science. —10. Galileo. — 11. The Church not opposed to Civilization. —12. The Church may be known even to the Unlettered. —13. How Children and the Ignorant come under the Teaching of the Church. — 14. Infallibility does not give rise to civil Intolerance. —15. The Inquisition
Chapter-10: The Bible not Sufficient to Constitute the Infallible Teaching of the Church 1. The Authority of the Church necessary to know that we have the whole Bible. —2. Its Inspiration can be proved only by the Church. —3. Vain attempts of Protestants to prove its Inspiration. —4. The Authority of the Church required for the Understanding of the Bible. —5. And for knowing whether the vernacular Copy is conformable to the Original. — 6. The first Christians had no Bible. — 7. With the Bible alone, Christ would have poorly provided for his Church. —8. Objections from Scripture.
Chapter-11: Primacy of St. Peter I. The Church must have a supreme visible Authority. —2. Independent of the civil Power. —3. The Government of the Church not aristocratic. —4. The Church a Monarchy. —5. The supreme Power vested in St. Peter and his Successors. —6. Primacy promised to St. Peter by Christ. —7. The Church built on St. Peter. —8. The Keys of Heaven promised to him. —9. Fulfilment of the promise. — 10. St. Peter exercised this Primacy.
Chapter-12: The Successor of St. Peter in the Primacy 1. St. Peter's Privilege permanent in the Church. —2. The Bishop of Rome the Successor of St. Peter. —3. Proved by History. —4. False Decretals. —5. St. Peter was Bishop of Rome, and died there.
Chapter-13:Infallibil1ty of the Pope as Head of the Church. 1. All must agree in Faith with the Pope. —2. What is meant by Infallibility of the Pope. —3. Proofs. The Foundation of the Church. —4. The Centre of Unity. —5. This Doctrine held by the Church. —6. Gallicanism false. — 7. The Pope's Dogmatical Decrees cannot be reformed by the Church. —8.Unity of Faith demands this Infallibility. —9. Objections: St. Cyprian. — 10. Liberius. —11. Honorius. — 12. Councils examined the Decisions of the Popes. — 13. Bad Popes. —14. Usefulness of General Councils. — 15. The Decrees of the Vatican Council did not change the Relations between Church and State.
Chapter-14:Relations of Church and State 1. The Church superior to the State. —2. The normal Condition of a State requires Union between Church and State. —3. No Encroachment to be feared on the Part of the Church. —4.The Deposing Power of the Popes. —5. The State cannot impose any Religion. —6. When the State has, by a social Act, embraced the true Religion, it has a Right and is bound to protect and defend the Unity of Religion. —.7. Toleration, and its Limits. —8. The Laws of Marriagejjot to be interfered with by the State. —9. The State cannot educate Children. —10. Has no Right to impose a Tax for the Support of mere secular Schools. — 11. Liberalism. — 12. So-called Catholic Liberalism. — 13. Absurdity of this Theory. — 14. Its Fundamental Error.

Review: This book is a classical example of the core philosophy of Revealed Religions: that is to "Make Claims", demean idolators, suppress alternate thoughts as heresy and "Infalliability of Its (Religious) Constituents". The book is a glaring example to show that the Christian God is neither omnipotent, nor omniscient and relies heavily on human beings leading to the conclusion that it is fake, a mythology based on complete heresy. The author has liberally designated many topics as 'absurd' again underlining the (hollow) Abrahamic supremacy.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 98_Eschatology-Doctrine.pdf ESCHATOLOGY* SAMUEL LEE 1859English 277
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: The Kingdom, Son of Man, The Coming, Scripture Argument Dan. 7 : 9-14, Matt. 10: 23, Matt. 10:16, Matt. 16:27-28, Matt. 19:27-29, Matt. 13: 24-30, 36-43, Matt. 13:47-50, Luke 18: 1-8, Subordinate Texts - Matt. 21: 28-32, Matt. 21: 33-45, Matt. 22:1-14, Matt. xxiv, Matt. xxv, Matt. 26:63, 64
Chapter-02: THE COMING OF THE LORD The Apostles "in error", Opinion of Dr. Watts, Opinion of Olshausen, Opinion of Conybeare Opinion of Thomas Arnold, Opinion of Barnes, Opinion of Edwards, Opinion of Locke, Opinion of Hudson, Opinion of Tholuck and German Commentators, Destruction of Jerusalem— James 5:7-8, Coming of the Lord— what? Scripture Argument, Texts that refer to the close of the present life. 1. Considered as a state of suffering, trial, or probation 2. With the Judgment as an associate event 3. And heaven as then having its commencement 4. And hell as then having its commencement Objections 2 Thess. 1: 6-10, Thess.2:1-9, 2 Peter 3: 3-9, 10-17, Locality of Heaven
Chapter-03: THE JUDGMENT Matt. 16: 27-28, John 5: 22-23, 27, Matt. xxv, Acts 10: 42-43, Matt. 17:31, John 12: 31, Rev. 22: 12, 1 Pet. 4:5, 2 Pet. 2:3, Matt. 12:36, 2-Pet 2:4, 9, Jude v. 6, 2 Tim. 4: 1-2, Matt. 11: 20-24, Matt. 12: 41-42
Chapter-04: THE RESURRECTION Old Testament, Later Jews, New Testament --- Matt. 22: 23-32, Acts 23: 6, 24: 15, Phil. 3: 20-21, John 5: 21-29, John 11: 23-26, 2-Cor. 5:1-4, John 6: 39-40, 1 Cor. 6: 14, John3:2, Matt. 27: 50-53, Resurrection of Christ -- Acts 26: 23, Colos. 1: 18, 1 Cor. xv, 1 Thess. 4: 13-18
Chapter-05: PROPHECY RESTORED Rev. xx-xxii
Chapter-06: CONCLUSION Summary, Orthodoxy Ethical Import


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Viewpoints in the Discussion of Isaiah’s Hopes for the Future. K. Fullerton
Chapter-02: The Origin of Jewish Eschatology. N. Schmidt
Chapter-03: Some Observations on the Attitude of the Synagogue toward the Apocalyptic Eschatol ogical Writings. L. Ginzberg
Chapter-04: The Place of Apocalyptical Conceptions in the Mind of Jesus. E. F. Scott
Chapter-05: The "Son of Man" in the Usage of Jesus. B. W.Bacon
Chapter-06: The Place of Apocalyptical Conceptions in the Thought of Paul. F. C. Porter

Review: Excerpts: Isaiah was the first prophet whom we know of to cherish the idea of a Davidic Messiah. Before the prophets, and in spite of them, polytheism flourished in Israel; and there were native myths as well as foreign. Myths are what men say about the gods. What are the stories told about Yahwe himself but myths? Concerning the so-called “schools of the prophets” we know next to nothing. If the stories of Elijah and Elisha come from these “sons of the prophets”, they reveal little that can be traced to a foreign origin, but have many mythical as well as legendary features. In respect of man’s condition after death the adoption of the Persian doctrine of a resurrection seems to have been prepared, not only by the belief that Yahwe had taken certain heroes directly up to heaven and brought others back from Sheol by empowering his prophets to raise them from the dead, but also by peculiar moral considerations.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 98_Mysteries-of-Mithra.pdf The Mysteries of Mithra FRANZ CUMONT* 1903English 256
Table of Contents
Chapter-07: MITHRAIC ART
*Translated from the Second Revised French Edition BY THOMAS J. McCORMACK


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 98_Eschatology-New-Views.pdf New Eschatology* J. G. BKOUGHTON PEGG 1872English 86

Review: Jesus was a disputed Messia of Jews and there can no religion in his name but only Judaism. We should not have seen a fallible and weak mortal exalted as Head over the church of God; we should not have heard of a morsel of bread being changed into the Lord's body; we should not have seen the Divine Nature divided among three separate and distinct Persons.

The fact itself is too plain even to require proof. Thus we read that the sun rises, moves, and sets; which is certainly true in appearance, but not in reality. "He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me and I in him"; "for my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed." But when the Creator is likened to the sun, the language is no longer figurative but correspondent. It is not the comparison of earthly things with earthly, but of spiritual things with natural. And as the breath of God is the infinitude of his love and wisdom, every portion of the sacred Volume must be filled with it. Not only every book in general, but every verse and every sentence; —for if we can find a single sentence which does not contain within itself the infinite wisdom of God, such sentence must either form no part of the Scripture, or the assertion of Paul must be untrue. The prophecies themselves in their literal and obvious meaning, refer to the rise and decline of earthly states, and to the mutation of earthly empires. When the literal sense of a passage is opposed to fact and reason, such literal sense is to be rejected.

A good book to counter Abrahamic faith, their myths and heresy specially the description of destruction of the universe. A People's History of the World written by Chris Harman is another book which gives [chapter European feudalism] great explanation of dark ages in Europe despite Christianity and how fragile and split the society was. "RELIGIONLESS MORALITY By OTTO PFLEIDERER" published in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THEOLOGY Volume III APRIL, 1899 Number describes a rational view of religion and morality.


FN 98_Manual-Ancient-History.pdf >MANUAL of ANCIENT AND MODERN HISTORY W. C. TAYLOR SixthEnglish 904
Table of Contents: Ancient History
Chapter-01: Egypt I. Geographical Outline II. Political and Social Condition of the Egyptians III. History of Egypt from the earliest Period to the Accession of Psammttichus IV. History of Egypt from the Reign of Psammetichus to its subjugation by Cambyses V. Egyptian Manufactures and Commerce
Chapter-02: The Ethiopians I. Geographical Outline and Natural History II. History of the Ethiopians III. Arts, Commerce, and Manufactures of Meroe
Chapter-03: Babylonia and Assyria I. Geographical Outline and Natural History II. Political and Social Condition of the Assyrians and Babylonians III. History of the Assyrians and Babylonians IV. Description of Nineveh and Babylon V. Commerce and Manufactures of the Babylonians
Chapter-04: Western Asia I. Asia Minor. —Geographical Outline II. Ancient History of Asia Minor III. Syria. —Geographical Outline IV. Social and Political Condition of the Syrians and Phoenicians V. History of the Syrians and Phoenicians VI. Phoenician Colonies ard Foreign Possessions V. Phoenician Manufactures and Commerce
Chapter-05: Palestine I. Geographical Outline II. History of Palestine III. The Conquest of Canaan by Joshua IV. History of Israel under the Judges V. History of the United Kingdom of Israel VI. The Revolt of the Ten Tribes. —The Kingdom of Israel VII. The Kingdom of Judah
Chapter-06: The Empire of the Medes and Persians I. Geographical Outline II. Sources and Extent of our Knowledge respecting the Ancient Persians III. Social and Political Condition of Ancient Persia IV. History of the Medes and Persians under the Kaianian Dynasty V. History of the Persians under theHystaspid Dynasty
Chapter-07: Phoenician Colonies in Northern Africa I. Geographical Outline of Northern Africa II. Social and Political Condition of Carthage III. History of Carthage from the Foundation of the City to the Commencement of the Syracusan Wars IV. History of Carthage during the Sicilian Wars V. From the Commencement of the Roman Wars to the Destruction of Carthage VI. Navigation, Trade, and Commerce of Carthage
Chapter-08: The Foundation of the Grecian States I. Geographical Outline of Hellas II. Geographical Outline of the Peloponnesus III. The Grecian Islands in the iEgean and Mediterranean Sea IV. The Ionian Islands V. The Social and Political Condition of Greece VI. Traditional History of Greece from the earliest Ages to the Commencement of the Trojan War VII. From the Trojan War to the Colonization of Asia Minor.
Chapter-09: History of the Grecian States and Colonies before the Persian War I. Topography of Sparta II. Legislation of Lycurgus, and the Messenian Wars III. Topography of Athens IV. History of Athens to the Beginning of Ihe Persian War V. Historical Notices of the Minor States of Greece previous to the Persian War VI. History of the principal Grecian Islands VII. History of the Greek Colonies in Asia Minor VIII. History of the fr-eek Colonies on the Euxine Sea, Coast of Thrace, Macedon
Chapter-10: History of Greece from the Persian Wars to the Accession of Mexander the Great I. The First Persian War II. The Second Persian War III. The First Peloponnesian War IV. The Second Peloponnesian War V. Tyrannical Rule of Sparta. —Third Peloponnesian War VI. The Second Sacred War. —Destruction of Grecian Freedom
Chapter-11: The Macedonian Kingdom and Empire I. Geographical Outline of Macedon II. History of the Macedonian Monarchy III. Dissolution of the Macedonian Empire
Chapter-12: History of the States that arose from the Dismemberment of the Macedonian Empire I. History of Macedon and Greece from the Battle of Ipsus to the Roman Conquest II. History of the Kingdom of Syria under the Seleucidse III. History of Egypt under the Ptolemies IV. History of the Minor Kingdoms in Western Asia V. History of Bactria and Parthia VI. History of Idumea, and its Capital Petra VII. History of the Jews from their Return out of the Babylonish Captivity to the Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus
Chapter-13: History of Jncient Italy I. Geographical Outline II. Historical Notices of the early Inhabitants of Italy III. The Greek Colonies in Italy
Chapter-14: History of Sicily I. Geograpliical Outline II. Historical Notices of the early Inhabitants of Sicily III. The History of Syracuse
Chapter-15: History of the Roman Republic I. Traditions respecting the Origin of the Romans II. From the Foundation of Rome to the Abolition of Royalty III. From the Establishment of the Roman Republic to the Burning of the City by the Gauls IV. From the Rebuilding of the City to the First Punic War V. From the Commencement of the Punic Wars to the Beginning of the Civil Dissensions under the Gracchi VI. From tlie Beginning of the Civil Dissensions under the Gracchi to the Downfall of the Republic VII. The Establishment of the Roman Empire
Chapter-16: Geographical and Political Condition of the Roman Empire I. European Countries. —Spain II. Transalpine Gaul III. Britain IV. Northern Provinces of the Empire V. Asiatic and African Provinces VI. The Principal Nations on the Frontiers of the Empire VII. Topography of the City of Rome
Chapter-17: History of the Roman Empire I. The Reigns of the Family of the Coesars II. From the Extinction of the Julian to that of the first Flavian Family III. From the Extinction of the first Flavian Family to the last of the Antonines IV. Foreign Commerce of the Romans in the Age of the Antonines V. From the Extinction of the Antonines to the Establishment of Military Despotism VI. From the Murder of Alexander Severus to the Captivity of Valerian and the Usurpation of the Thirty Tyrants VII. From the Captivity of Valerian to the Resignation of Diocksian VII. From the Resignation of Dioclesian to the Death of Constantine the Great IX. From the Death of Constantine to the Reunion of the Empire under Theodosius the Great 30) X. Overthrow of the Western Empire
Chapter-18: India Early History
Table of Contents: Modern History
Chapter-01: Consequences of the Fall of the Western Empire I. The Gothic Kingdom of Italy II. The Reign of Justinian III. The Establishment of the Civil Law IV. History of the Silk Trade. —Introduction of the Silkworm into Europe V. The Monarchy of the Franks, under the Merovingian Dynasty VI. The Lombard Monarchy VII. The Anglo-Saxons
Chapter-02: The Rise and Establishment of the Saracenic Power I. Political and Social Condition of the East at the Coming of Mohammed. II. State of Arabia at the Coming of Mohammed III. The Preaching of Mohammed IV. Early Progress of the Saracens
Chapter-03: Restoration of the Western Empire I. The Life of Charlemagne II. Decline and Fall of the Carlovingian Dynasty III. The Foundation of the Germanic Empire IV. State of the East from the Establishment to the Overthrow of the Khaliphate
Chapter-04: Growth of the Papal Power I. The Origin of the Papacy II. The early Development of the Political System of the Papacy III. The Struggle for Supremacy between the Popes and Emperors IV. Revival of the Papal Power V. Pontificate of Gregory VII VI. The War of Investitures VII. The Crusades VIII. The Crusade against the Albigenses IX. Consequences of the Crusades X. Formation and Constitutional History of the Spanish Monarchy XI. Survey of the Constitution of Aragon XII. State of Western Europe at the Commencement of the Fourteenth Century XIIL Pontificate of Boniface VIII XIV. State of England and the Northern Kingdoms at the Commencement of the Fourteenth Century XV. Revolutions in the East in Consequence of the Mongolian Invasion
Chapter-05: The Revival of Literature —The Progress of Civilization and Invention I. Decline of the Papal Power. —The Great Schism of the West II. First Revival of Literature, and Inventions in Science III. Progress of Commerce IV. Revolutions of Germany, France, and Spain V. The State of England and the Northern Kingdoms in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries VI. Rise and Progress of the Ottoman Empire
Chapter-06: The Reformation, and Commencement of the Stales- System in Europe I. Progress of Maritime Discovery II. Origin of the Reformation III. History of the Negotiations and Wars respecting Italy IV. The History of Burgundy under the Princes of the House of Valois V. The History of Burgundy (continued) VI. The History of Burgundy (concluded) VII. The Age of Charles V -VIII. The Age of Elizabeth IX. The Age of Gustavus Adolphus X. Administration of the Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarine XI. Formation of the States-System in the Northern Kingdoms of Europe XII. Progress of the Turkish Power in Europe
Chapter-07: The Augustan Ages of England and France I. State of the Continental Kingdoms after the Peace of Westphalia II. History of England under the Commonwealth III. History of England, from the Restoration to the Revolution; and Rise of the Power of Louis XIV -IV. General History of Europe, from the League of Augsburg to the Formation of the Grand Alliance V. The War of the Spanisii Succession VI. Peter the Great of Russia. —Charles XII of Sweden
Chapter-08: Growth of the Mercantile and Colonial System I. Establishment of the Hanoverian Succession in England II. The Colonial Struggle between France and Great Britain III. The Seven Years' War
Chapter-09: The Age of Revolutions I. Change in the Relations of the Catholic Powers to the Holy See. —Dismemberment of Poland II. History of England, from the Peace of Paris to the Commencement of the American War III. The American War IV. The British Empire in India V. History of Europe, from the End of the American War to the Commencement of the French Revolution VI. The French Revolution
Chapter-10: The French Empire I. Renewal of the War between Endand and France II. Progress of Napoleon's Power III. The French Invasion of Spain IV. The Russian War V. History of Europe, from the Dethronement of Napoleon to the Conclusion of the Treaty of Vienna
Chapter-11: History of the Peace I. State of Europe at the Close of the War II. History of Europe during the Reign of George IV -III. History of Europe during the Reign of William IV
Chapter-12: History of Colonization I. The Establishment of the Spaniards in Mexico II. The Establishment of the Spaniards in Peru III. The Portuguese Colonies in South America IV. The English in America V. Colonization of the West Indies VI. The Portuguese in India VII. The Spaniards in the East Indies VIII. The Dutch in the East Indies EX. The Danes in the East Indies X. The French in the East Indies XI. The English in India
Chapter-13: History of China
Chapter-14 History of the Jews
Chapter-15 History of the United States I. Colonial History II. Revolutionary History III. Constitutional History
Tables of Contemporary Dynasties, Genealogical Table of the Bourbons, Genealogical Table of the Royal Family of England


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 40_The-New-Puritan.pdf THE NEW PURITAN* JAMES S. PIKE SecondEnglish 244

Review: The book is about a civilized person [John Pike who has eight kids] among settlers in America. The book talks about lack of civil rights combined with civil and ecclesiastical tyranny. "To resist the civil and ecclesiastical powers in any of their temporal proceedings was rash and dangerous enough." Page-22: Watson says, in his “Annals of Philadelphia,” page 228: "Six hundred persons were executed in France, in 1609, for the alleged crime of witchcraft. In 1634 Grandiere, a priest of Loudon, in France, was burned for bewitching a whole convent of nuns. In 1654 twenty women were executed in Bretagne for witches."

The books talks about Quaker Method of teaching, new law against the Quakers, The Oath of a Free-Man needed to become a citizen in colonial England.

An inquiry into the character and authorship of the Fourth Gospel: by Drummond, James, 1835-1918

Book 1:General character of the fourth Gospel -- Contents and plan of the gospel -- Comparison of the gospel with the synoptics -- The purpose with which the gospel was written -- How far is the gospel historical? -- Book 2: Authorship -- External evidence -- General state of belief in the later part of the second century -- Justin Martyr -- The gospel and the first epistle of John -- The epistle of polycarp -- Papias and the presbyter John -- The shepherd of Hermas; The epistles of Barnabas and of Ignatius; and John XXI 24 -- The Clementine Homilies -- The Valentinians -- Marcion -- Basilides -- Naasenni, Perpatæ, Alogi, and Docetæ -- Results of the external evidence -- External evidence -- Internal evidence in favour of the traditional view -- The author an Aramaic-speaking Jew -- The writer's knowledge of the topography of Palestine -- Alleged signs that the writer was an eye-witness -- Concluding arguments and observations -- Objections to the traditional view -- Passages about the eye-witness -- Alleged signs that the work is by a disciple of the apostle -- Alleged anti-Judaic character of the gospel and Greek philosophical training of the author -- Could the portrait of Jesus have been drawn by a personal friend? -- The unhistorical character of the book -- Ignorance of Palestine and Jewish usages -- The objection from the authorship of the apocalypse -- The Paschal controversy
Authors of the 4 Gospels Symbolized as Animals

Gospel Authors Symbolized as Animals

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 40_The-Life-of-Christ.pdf THE LIFE OF CHRIST FREDERIC W. FARRAR, D.D., F.R.S. 1887English 510
Table of Contents
Chapter-01:The Nativity The Fields of the Shepherds. —An Eastern Khan. —The Cave of Bethlehem. —The Enrolment. —Joseph and Mary. —"No room for them in the inn.", —The Manger and the Palace. —The Nativity. —Adoration of the Shepherds. —Fancy and Reality. —Contrast of the Gospels and the Apocrypha
Chapter-02: THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE Four Circumstances of the Infancy. —Order of Events. —The Circumcision. —The name Jesus. —The Presentation in the Temple. —Simeon. —Anna
Chapter-03:The Visit of the Magi Importance of the Epiphany. —Herod the Grea -"Magi” —Traditions —Causes of their Journey. —General Expectation of the World. —The Star in the East. —Astronomical Conjectures of Kepler. —Evanescent Stars. —Gifts of the Magi
Chapter-04: The Flight into Egypt, and Massacre of the Innocents Departure of the Magi. —Legends of the Flight into Egypt. —Massacre of the Innocents. —Its Historical Credibility. —Character of Herod the Great. —Silence of Josephus. —Death and Burial of Herod the Great. —The Spell of the Herodian Dominion broken. —Accession of Archelaus. -Settlement of Joseph and Mary in Galilee
Chapter-05: THE Boyhood of JESUS Geography of Palestine. —Galilee. —Nazareth. —Reticence of the Evangelists. —Truthfulness of the Gospels contrasted with Apocryphal Legends. —Life of Galilean Peasants. —Imagination and Fact. —"He shall be called a Nazarene"
Chapter-06: JESUS IN THE TEMPLE Jesus Twelve Years Old. —Journey from Nazareth to Jerusalem. —Scenes by the Way. —Numbers of Passover Pilgrims. —Jesus missing from the Caravan. —The Search. —Rabbis in the Temple. —"Hearing them and asking them questions." —"Why did ye seek Me?" —"They understood not." —Submissiveness
Chapter-07: The Home at Nazareth "The Carpenter." —Dignity of Poverty. —Dignity of Toil. —The Common Lot. —Wisdom better than Knowledge. —Originality. —The Language spoken by Jesus. —The Books of God. —Jesus in his Home. —Work and Example of those Years. —Peacefulness. —"The brethren of the Lord." —Solitude. —The Hill-top at Nazareth. —Plain of Esdraelon. —Centrality of Palestine
Chapter-08: THE Baptism of JOHN Characteristics of the Age. —Darkness deepest before Dawn. —Asceticism. —John the Baptist. —His Character. —His Teaching. —His Audience. —Scene of his Teaching. —His Message. —Bearing of John in the Presence of Jesus. Why Jesus was baptised. -Recognition as the Messiah
Chapter-09: The Temptation Quarantania. With the wild beasts. —"Forty days." -The Moment of Exhaustion. —Reality of the Temptation. —"Tempted like as we are." —Fasting. —Lapides Judaici. —The First Temptation. —Subtlety of it. —"Not by bread alone." —The Suggested Doubt. —The Order of the Temptations. —The Temple Pinnacle. —The Tempter’s Quotation. —The Splendid Offer. —The Roman Emperor. —The Victory
Chapter-10: The First Apostles St. John’s Gospel. —"The Lamb of God." —Andrew and John. —Simon. —Appearance and Personal Ascendancy of Jesus. —Philip. —Nathanael. —"Come and see." —"Under the fig-tree." —"Angels ascending and descending"
Chapter-11: The First Miracle "On the third day." —An Eastern Bridal. —"They have no wine."? —The Answer to the Virgin. —The Miracle. —Characteristics of this and other Miracles.
Chapter-12: THE SCENE OF THE MINISTRY Contrast between the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan Valley. —Beauty of Gennesareth. —Character of the Scenery. —Its Present Desolation and Past Populousness. —Prophecy of Isaiah. —Centrality. —Christ’s Teaching there. —Site of Capernaum
Chapter-13: JESUS AT THE PASSOVER Visit to Jerusalem. —Purification of the Temple. —State of the Court of the Gentiles. —Crowd of Traders. —Indignation of Jesus. —Why they did not dare to resist. —Question of the Rulers. —"Destroy this temple." —Impression made by the Words. —Their deep Significance. —Extent to which they were understood
Chapter-14: NICODEMUS Talmudic Allusions to Nicodemus. —His Character. —Indirectness of his Questions. —Discourse of Jesus. —His Disciples baptise. Continued Baptism of John. —Ainon, near Salim. —Complaint of John’s Disciples. Noble and sad Reply
Chapter-15: THE Woman OF SAMARIA Retirement of Jesus to Galilee. —Sychar. —Noontide at the Well. —The Scene. Conversation with the Woman. —Jerusalem and Gerizim. —Revelation of Messiahship. —Return of Disciples. —The Fields White unto Harvest. —Believing Samaritans
Chapter-16: REJECTED BY THE NAZARENES Sequence of Events. —A perfect "Harmony" impossible. —A Prophet in his own Country. —A Jewish Synagogue. —Nature of the Service. —Sermon of Jesus. —Change of Feeling in the Audience. —Their Fury. —Escape of Jesus. —Finally leaves Nazareth
Chapter-17: THE BEGINNING OF THE GALILAEAN MINISTRY The Courtier’s Entreaty. —His Faith. —Sequence of Events. —St. John and the Synoptists. —Jesus stays at Capernaum. —His First Sabbath there. — Preaches in the Synagogue. —The’ Demoniac. —Peter’s Mother-in-law. —The Evening. —Eagerness of the Multitude —His Privacy invaded. —Preaches from the Boat. —Call of Peter, James, and John. —"Depart from Me." —Publicans. —The Publican Apostle
Chapter-18: The TWELVE, AND THE SERMON ON THE Mount A Night of Prayer. —Selection of the Twelve. —Conjectures respecting them. James and John. —Peter. —Kurn Hattin. —Contrast with Moses on Sinai. —Beatitudes. —Sketch of the Sermon on the Mount. —"Not as the Scribes.” —Authority. —Christ and other Masters. —Perfection. —Beauty and Simplicity
Chapter-19: FURTHER MIRACLES A Man full of Leprosy. — Violation of the Letter —Why was Publicity forbidden? —Deputation of Batlanim. —Message of the Centurion. -Pressure of the Ministry. —The Interfering Kinsmen
Chapter-20: JESUS AT NAIN Nain. —A Funeral. -The Widow’s Son raised. —Message from John the Baptist. —Overclouding of his Faith. —How accounted for. —Machaerus. —God’s Trial of His Servants. -Answer of Jesus. —Splendid Eulogy of John. —"The least in the kingdom of heaven"
Chapter-21: THE SINNER AND THE PHARISEE Simon the Pharisee. —Jewish Customs at Meals. —The Weeping Woman. —Simon’s Disgust. —Answer of Jesus. —Parable of the Debtors. —Cold Courtesy of Simon. —Pardoning of Sins. —Was it Mary of Magdala?
Chapter-22: JESUS AS HE LIVED IN GALILEE Scene in Galilee. —Jesus and His Followers. —His Aspect. —A Life of Poverty —Of Toil —Of Health —Of Sorrow —and yet of Holy Joy
Chapter-23: A Great Day IN THE LIFE oF JESUS Order of Events. —Teaching from the Boat. —Parables. —Parable of the Sower.—Other Parables. —Effect Produced. —Urgent Desire for Rest. —The Eastern Shore. —The Three Aspirants. —The Storm. —"What manner of Man is this?" —Miracles. —Gergesa. —The Naked Demoniac from the Tombs. —"Thy Name." —Loss of the Swine. —Alarm of the Gadarenes. —Their Request. —Request of the Demoniac
Chapter-24: The Day of Matthew’s FEAST Return to Capernaum. —The Paralytic let through the Roof. —"Thy sins be forgiven thee." —Feast in Matthew’s House. —Scorn of the Pharisees. —Question about Fasting. —The New Wine and the Old.
Chapter-25: The Day of Matthew’s FEAST (Contined) Jairus. -The Woman with the Issue. —The Touch of Faith. —Message to Jairus. —The Hired Mourners. —Raising of Jairus’s Daughter. —The Blind Men. —They disobey Christ's Injunction
Chapter-26: A Visit To JERUSALEM Phases of the Ministry. —Mission of the Twelve. —Their Instructions. —A Feast of the Jews. —Arrangement of St. John. —Days of Jewish Feasts. —Nature of the Purim Feast. —Reason for Christ’s Presence
Chapter-27: THE Miracle at Bethesda Pool of Bethesda. —Healing of the Impotent Man. —Jealous Questioning. —Sabbath-breaking. —The Man’s Meanness. —Anger of the Rulers. —Answer of Jesus. —Dangerous Results
Chapter-28: The Murder of JOHN THE BAPTIST Return to Galilee. —Herod Antipas. —Herodias. —Consequences of the Adulterous Marriage. —Credulity and Unbelief. —The Banquet. -Salome. —Her Request. —Murder of the Baptist. —Herod’s Remorse. —He inquires about Jesus. —Ultimate Fate of Herod.
Chapter-29: THE FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND, AND WALKING ON THE SEA Bethsaida Julias. —Hungry Multitude. —Miracle of the Loaves. —Excitement of the Multitude. —Dismissal of the Disciples. —Jesus alone on the Mountain. —The Disciples alone in the Storm. —"It is I" —Peter’s Boldness and Failure. —Nature of the Miracle.
Chapter-30: THE Discourse AT CAPERNAUM Astonished Query of the Multitude. —Reproof of Jesus. —They ask for a Sign. —His Answer. —The Bread of Life. —Their Dull Materialism. —Their Displeasure. —Abandonment of Jesus. —Sad Question to the Disciples. —Answer of Peter. —Warning to Judas
Chapter-31: GATHERING OPPOSITION Gathering Clouds. —1. "Thy sins be forgiven thee." 2. "A gluttonous man and a winebibber." 3. "Thy disciples fast not." 4. "With publicans and sinners." —"Mercy, not sacrifice." —The Prodigal Son. —Religionism and Religion. —5. Charges of violating the Sabbath. —Jewish Traditions. —Abhoth and Toldoth. —i. In the Cornfields. —Analogy of David’s Conduct. —No Sabbatism in the Temple. —Incident in the Codex Bezae. —ii. The Stonemason with the Withered Hand. —Good or Evil on the Sabbath? —The Objectors Foiled. —Unwashen Hands. —Jewish Ablutions. —"Your tradition." —The Oral Law. —Hagadoth and Halachoth. —"That which cometh from within." —Evil Thoughts
Chapter-32: DEEPENING OPPOSITION Agitations of the Life of Jesus. —Prayer at Dawn. —The Lord’s Prayer. —Parable of the Importunate Friend. —Lights and Shadows of the Life of Jesus. —The Blind and Dumb Demoniac. —Exorcism. —Slander of the Scribes. —Beelzebub —Answer of Jesus. —Warning against Light Words. —Who are truly blessed? —"Master, we would see a sign." —Sign of the Prophet Jonah. —Interference of His Kinsmen
Chapter-33: The Day of Conflict Alone with Pharisees at the Midday Meal. —Unwashen Hands. —Reproof of Jesus. —The Lawyers included in the Reproof. —Spurious Civility. —Open Rupture. —Danger of Jesus. —He goes out to the Multitude. —Denunciation of Hypocrisy. —Foolish Appeal. —The Parable of the Rich Fool. —Peter’s Question. —Jesus troubled in Spirit
Chapter-34: AMONG THE HEATHEN The Regions of Tyre and Sidon. —The Syro-phenician Woman. —Her Petition apparently rejected. —Her Exalted Faith. —Her Faith rewarded. —Heathen Lands. —Return to Decapolis. —Deaf and Dumb Man. —"Ephphatha!" —Reception by the Multitudes. —Feeding of the Four Thousand
Chapter-35: THE GREAT CONFESSION Reception of Jesus on His return to Galilee. —An ill-omened Conjunction. —Demand of a Sign. —Reproof and Refusal. —Sadness of Jesus. —He sails away. —The Prophetic Woe. —Leaven of the Pharisees and of Herod. —Literal Misinterpretation of the Apostles —Healing of a Blind Man at Bethsaida Julias. —On the road to Ceesarea Philippi. —The Momentous Questions. —"Thou art the Christ, the Son of the Living God." —The Rock. —Foundation of the Church. —Misinterpretations. —Warnings about His Death. —Rash Presumption of Peter. —"Get thee behind Me, Satan." —The Worth of the Human Soul. "The Son of Man coming in His Kingdom".
Chapter-36: THE TRANSFIGURATION The Mountain. —Not Tabor, but Hermon. —The Vision. —Moses and Elias. —Bewildered Words of Peter. —The Voice from Heaven. —Fading of the Vision. —The New Elias.
Chapter-37: THE DEMONIAC BOY The Contrast. —The Disciples and the Scribes. —Arrival of Jesus. —The Demoniac Boy. —Emotion of Jesus. —Anguish of the Father. —"If thou canst." -The Deliverance. —Power of Faith to remove Mountains. —Secluded Return of Jesus. —Sad Warnings. —Dispute which should be the Greatest. —The Little Child. —John’s Question. —Offending Christ’s Little Ones. —The Unforgiving Debtor
Chapter-38: A BRIEF REST IN CAPERNAUM The Temple Tax. —The Collectors come to Peter. —His rash Answer. —Jesus puts the Question in its true light. —The Stater in the Fish’s Mouth. —Peculiar Characteristics of this Miracle
Chapter-39: JESUS AT THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES Observances of the Feast of Tabernacles. —Presumption of the Brethren of Jesus. —"I go not up yet unto this feast." —Eager Questions of the Multitude. —Their differing Opinions. —Jesus appears in the Temple. —His Reproachful Question. —"Thou hast a devil." —Appeal to His Works. —Indignation of the Sanhedrin. —Observances of the Last Day of the Feast. —"The joy of the drawing of water." —"Rivers of Living Water." -Divided Opinions. —"Never man spake like this Man." —Timid Interpellation of Nicodemus. —Answering Taunt of the Pharisees
Chapter-40: THE WOMAN TAKEN IN ADULTERY Indirect references to the Narrative in the following Discourses. —Jesus at the Mount of Olives. —Returns at Dawn to the Temple. —Hilarity of the Feast of Tabernacies. —Immorality of the Age. —The Water of Jealousy. —Base Cruelty of the Pharisees. —The Woman dragged into the Temple. —"What sayest Thou?" —Subtlety of the Assault. —Writing on the Floor. —"Him that is without sin among you." —Conscience-stricken. —Misery left alone with Mercy. —"Go, and sin no more." —Absolute Calmness of Jesus under all Attacks. —Eighth Day of the Feast. —The great Candelabra. —The Light of the World. —Agitating Discussion, with the Jews. —A Burst of Fury. —Jesus leaves the Temple
Chapter-41: THE Man Born Blind Jewish Notion of Nemesis. —"Which did sin?" —"Go wash in the Pool of Siloam." —On the Sabbath Day. —The Man examined by the Sanhedrin. —A Sturdy Nature. —Perplexity of the Sanhedrists. —"We know that this man is a sinner." —Blandishments and Threats. —The Man excommunicated —Jesus and the Outcast. —True and False Shepherds
Chapter-42: FAREWELL TO GALILEE The Interval between the Feasts of Tabernacles and Dedication. —Great Episode in St. Luke. —Character of the Episode. —Mission of the Seventy. —News of the Galileans massacred by Pilate. —Teachings founded on the Event. —Stern Warnings. —The Barren Fig-tree. —The Pharisees’ Plot to hasten His Departure. —"Go and tell this fox." —Herod Antipas. —Jesus sets forth —Farewell to the Scene of His Ministry. —Fate that fell on the Galileans. —Jesus exults in Spirit. —"Come unto me all ye that labour." —Noble Joy.
Chapter-43: INCIDENTS OF THE JOURNEY Possible Routes. —The Village of En-Gannim. —Churlishness of the Samaritans. —Passion of the Sons of Thunder. —Gentle Rebuke of Jesus. —Counting the Cost. —Peraea. —The Ten Lepers. —Thanklessness. —"Where are the nine?"
Chapter-44: TEACHINGS OF THE JOURNEY Sabbatical Disputes. —Foolish Ruler of the Synagogue. —Healing of the Bowed Woman. —Argumentum ad hominem. —Ignorant Sabbatarianism. Religious Espionage. —The Man with the Dropsy. —Question of Jesus. —Silence of Obstinacy. —The Man Healed. —Self-sufficiency of the Pharisees. —Struggles for Precedence. —A Vague Platitude. —Parable of the King’s Marriage-feast. —The Unjust Steward. —Avarice of the Pharisees .—Their Sycophancy to Herod. —The Rich Man and Lazarus. —"Are there few that be saved?" —"What must I do to obtain Eternal Life?" —The Good Samaritan. —Return of the Seventy. —The Love of Publicans and Sinners. —The Parable of the Prodigal Son. —Solemn Warnings. —"Where, Lord?" —The Eagles and the Carcase
Chapter-45: THE Feast of DEDICATION The House at Bethany. —Martha and Mary. —"The one thing needful." —The Feast of the Dedication. —Solomon’s Porch. —Reminiscence of the Feast. —Jesus suddenly surrounded. "How long dost thou hold us in suspense?" —No Political Messiah. —"I and My Father are one." —They seek to stone Him. —Appeal of Jesus to His Life and Works. —He retires to Bethany beyond Jordan
Chapter-46:THE Last Stay In PERAEA Question about Divorce. —Importance of the Question. —Hillel and Shammai. —Dispute as to the meaning of Ervath Dabhar. —Lax Interpretations. —Both Schools wrong. —Simple Solution of the Question. —Permission of Divorce by Moses only temporary. —Corruption of the Age. —Teachings of Jesus about Moral Purity. —Celibacy and Marriage. —Jesus blesses Little Children. —The eager Young Ruler. —"Good Master." —"What must I do?" —An Heroic Mandate. —"The Great Refusal." —Discouragement of the Disciples. —Hundred fold Rewards. —The Labourers in the Vineyard
Chapter-47: THE RAISING OF LAZARUS Message to Jesus. —Two Days’ Delay. —"Let us also go that we may die with Him." —He approaches Bethany. —Martha meets Him. —"The Resurrection and the Life." —Mary’s Agony. —Deep Emotion of Jesus. —Scene at the Grave. —"Lazarus, come forth." —Silence of the Synoptists. —Meeting at the House of Caiaphas. —His Wicked Policy. —The Fiat of Death. —Retirement to Ephraim
Chapter-48: JERICHO AND BETHANY Pilgrim-caravans. —Jesus on His Way. —Revelation of the Crowning Horror. —The Sons of Zebedee. —The Cup and the Baptism. —Humility before Honour. —Jericho. —Bartimeeus. —Zaccheus. —His Repentance. —Parable of the Pounds. —Events which suggested it. —Arrival at Bethany. —"Simon the Leper." -Intentional Reticence of the Synoptists. —Mary’s Offering. —Inward Rage of Judas. —Blessing of Mary by Jesus. —"For my burying." —Interview of the Traitor with the Priests
Chapter-49: PALM SUNDAY Excitement of Expectation. —Three Roads to Bethany. —Bethphage. —The Ass’s Colt -A Humble Triumph. —Hosanna! -Turn of the Road. —The Jerusalem of that Day. —Jesus weeps over the City. —Terrible Fulfilment of the Woe. —The Two Processions. —Indignation of the Pharisees. —"Who is this?" —Jesus once more cleanses the Temple. —Hosannas of the Children. "Have ye never read?" —The Greeks who desired an Interview. —Abgarus V. —Discourse of Jesus. —Voice from Heaven. —The Day closes in Sadness. —Bivouac on the Mount of Olives
Chapter-50:MONDAY IN PASSION WEEK — A Day OF PARABLES Jesus Hungers. —The Deceptive Fig. —Hopelessly Barren. —Criticisms on the Miracle. —Right View of it. —Deputation of the Priests. —"Who gave thee this authority?" —Counter-question of Jesus. —The Priests reduced to silence. —Parable of the Two Sons. —Parable of the Rebellious Husbandmen. —The Rejected Corner-stone. —Parable of the Marriage of the King’s Son. —Machinations of the Pharisees
Chapter-51: THE DAY OF TEMPTATIONS — THE LAST AND Greatest Day OF THE PUBLIC Ministry of JESUS The Withered Fig-Tree. —Power of Faith. —Plot of the Herodians. —Its Dangerous Character. -The Tribute Money. —Divine and Ready Wisdom of the Reply of Jesus. —Attempt of the Sadducees. —A poor Question of Casuistry. —The Sevenfold Widow. —"As the Angels of God." -"The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob." —Implicit Teaching of Immortality
Chapter-52: THE GREAT DENUNCIATION "Master, Thou hast well said." —"Which is the great commandment?" —Answer of the Rabbis. —Answer of Jesus. —"Not far from the kingdom of heaven." —Question of Jesus to the Scribes. —David’s Son and David's Lord. —Their Failure to answer. —The Final Rupture. —"Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!" —The Voice which broke in Tears. —"O Jerusalem, Jerusalem!" —The Denunciation deserved. —The Denunciation fulfilled
Chapter-53: FAREWELL TO THE TEMPLE Happier Incident. —The poor Widow. —True Almsgiving. —Splendour of the Temple. —"Not one stone upon another." —Jesus on the Mount of Olives. —"When shall these things be ?" —The great Eschatological Discourse. —The Two Horizons. —Difficulties of the Discourse, and mode of meeting them. —What must come before the Final End. —The Immediate Future. —Warning Signs. —Parable of the Fig-tree —of the Ten Virgins—of the Talents. —After Two Days. —Last Evening Walk to Bethany
Chapter-54: THE BEGINNING OF THE END Meeting of Conspirators in the Palace of Caiaphas. —Their Discussions. —Judas demands an Interview. —Thirty Pieces of Silver. —Motives of Judas. —"Satan entered into Judas." —The Wednesday passed in Retirement. —Last Sleep of Jesus on Earth
Chapter-55: THE LAST SUPPER "Green Thursday." —Preparations for the Meal. —The Upper Room. —Dispute about Precedence. —Jesus washes the Disciples’ Feet. —Peter’s Surprise and Submission. —"Ye are clean, but not all." —Teaching about Humility. —Troubled in Spirit. —"One of you shall betray me." -"Lord, is it I?" —Peter makes a sign to John. —Giving of the Sop. —“Rabbi is it I?" -"He went out, and it was night." —Revived Joy of the Feast. —Institution of the Lord’s Supper
Chapter-56: THE LAST DISCOURSES "Now is the Son of Man glorified." —"Little Children." —The New Commandment. —"Lord, whither goest Thou?" —Warning to Peter. —"Lord, here are two swords." —Consolations. —"How can we know the way?" —"Lord, show us the Father." —Difficulty of Judas Lebbaeus. —Last Words before Starting. —The True Vine. —Plain Teaching. —Gratitude of the Disciples. —Fresh Warnings to them. —The High-Priestly Prayer
Chapter-57: GETHSEMANE — THE AGONY AND THE ARREST Walk through the Moonlight to Gethsemane. —Last Warning to Peter. —Gethsemane. —Scene of Agony. —Desire for Solitude and yet for Sympathy. —The First Struggle with Agony of Soul. —Its Intensity. —The Bloody Sweat. —Not due to Dread of Death. —"Simon, sleepest thou?" —The Second Agony. —The Disciples Sleeping. —The Third Agony and Final Victory. —"Sleep on now, and take your rest." —Torches in the Moonlight. —Steps taken by Judas. —"Comrade." —The Traitor’s Kiss. —Jesus advances. —"Whom seek ye?" —"I am He.” —Terror of the Band. —Historical Parallels. —Jesus arrested. —Peter’s Blow. —"Suffer ye thus far." —The Young Man in the Linen Sheet. —Jesus bound and led away
Chapter-58: JESUS BEFORE THE PRIESTS AND THE SANHEDRIN Asserted Discrepancies. —Sixfold Trial. —"To Annas first." —Hanan, the High Priest de jure. —His Character. —His Responsibility for the Result. —Degradation of the then Sanhedrin. —Pharisees and Sadduecees. —Greater Cruelty of the Latter. —The Sadducees, the Priestly Party. —Cause of their Rage and Hatred. —"The Viper Brood." —Jesus repudiates the Examination of Hanan. — Answerest Thou the High Priest so?" —Noble Patience. —The Second Phase of the Trial. —In the Palace of Caiaphas. —Committees of the Sanhedrin. —"Sought false witness." —Total Failure of the Witnesses. —"Destroy this Temple." —Silence of Jesus. —Despair of Caiaphas. —His violent Adjuration. —Reply of Jesus —"Blasphemy." —"Ish maveth"
Chapter-59: THE INTERVAL BETWEEN THE TRIALS The First Derision. —The Outer Court. —John procures Admission for Peter. —The First Denial. -The Second Denial. —The Galilean Accent. —The Third Denial. —The Look of Jesus. —The Repentance of Peter. —Brutal Insults of the Menials. The Dawn. —The Meeting of the Sanhedrin. —Their Divisions. —Third Phase of the Trial. —A Contrast of Two Scenes before the Sanhedrin. —Jesus breaks His Silence. —The Condemnation. -The Second Derision. —The Fate of Jesus
Chapter-60: JESUS BEFORE PILATE "Suffered under Pontius Pilate." —What is known of Pilate. —First Outbreak of the Jews against him on his arrival. —The Aqueduct and the Corban. —The gilt Votive Shields. —The Massacre of Galileans. —The Massacre of Samaritans. —The Palave of Herod. —Jesus in the Palace. —Led before Pilate. —Pilate comes out to the Jews. —1. His Roman Contemptuousness. —Determines to try the Case. —Vagueness of the Accusations. —"Art Thou the King of the Jews ?" —"What is truth?" —First Acquittal. —2. Fierceness of the Jews. —Jesus sent to Herod Antipas. —Cruel Frivolity of Herod. —Second Acquittal. —3. Last Phase of the Trial. Temporising of Pilate. —Dream of his Wife. —Cowardly Concession. —Jesus or Bar-Abbas. —"Crucify Him." —The Scourging. —Third Derision. —The Crown of Thorns. —"Behold the Man!" —Last efforts of Pilate to save Him. —Last Warning to Pilate. —"The Son of God." —"Behold your King." —Pilate terrified at the Name of Cesar. —He gives way. —He washes his Hands. —"His blood be on us, and on our children! —Fulfilment of the Imprecation.
Chapter-61: THE CRUCIFIXION "I, miles, expedi erucem." —Two Malefactors. —The Cross. —Procession to Golgotha. —Symon of Cyrene. —The Daughters of Jerusalem. —The Green and the Dry Tree. -Site of Golgotha. —The Medicated, Draught. —The Method of Crucifixion. —"Father, forgive them." —Agony of Crucifixion. —The Title on the Cross. —Rage of the Jews. —The Soldiers. —Parting the Garments. —Insults of the Bystanders. —The Robber. —Silence of the Sufferer. —The Penitent Robber. —"To-day shalt thou be with Me in paradise." —The Women from Galilee. —"Woman, behold thy son." —The Noonday Darkness. —"Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" —"I thirst." —Vinegar to Drink. —"Into Thy hands." -"It is finished." —The Centurion. —The Multitude. —What the Cross of Christ has done. —The Crurifragium. —Water and Blood.
Chapter-62: THE RESURRECTION Utter apparent Weakness of Christianity at the Death of Christ. —Source of its subsequent Strength. —Joseph of Arimathea. —Nicodemus. —The Garden and the Sepulchre. —The Women near the Spot. —Request of the Sanhedrin that the Tomb might be Guarded. —The Dawn of Easter Day. —The Women at the Sepulchre. —The Empty Tomb. —Peter and John. —1. First Appearance to Mary of Magdala -2. Appearance to the Women. —Story Invented by the Jews. —3. Appearance to Peter. —4.The Disciples at Emmaus. —5. The assembled Apostles. —6. The Apostles and Thomas. —7. At the Sea of Galilee. —Jesus and Peter. —"Feed my Lambs." —"What shall this man do?" —8. The Five Hundred on the Mountain. —9. Appearance to James. —10. The Ascension. —"At the right hand of God, the Father Almighty"

Review: The book calls Jesus Son of God and highlights the notion that even though Jews now consider Jesus their Messiah but not his divinity. Quotes: "...this book is almost wholly founded on an independent study of the four Gospels side by side. In quoting from them I have constantly and intentionally diverged from the English version, because my main object has been to bring out and explain the scenes as they are described by the original witnesses.", "I do not regard as possible any final harmony of the Gospels.", "On this subject no two writers have ever been exactly agreed, and this alone is sufficient to prove that the Gospel notices of chronology are too incomplete to render certainty attainable.", "In deciding upon a particular sequence of events, we can only say that suca a sequence appears to us a probable one, not by any means that we regard it as certain."

Truthfulness of the Gospels contrasted with Apocryphal Legends - no criteria given about who are authorized to categoried truthfulness.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 40_The-Holy-Mass-Christ.pdf THE HOLY MASS ST. ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI 1889 English 478
Table of Contents
Introduction: THE SACRIFICE OF JESUS CHRIST, WITH A SHORT EXPLANATION OF THE PRAYER OF MASS. THE SACRIFICE OF JESUS CHRIST. The Sacrifices of the Old Law were figures of the Sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Fulfilment of the prophetic figures. SHORT EXPLANATION OF THE PRAYERS OF MASS. The preparation that is made at the foot of the altar; From the Introit to the Credo; The Offertory and the Preface; The Canon; The Pater noster; From the prayer Libera nos till the Communion; Thanksgiving. ACCOUNT OF A STRIKING MIRACLE. HOSTS DISCOVERED IN A FIELD NEAR NAPLES, THE CEREMONIES OF THE MASS.
Chapter-01:WHAT THE PRIEST SHOULD DO BEFORE GOING TO THE ALTAR 1. Preparatory arts. 2. The preparing of the Missal and the washing of hands 3- The preparing of the chalice 4. The priest about to put on the vestments 5.He puts on the amice 6. The alb 7. The maniple 8. The stole 9. The chasuble
Chapter-02: LEAVING THE SACRISTY AND APPROACHING THE ALTAR 1. The priest takes the chalice and proceeds to leave the sacristy 2. The priest goes from the sacristy to the altar 3. The priest arrives at the altar 4. The priest as cends the steps of the altar, whereon he places the chalice 5. The priest opens the Missal, then descends to the foot of the altar
Chapter-03: THE BEGINNING OF THE MASS 1. The priest, with his hands joined, makes an inclination or a genuflection 2. The priest makes the sign of the cross 3. The priest recites the psalm Judica me 4. The priest recites the Confiteor and what follows it as far as the prayer Anfer a nolris
Chapter-04: THE INTROIT, KYRIE, AND GLORIA IN EXCELSIS 1. The priest says the prayer Oramus te, and kisses the altar 2. The priest reads the Introit, and recites the Kyrie 3. The priest recites the Gloria in Excelsis, III.
Chapter-05: THE PRAYERS 1. The priest salutes the people, saying Dominus vobiscum 2. The priest recites the prayer 3. The prayer on the Ember days 4. The number of prayers 5. The order of the prayers
Chapter-06: THE EPISTLE, THE GRADUAL, THE GOSPEL, AND THE CREDO 1. The priest reads the Epistle, the Gradual, and what follows 2. The priest reads the Gospel 3. The priest recites the Credo 4. At which Masses should the Credo be said
Chapter-07: THE OFFERTORY, THE SECRETUM, AND THE PREFACE 1. The priest recites the Offertory 2. The priest uncovers the chalice and offers the bread 3. The priest puts wine and water into the chalice, and offers them 4. The priest blesses the bread and the wine 5. The priest washes his hands 6. The priest says the Suscipe Sancta Trinitas, the Orate Fratres, and the Seereta 7. The priest says the Preface
Chapter-08: FROM THE CANON OF THE MASS TO THE CONSECRATION, INCLUSIVELY 1. The priest recites the prayer Te igitur 2. makes the Memento for the living; finishes the prayer Memento, and says the following prayers: Communicantes, Hanc igitur, and Quam oblationem 3. consecrates the Host, consecrates the chalice
Chapter-09: FROM THE CONSECRATION TO THE Pater noster, EXCLUSIVELY 1. The priest says the prayers Unde et Mentores, Supraqua, Supplices 2. makes the Memento for the Dead, 3. says the prayers Nobis quoque peccatoribus and Per quem hac omnia
Chapter-10: FROM THE Pater noster AND THE ACTS THAT FOLLOW TO THE PRIEST S COMMUNION, INCLUSIVELY 1. The priest recites the Pater noster, and begins the Libera nos quaesumus 2. continues until after the Agnus Dei, 3. receives the sacred Host, 4. takes the precious blood; takes the ablutions, then covers the chalice with the veil and the burse
Chapter-11: THE PRAYERS AFTER COMMUNION, AND THE END OF MASS 1. The priest recites the Communio, the Post-communio, and the Ite Missa est, 2. recites the prayer Placeat tibi, and gives the blessing, 3. reads the last Gospel, 4. leaves the altar and returns to the sacristy
Chapter-12: THE MANNER OF GIVING COMMUNION DURING MASS 1. The manner of giving Communion with the Hosts consecrated at Mass 2. with the Hosts kept in the tabernacle 3. remarks in regard to the Hosts that are not consumed 4. Communion is given during and even after Mass 5. manner of purifying the ciborium 6.Communion in Requiem Masses
Appendix: I. Notice of the Missal II. The altar and its ornaments 1. The altar 2. The altar-cloths and the antipendium 3. The cross and the candles 4. Altar-cards, bookstand, cruets
Appendix: III. The chalice and its accessories 1. The chalice and the paten 2. The purificator, pall, corporal, veil, and burse IV. The vestments 1. Material and blessing 2. The color of the vest ments V. The matter and the form of the sacrament 1. The bread 2. The wine 3. The sacramental form VI. The disposition of the celebrant 1. The intention 2. The disposition of the soul 3. The disposition of the body
Appendix: VII. Accidents 1. Profanation of the church, and imminent dangers 2. Illness with which the celebrant may be seized 3. Hurtful things that may fall into the chalice or touch the Host 4. The Host that is broken or has fallen into the chalice 5. Precious blood frozen or spilt 6. Vomiting, and the Host that has fallen VIII. The place and the time in which one may celebrate Mass 1. The place 2. The time IX. Mass when celebrated in aliena ecclesia X. The server of Mass
Appendix: THE HONORARIUM OF MASSES, or the abuses to which it gives rise. Reply to an anonymous book entitled; Dissertation on the Honorarium of Masses, 1. Ancient custom of public Masses with offerings, and origin of paid Masses 2. Abuses occasioned by the admission of Honoraria, and the means employed to remedy them 3. Various means devised to abolish the Honorarium, and the remedy proposed by the anonymous author 4. Examination of the author's views; first, as to private Masses 5. The use of unleavened and of leavened bread 6. The origin of Honoraria 7. The value and application of the fruit of the Mass 8. The Masses specially applied, for which stipends are given 9. The contracts made in regard to the Honorarium 10. The abolition of Honoraria, and the re-establishent of Masses with offerings 11. The care of excluding unworthy subjects from Holy Orders 12. Privileged altars
PREPARATION FOR MASS AND THANKSGIVING AFTER IT: PRAYERS OF THE MISSAL AND PRAYERS TO WHICH INDULGENCES ARE ATTACHED, Preparation for Mass, Pneparatio ad Missam pro opportunitate Sacerdotis facicnda, Orationes pro opportunitate Sacerdotis ante Celebrationem et Communionem dicendae: Oratio Sancti Ambrosii Episcopi; alia Oratio ante Missam, Oratio Sancti Thornse Aquinatis, Indulgenced prayers for priests-Ego volo celebrare Missam, O felicem virum, beatum Joseph, Virginum Gustos et Pater, Sancte Joseph, Thanksgiving, Gratiarum actio post Missam, Orationes post Celebrationem et Communionem dicendae: Oratio Sancti Thomze de Aquino, Oratio Sancti Bonaventurae, Rhythmus Sancti Thomae ad Sacram Eucharistiam, Indulgenced prayers for priests: Obsecro te, dulcissime Domine Jesu Christe, Anima Christi,En ego
--- CONSIDERATIONS AND AFFECTIONS VARIOUS PRAYERS: Importance of the holy sacrifice, The Mass that is said with but little respect and devotion, Preparation for Mass, Thanksgiving, A word to those that abstain from saying Mass, through humility, Preparation for Mass, Considerations and affections for every day in the week, Memento of the living, Memento of the dead, Forma infentionis, Thanksgiving, Affections for each day of the week, Invocations: Anima Christi sandissima, Various prayers: Precatiuncula Sacerdotibus quotidie legenda, tit in dies Deo ferventins deservianty; Ad Beatissimam Mariam precatio, Ad vulnera Christi oratio, Salutationfs ad omnia membra Christi, et sui ipsitts ad eum commendatio
--- CONSIDERATIONS AND AFFECTIONS ON THE PASSION. ACTS. ASPIRATIONS. PRAYERS: Introduction. The respect with which one should say Mass, Preparation for Mass. Considerations on the Passion of Jesus Christ, for every day of the week, Thanksgiving. Affections for every day of the week, Acts before Communion, Acts after Communion, Loving aspirations to the Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament, Before Communion, 374. After Communion, Aspirations of love to Jesus for meditation and holy Communion, Devout aspirations to be made before and after Communion, drawn from the manuscripts of St. Francis de Sales, Before Communion, After Communion and at the visit of the Blessed Sacrament, Various prayers: Petitions to Jesus Christ received in holy Communion, Prayer of St. Bonaventure to the Most Holy Sacrament, Prayer to the Most Blessed Virgin, to obtain the love of Jesus, and love towards her, Litania Sandissimi Nominis Jesu, Litania; Lauretance, B. M. V.
--- THE MASS AND THE OFFICE THAT ARE HURRIEDLY SAID: The holy sacrifice of the Mass hurriedly said, Importance of the holy sacrifice, Three things necessary to say Mass, Preparation before Mass, The respect with which Mass ought to be celebrated, Thanksgiving after celebrating Mass, The priest who abstains from saying Mass, The Divine Office hurriedly said, Importance of the Divine Office, Necessity of reciting the Office well, Requisite attention and devotion, Lights and graces derived from the Office well recited, Faith, Confidence in God, Love for God, Acts of thanksgiving, of humility, of contrition, and of firm purpose of amendment, Various prayers
The Sacrifice of Jesus Christ. The Ceremonies of the Mass. Preparation and Thanksgiving. The Mass and the Office that are hurriedly said.


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 19_Akbar-and-the-Jesuits.pdf Akbar and the Jesuits C. H. Payne FirstEnglish 349
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: AKBAR, THE GREAT MOGUL The early Moguls —Tamerlane —Babur —Humayun —Akbar's conquests —Limits of his empire —Its fertility and wealth —Military strength —War-elephants —Personal appearance of Akbar —His temperament, tastes and, recreations —Methods of hunting deer —Public audiences —Administration of justice —Punishments
Chapter-02: THE FIRST MISSION TO MOGOR Akbar's first contact with Christianity —Antoine Cabral —Pierre Tavero —Father Julien Pereira —The priest and the Mullas —Akbar sends for Jesuit Fathers —The first Mission —Its compositiony despatch, and arrival at Fathpur —Favourable reception at court —Debates with the Mullas —Their effect on Akbar
Chapter-03: WHAT IS TRUTH? Residence of the Mission —The royal Princes —Akbar visits the oratory —His leanings towards Christianity —Doctrinal difficulties —The ordeal by fire —Abul Fazl —Revolt in Bengal —The Kabul campaign —The Fathers lose favour —Akbar defends his Mullas
Chapter-04: FATHER RUDOLF AQUAVIVA The Fathers regain Akbar's favour —Hostility of the Saracens —The Mission breaks up —Father Rudolf alone at the Mogul court —His influence over Akbar —The Mullas seek his life —His prayers and austerities —Loved and respected by all classes —His return to Goa
Chapter-05: THE SECOND MISSION Akbar celebrates the feast of the Assumption —Displays his contempt for Islam —Leon Grimon arrives at court —Carries the King's letters to Goa —Jesuit Fathers again invited to the Mogul court —Arrangements for their journey —Akbar’s letter to the Fathers —The Mission at Agra —Its failure and recall
Chapter-06: DISPATCH OF THIRD MISSION Dispatch of third Mission —Arrival at Bambay —First fruits —Meeting with Prince Murad —Travelling with a caravan —At Ahmadabad —A Yogi —A wonderful tomb —Pilgrims on their way to Mecca —The feast of the Passover —Arrival at Lahor
Chapter-07: THE FATHERS AT COURT Welcomed by the King and the Prince —The King's library —A vassal Prince pays homage to the Great Mogul —Gifts fit for a king —Renewed hopes of the King’s conversion —His reverence for Christianity and contempt of Islam —He founds a new religion —The Fathers open a school at Lahor —The King grants them permission to make converts
Chapter-08: ON TOUR WITH THE KING Akbar's eclecticism —The royal palace on fire —The Fathers accompany Akbar to Kashmir —The country described —Illness of Father Xavier and of the King —Famine —The return journey —Prince Salim's adventure with a lioness —Celebrating Christmas at Lahor —The Fathers pay a visit to Akbar —A strange experiment —Facing a storm— The price of baptism —The King, accompanied by Father Xavier, sets out for the Deccan —Public baptism of converts at Lahore —A brave proselyte
Chapter-09: AT THE SEAT OF WAR Akbar marches to Burhanpur —Father Corst joins the Mission —His adventurous journey from Cambay to Burhanpur —The Deccan Campaign —The investment of Asirgarh —Submission of king Miran —The Governor of the fortress commits suicide —The defenders are bribed and the fortress is surrendered
Chapter-10: AN EMBASSY TO GOA Father Pigneiro comes to the royal camp —He pays his respects to the King —Akbar's designs against the Portuguese —An ambassador is sent to the Portuguese Viceroy —His reception at Goa —Akbar's letter to the Viceroy
Chapter-11: FATHER PIGNEIRO AT LAHORE, 1600-1 Work amongst the people —Opposition of the Brahmans —A friendly Viceroy —Father Pigneiro as peace-maker —Vice-regal state —Mogul death duties —The Kotwal stands by the Fathers
Chapter-12: THE CONFIDENCE TRICK Father Ptgneiro entertains a thief unawares —He is drugged and robbed —His misfortune arouses general indignation and sympathy
Chapter-13: SOME NOTABLE CONVERSIONS Christmas celebrations —A pastoral play —The Viceroy and other great lords attend the festival —Many are converted to Christianity —Some notable cases described —Some Armenian converts —Death of an Armenian bishop —An eclipse of the sun
Chapter-14: A BRAVE CHAMPION A Brahman convert —Persecuted by his parents —Takes refuge in the Fathers' house —The Fathers are charged with abduction —The Chief Judge acquits the Fathers and defends the Christian faith —The case is referred to Pagan judges —The neophyte is illused and insulted —He defies the 'Coxi' —Is taken before the Kazi —His courage remains unshaken —He resigns his worldly possessions, and is left in peace —The Chief Judge commends his constancy
Chapter-15: AN IMPERIAL FARMAN Akbar returns to Agra —Benoist de Goes joins the Mission —An unfriendly Viceroy— 'The King was in his counting-house' —The Fathers obtain a farman from Akbar permitting his subjects to embrace Christianity —The Saracens put obstructions in the way —Mogul red tape —A friend at court —The farman is issued
Chapter-16: A MIRACULOUS PICTURE A picture of the Madonna del Popolo is placed in the church at Agra —Great crowds press to see it —Its miraculous influence —It is taken to the King's palace —The King's painters try to copy it —The Queen-mother sendsfor it —Also Aziz Khan and the ex-king of Kandahar
Chapter-17: EVENTS OF THE TEAR 1602 The Fathers rescue and baptise a number of Portuguese prisoners — Some other noteworthy baptisms —The remarkable case of a Greek Christian and his wife —Fifty shipwrecked Portuguese are sent as prisoners to Akbar —With much difficulty the Fathers procure their freedom
Chapter-18: PRINCE SALIM The Prince in rebellion —Murders Abul Fazl —Displays great affection for the Fathers and respect for Christianity —Jacques Philippe —Death ofthe Queen-mother —The Prince makes submission to Akbar —Is placed in confinement and afterwards released —His reverence for Christ and the Virgin —Makes provision for a church at Agra
Chapter-19: PERSECUTION OF THE FATHERS Saracens and Gentiles make vows and bring offerings to the Firgin —A Saracen of note dedicates his child to the Church —The Princess physician is baptised —The perils of preaching the Gospel —Troubles at Lahore —The Ficerofs hostility —A Gentile conspiracy —Providence intervenes —Retribution overtakes the Ficeroy and the chief conspirators
Chapter-20: THE DEATH OF AKBAR Akbar's fatal illness —The Fathers are refused admission to the palace —The Prince visits his dying father —Akbar's last moments—Kis character and manner of life —His conquests and good fortune —Funeral rites

Keywords:Society of Jesus, Jesuit missions, Company of Jesus

Review:"for it ends with the reign of John III, king of Portugal, who died in the year 1557; work of converting the Infidels did not commence before the year 1540.", "The account here reproduced of the Missions to the court of Akbar, is based on the letters of the Fathers by whom the Missions were condufted, and the reports sent to the General of the Society at Rome by the Provincials at Goa.", "The goal of their desires was to see a Christian prince seated on the Mogul throne; and as the prospedf of Akbar’s conversion waxed dim, their attentions and their effort became more and more concentrated on the son who was to succeed him.", Tartar king whom men have called the scourge of God. "Echebar was by temperament melancholy, and he suffered from the falling-sickness; so that to divert his mind, he had recourse to various forms of amusement, such as watching elephants fight together, or camels, or buffaloes, or rams that butt and gore each other with their horns, or even two cocks."

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents: There is no TOC in this book


Review: The Emperor Babur was of Tartar race, and the language in which his commentaries are written was that spoken by the tribes who inhabited the desert to the north and east of the Caspian. The memoirs stars from page 111 of the PDF file. The introduction section covers various aspects of manuscripts and translations available.

Books on Islam

Islamic Chronology

Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, born in 164 AH and died in Baghdad in 241 AH. Muhammad bin Ismael Al-Bukhari was born in 194 AH and died in Samarqand in 256 AH. Muslim born in 204 AH and died in Naisabor in 161. Abu Dawood - Sulaiman bin Al-Ashath As-Sagistani - Born in 202 and died in 275 AH in Al-Basrah. At-Tirmidhi - Ahmad bin Shuaib, born in 216 and died 303. An-Nasai - Muhammad bin Isa died in 276 in Tirmidh. Ibn Majah - Muhmammad bin Yazid Al-Qazwini, born in 207 and died in 275 AH.

Mongol invasion and the fall of Baghdad (the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate): 1258 CE. Caliph al-Musta’sim surrenders to Hülegü in 1258. Baghdad is looted for a week after Al-Musta’sim’s surrender. Hülegü leaves Baghdad with the caliph and kills him in the village of Waqf.

"THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD" - A TRANSLATION OF ISHAQ’S SIRAT RASUL ALLAH WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES by A. GUILLAUME: Excerpts - MUHAMMAD, son of Ishaq, son of Yasar, was born in Medina about A.H. 85 and died in Baghdad in 151.

CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - v, INTRODUCTION - xiii, The Author - xiii, The Sira - xiv, The Editor Ibn Hishàm - xli, A Fragment of the Lost Book of Musa b. ‘Uqba - xliii


Genealogy - 3, The soothsayers Shiqq and Satih - 4, Abu Karib's expedition to Yathrib - 6, His sons Hassan and ‘Amr - 12, Lakhni'a Dhu Shanatir - 13, Dhu Nuwas - 14, Christianity in Najran - 14, Abdullah b. al-Thamir and the Christian martyrs - 16, Abyssinian domination of the Yaman - 18, Abraha's abortive attack on Mecca - 21, Persian domination of the Yaman - 30, The descendants of Nizar b. Ma'add - 34, Origin of idolatry among the Arabs - 35, Arab taboos - 40, The descendants of Mudar - 40, The digging of Zamzam - 45, 62, Kinana and Khuzá'a expel Jurhum and occupy the Ka'ba - 46, The hajj in the Jahiliya - 49, Quraysh predominate in Mecca - 52, Internal dissensions - 56, The wells of Mecca - 65, 'Abdu'l-Muttalib vows to sacrifice his son - 66, ‘Abdullah father of the prophet - 68, Amina mother of the prophet - 69, His birth and fostermother - 69, His mother’s death - 73, Death of ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib and elegies thereon - 73, Abu Talib becomes Muhammad's guardian - 79, The monk Bahira - 79, The sacrilegious war - 82, Muhammad marries Khadija - 82, Rebuilding of the Ka‘ba - 84, The Hums - 87, Jews, Christians, and Arabs predict Muhammad's mission - 90, Salman the Persian - 95, Early monotheists - 98, The Gospel prophecy of the sending of ‘the Comforter’ - 103.


His call and the beginning of the Quran - 11, Khadija accepts Islam - 111, Prayer prescribed - 112, 'Ali the first male Muslim, then Abü Bakr and his converts - 114, Muhammad preaches and Quraysh reject him - 117, Abi Talib protects him from Quraysh - 118, Persecution of Muhammad - 130, Hamza accepts Islam - 131, 'Utba attempts a compromise - 132, Conference with Quraysh leaders. The chapter of The Cave - 133, 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud recites the Quran publicly - 141, Meccan persecute Muhammad's followers - 143, THe first emigrants to Abyssinia - 146, Quraysh try to get them sent back - 150, How the Negus gained his throne - 153, 'Umar accepts Islam - 155, The document proclaiming a boycott - 159, Active opposition to Muhammad - 161, His temporary concession to polytheism - 165, The return of the first emigrants - 167, 'Uthman b. Maz'un and Aba Bakr renounce their protectors - 169, Annulling of the boycott - 172, Tufayl b. 'Amr accepts Islam - 175, Abu Jahl's dishonesty - 177, Rukana wrestles with Muhammad - 178, Some Christians accept Islam - 179, Suras 108 and 6 - 180, The night journey and the ascent to heaven - 181, Allah punishes the mockers - 187, The story of Aba Uzayhir - 187, Death of Aba Talib and Khadija - 191, Muhammad preaches in al-Ta’if - 192
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 62_Al-Hasan-ibn-Ali.pdf Al-Hasan Ibn Ali: His Life and Times Dr. Ali M. Sallabi ThirdEnglish 345
Table of Contents
Part-01: Al-I:Iasan ibn 'Ali from birth to the caliphate
Chapter-01: His names, lineage, birth and family, 1.1 His name and lineage, 1.2 His birth, naming, titles, and the Prophet's way of naming newborns 1.3 The Messenger of Allah recites the call to prayer in al-Hasan's ears, 1.4 Tahneek, 1.5 Shaving his head, 1.6 The animal sacrifice, 1.7 The circumcision, 1.8 His wet nurse: Umm al-Fadl, 1.9 His marriages, 1.10 His children, 1.10.1 Zayd ibn al-Hasan ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 1.10.2 Al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 1.11 His siblings, 1.11. l Al-Husayn ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 1.11.2 Muhaassan ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 1.11.3 Umm Kulthoom hint 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 1.11.4 Zaynab bint 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 1.11.5 Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah, 1.12 His paternal uncles and aunts, 1.12.1 Talib ibn Abi Talib, 1.12.2 'Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, 1.12.3 Ja'far ibn Abi Talib, 1.12.4 Umm Hani'bint Abi Talib, 1.12.5 Jumanah bint Abi Talib, 1.13 His maternal uncles and aunts, 1.13.1 Zaynab, daughter of the Messenger of Allah, 1.13.2 Ruqayyah, daughter of the Messenger of Allah, 1.13.3 Umm Kulthoom, daughter of the Messenger of Allah
Chapter-02: His mother, Fatimah az-Zahra 2.1 Her dowry and trousseau, 2.2 Her wedding, 2.3 The wedding feast, 2.4 The lifestyle of' Ali and Fatimah, 2.5 Her asceticism and patience, 2.6 The Messenger of Allah's love and protective jealousy for her, 2.7 Her sincerity of speech, 2.8 Her leadership in this world and the hereafter, 2.9 Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, Fatimah and the Prophet's estate, 2.10 Her goodwill toward Abu Bakr, 2.11 Her death
Chapter-03: His status in the eyes of his grandfather, the beloved Prophet 3.1 The Messenger of Allah's love and compassion for al-Hasan, and the time he spent with him, 3.2 Guidelines on the emotional development of children, 3.2. l Kissing and showing compassion and kindness to children, 3.2.2 Joking and playing with children, 3.2.3 Giving children gifts, 3.2.4 Patting children's heads, 3.2.5 Welcoming children, 3.2.6 Checking on children and inquiring after them, 3.3 The resemblance of al-Hasan ibn 'Ali to the Prophe, 3.4 Al-Hasan and al-Husayn: Leaders of the youth of paradise, 3.5 They are my two fragrant plants in this world, 3.6 Al-Hasan's leadership in this world and the hereafter, 3.7 l seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah from every devil and poisonous reptile, and from every envious evil eye, 3.8 Hadiths narrated by al-l:lasan from the Messenger of Allah, 3.9 Al-Hasan's description of the Messenger of Allah, 3.10 The verse of purification and the hadith of the cloak , 3.10.1 Flaws in Shiite arguments about the verse of purification, 3.11 The verse of mubahalah and the delegation of Christians from Najran, 3.12 The upbringing of al-Hasan, 3.12.1 Sincerity and knowing the importance ofupbringing, 3.12.2 Setting a good example for children, 3.12.3 Kindness, 3.12.4 Treating children on a fair and equitable basis, 3.13 The impact of social reality on al-Hasan 's upbringing
Chapter-04: During the time of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs 4.1 During the caliphate of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, 4.1.1 Abu Bakr's reaction to the Prophet's death, 4.1.2 Saqeefah Bani Sa'idah, 4.1.3 Some characteristics of Abu Bakr's rule, 4.1.4 'Ali's oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, 4.1.5 Abu Bakr sends out the army of Usamah, 4.1.6 The apostasy wars, 4.2 During the caliphate of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, 4.3 During the caliphate of 'Othman ibn 'Affan, 4.3.1 During the conquest of North Africa, 4.3.2 'Ali's attitude concerning the turmoil faced by 'Uthman, 4.4 During the caliphate of his father, 'Ali binAbi Talib, 4.4.1 Commander of the Faithful 'Ali ibn Abi Talib sets out for Kufa, 4.4.2 Al-l:fasan's advice to his father, 4.4.3 Al-Hasan's impact on mobilising the people of Kufa, 4.4.4 Attempts at reconciliation, 4.4.5 The Battle of the Camel, 4.4.6 Tlle Battle of Siffeen, 4.4.7 Al-Hasan's view concerning the wars, 4.4.8 The martyrdom of Commander of the Faithful 'Ali, 4.4.9 Final advice of Commander of the Faithful 'Ali to his sons, 4.4.10 Commander of the Faithful 'Ali prohibits mutilating his killer, 4.4.11 Al-Hasan's speech after his father was slain, 4.4.12 Mu'awiyah's reaction to the martyrdom of 'Ali
Part-02: Al-Basan's caliphate and his reconciliation efforts
Chapter-05: Oath of allegiance to al-Hasan ibn 'Ali 5.1 The falseness of the idea that al-Hasan was appointed to the caliphate by his father, 5.2 What the Twelver Shiites quote as evidence from the Sunni books for limiting the number of imams, 5.3 Duration of the caliphate of Commander of the Faithful al-Hasan and the view of ahl as-Sunnah concerning his caliphate, 5.3.1 Abu Bakr ibn al-'Arabi, 5.3.2 Al-Qadi 'Iyad, 5.3.3 Al-Hafidh Ibn Katheer, 5.3.4 IbnAbil-'Izz al-Hanafi, 5.3.5 Al-Mannawi, 5.3.6 lbn Hajar al-Haythami, 5.4 Speeches that cannot be soundly attributed to al-Hasan following the murder of his father, 5.4.1 Al-Isfahani, author of al-Aghani, 5.4.2 Nahj al-Balaghah
Chapter-06: His characteristics and social life 6.1 His most important characteristics, 6.1.1 His knowledge, 6.1.2 His worship, 6.1.3 His asceticism and lack of interest in worldly gain, 6.1.4 His generosity, 6.1.5 His forbearance, 6.1.6 His humility, 6.1. 7 His leadership, 6.2 His physical characteristics.
Chapter-07: His behaviour in the society 7.1 His refutation of the belief in raj 'ah, 7.2 His meeting people's needs, 7.3 His marriage to the daughter ofTall).ah ibn 'Ubaydullah, 7.4 His marriage to Khawlah bint Mandhoor, 7 .5 He did not see the Mothers of the Believers without their veils, 7.6 His great care to refrain from abusing his connection to the Prophet, 7. 7 He offered the funeral prayer for al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, 7.8 How he treated those who mistreated him, 7.9 His etiquette in gatherings, 7.10 His good attitude with the people, 7.11 His playing with stones, 7.12 His avoidance of excessive speech, 7.13 His honouring Usamah ibn Zayd, 7.14 His explanation to the poor Jew, 7.15 lbn 'Abbas' respect for al-Hasan and al-Husayn, 7.16 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr's praise for al-Hasan, 7.17 The relationship between al-Hasan and al-Husayn, 7 .18 The one with the noblest parents, grandparents, aunts and uncles, 7.19 People's love for him and his brother al-Husayn, and how they crowded around them at the Kaaba
Chapter-08: His words, speeches and exhortations 8.1 His warning against spiritual diseases, 8.2 The concept of contentment as understood by al-Hasan and Abu Dharr, 8.3 Sublime character and attitude, 8.4 Avoiding conjecture, 8.5 Consultation and discussion, 8.6 Important principles enjoined by al-Hasan
Chapter-09: Prominent figures during his caliphate 9 .1 Qays ibn Sa'd ibn 'Ubadah, 9.2 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abbas ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib al-Hashimi: Abu Muhammad, 9.3 'Abdullah ibn Ja'far ibn Abi Talib al-Hashimi
Chapter-10: From his peace deal with Mu'awiyah until his death 10.1 The most important stages of the peace deal, 10.1.l The first stage, 10.1.2 The second stage, 10.1.3 The third stage, 10.1.4 The fourth stage, 10.1.5 The fifth stage, 10.1.6 The sixth stage, 10.1.7 The seventh stage 10.1.8 The eighth stage, 10.2 The most important causes and motives for the peace deal, 10.2.1 Seeking what is with Allah and desiring reconciliation in the Ummah, 10.2.2 This son of mine is a sayyid, and perhaps through him Allah will reconcile two groups of Muslims, 10.2.3 Protecting Muslims from bloodshed, 10.2.4 His keenness to unite the Ummah, 10.2.5 The murder of Commander of the Faithful 'Ali, 10.2.6 The character of Mu'awiyah, 10.2. 7 Trouble in the Iraqi army and among the people of Kufa, 10.2.8 The strength of Mu'awiyah's army, 10.3 The conditions of the peace treaty, 10.3.1 Acting in accordance with the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Prophet and the way of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, 10.3.2 Financial considerations, 10.3.3 Protection, 10.3.4 Who should succeed Mu'awiyah? 10.3.5 The issue of reviling Commander of the Faithful 'Ali, 10.3.6 Mu'awiyah's attitude towards 'Uthman's killers, 10.4 Outcomes of the peace deal, 10.4.1 Uniting the Ummah behind one leader, 10.4.2 Resumption of conquests, 10.4.3 The state's focus on the Kharijites, 10.4.4 End of the era of the Rightly-Guided Caliphate, 10.5 Did al-Hasan give up the caliphate to Mu'awiyah from a position of strength or weakness? 10.5.1 The legitimacy of al-Hasan's position, 10.5.2 Al-I:Iasan's own analysis of his position and leadership ability, 10.5.3 On al-Hasan's side were people known for their leadership skills, 10.5.4 Evaluation of al-Hasan's forces by 'Amr ibn al-'As and Mu'awiyah, 10.5.5 Al-Hasan's lack of interest in worldly power, 10.6 Al-Hasan's life in Madinah after the peace deal, 10.6.1 The relationship between al-Hasan and Mu'awiyah after the peace deal, 10.6.2 Mu'awiyah's sending gifts to al-Hasan, al-Husayn and Ibn az-Zubayr, 10.6.3 Did Mu'awiyah poison al-Hasan? 10.7 Al-Hasan's dream and the approach of his death, 10.7.l The last days of al-Hasan's life, 10.7.2 Al-Hasan's advice to al-Husayn, 10.7.3 Al-Hasan's final acts of worship, 10.7.4 Al-Hasan's final moments, 10.7.5 His burial in Baqee' Cemetery, l0.7.6 The year in which he died and the age at which he died

Keywords:Islam, Shia, Muslims, Al-Hasan, Al-Husayan, Circumcision, Shaving of Head, Dowry, Imagined Diety

Review: "The male owner of a female slave has the right to have sexual intercourse with her as long as he, or the slave's previous owner, has not married her to another person. This is a right exclusive to the slave's owner. No one, including the owner's sons, may touch the woman unless the owner marries her to him." The book describes the Prophet naming him and reciting the call to prayer in his ears, the shaving of his head, the animal sacrifice after his birth, his wet nurse Umm al-Fadl, his marriages, and his wives. Reports which claim that al-Hasan married and divorced a great deal have been analysed, 'He is the grandson of the Mother of the Believers, Khadeejah,and he was the fifth Rightly-Guided Caliph."

"When al-Hasan was born, the Messenger of Allah recited the call to prayer in his ears, as narrated from Abu Rafi. One of the characteristics of the call to prayer is that Satan, who seeks to harm a child from the very beginning, flees from it. Tahneek refers to a pious person rubbing a softened date (or anything sweet) in the mouth of a newborn."

More excerpts: It was narrated from Ja'far ibn Muhammad from his father that Fatimah shaved the heads of al-Hasan and al-Husayn on the seventh day after their birth, and then she weighed their hair and gave an equivalent amount in silver as charity. It was narrated that Fatimah did sacrifice an animal for them, and she gave the midwife a leg of mutton and one dinar. Perhaps Fatimah gave it herself, or perhaps it came from the two white rams that the Prophet offered as a sacrifice for al-Hasan on the seventh day. Among the many benefits of offering a sacrifice to Allah on be half of the newborn is that it is an expression of gratitude to Allah for his blessing.

The book decribes names of 10 wives which bore Al-Hasan 22 children.

The origins of the Islamic state, being a translation from the Arabic accompanied with annotations, geographic and historic notes of the Kitab futuh al-Buldan of al-Imam Abul ʻAbbas Ahmad ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri by Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya, 892 - translated by Philip Khuri Hitti. Vol. 2 translated by F. C. Murgotten.


Foreword -- Introduction. Arabic Historiography with Special Reference to al-Baladhuri. -- Part I-Arabia -- Chapter I. Al-Madinah -- Chapter II. The possessions of the banu-au-Nadir -- Chapter III. The possessions of the banu-Kuraizah -- Chapter IV. Khaibar -- Chapter V. Fadak -- Chapter VI. Wadi-i-Kura and Taima -- Chapter VII. Makkah -- Chapter VIII. The Wells of Makkah -- Chapter IX. The Floods in Makkah -- Chapter X. At-Ta'if -- Chapter XI. Tabalah and Jurash -- Chapter XII. Tabuk, Ailah, Adhruh, Makna and al-Jarba -- Chapter XIII. Dumat al-Jandal -- Chapter XIV. The Capitulation of Najran -- Chapter XV. Al-Yaman -- Chapter XVI. Uman -- Chapter XVII. Al-Yaman -- Chapter XVIII. Al-Yamamah -- Chapter XIX -- The Apostasy of the Arabs in the Caliphate of abu-Bakr as-siddik -- Chapter XX. The Apostasy of the banu-Wali'ah and al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais ibn-Ma'dikarib ibn-Mu'awiyah-i-kindi -- Chapter XXI. Al-Aswad al-'Ansi and those in al-Yaman who Apostatized with him -- Part II-Syria -- Chapter I. The Conquest of Syria -- Chapter II. The advance of Khalid ibn-al-Walid on Syria and the places he reduced on his way -- Chapter III> The Conquest of Busra -- Chapter IV. The Battle of Ajnadin (or Ajnadain) -- Chapter V. The Battle of Finl in the Province of the Jordan -- Chapter VI. The Province of the Jordan -- Chapter VII. The Battle of marj as-Suffar -- Chapter VIII. The Conquest of Damascus and its Province -- Chapter IX. Hims -- Chapter X. The Battle of al-Yarmuk -- Chapter XI. Palestine -- Chapter XII. The Province of Kinnasrin and the cities called al-'Awasim -- Chapter XIII. Cyprus -- Chapter XIV. the Samaritans -- Chapter XV. Al-Jarajimah -- Chapter XVI. -- the Frontier Fortresses of Syria -- part III-Mesopotamia -- Chapter I. the Conquest of Mesopotamia [al-Jazirah] -- Chapter II. The Christians of the banu-Taghlib ibn-Wa'il -- Chapter III. The Fortifications of the Mesopotamian Frontier -- Chapter IV. Arabic made the Language of the State Registers -- Part IV-Armenia -- Chapter I. The Conquest of Amenia -- Chapter II. The Conquest of Alexandria -- Chapter III. The Conquest of Barkah and Zawilah -- Chapter IV. The Conquest of Tripoli -- Chapter V. The Conquest of Ifrikiyah -- Chapter VI. The Conquest of Tanjah [Tangiers] -- Part VI-Andalusia -- Chapter I. The Conquest of Andalusia -- Part VII-Nubia -- Chapter I. Terms made with Nubia -- Chapter II. The Karatis -- Part IX-Al-Irak and Persia -- Chapter I. The Conquest of as-Sawad -- Chapter II. The Caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab -- Chapter III. The Battle of Kuss an-natif, or the Battle of al-Josr --- Chapter IV. The Battle of Mihran or an-Nukhailah -- Chapter V -- The Battle of al-Kadisiyah -- Chapter VI. The Conquest of al-Mada'in -- Chapter VII. The Conquest of Jalula -- Chapter VIII. The Founding of al-Kafah -- Chapter IX. Wasit al-'Irak -- Chapter X. Al-Bata'ih -- Chapter XI. Madinat as-Salam -- Chapter XII. Arabic made the Language of the Register -- Part X-Media [Al-Jibal] -- Chapter I. Hulwan -- Chapter II. The Conquest of Nihawand -- Chapter III. Ad-Dinawar, Masabadhan and mihrijankadhaf -- Chapter IV. -- The Conquest of Hamadhan -- Chapter V. Kumm, Kashan and Isbahan -- Chapter VI. The death of Yazdajird ibn-Shahriyar ibn-Kisra ibn-Abarwiz ibn-Hurmuz ibn-Anushirwan -- Index -- Errata

History of the Arabs from the earliest times to the present by Hitti, Philip Khuri, 1886-1978


Part 1. The pre-Islamic age -- The Arabs as Semites : Arabia the cradle of the Semitic -- The Arabian peninsula -- Bedouin life -- Early international relations -- The Sabean and other states of South Arabia -- The Nabataean and other petty kingdoms of North and central Arabia -- Al-Hijaz on the eve of the rise of Islam ---- Part 2. The rise of Islam and the Caliphal state -- Muhammad the prophet of Allah -- The Koran the book of Allah -- Islam the religion of submission to the will of Allah -- Period of conquest, expansion and colonization, A.D. 632-61 -- The conquest of Syria -- Al-Iraq and Persia conquered -- Egypt, Tripolis and Barqah acquired -- The administration of the new possessions -- The struggle between Ali and Muawiyah for the Caliphate ---- Part 3. The Umayyad and Abbasid empires -- The Umayyad Caliphate : Muawiyah establishes a dynasty -- Hostile relations with the Byzantines -- The zenith of Umayyad power -- Political administration and social conditions under the Umayyads -- Intellectual aspects of life under the Umayyads -- Decline and fall of the Umayyad dynasty -- The establishment of the Abbasid dynasty -- The golden prime of the Abbasids -- The Abbasid state -- Abbasid society -- Scientific and literary progress -- Education -- The development of fine arts -- Moslem sects -- The Caliphate dismembered : petty dynasties in the West -- Sundry dynasties in the East -- The collapse of the Abbasid Caliphate ---- Part 4. The Arabs in Europe : Spain and Sicily -- Conquest of Spain -- The Umayyad Amirate in Spain -- Civil disturbances -- The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova -- Political, economic and educational institutions -- Petty states : fall of Granada -- Intellectual contributions -- Art and architecture -- In Sicily ---- Part 5. The last of the medieval Moslem states -- A Shiite Caliphate in Egypt : the Fatimids -- Life in Fatimid Egypt -- Military contacts between the East and West : the Crusades -- Cultural contacts -- The Mamluks, last medieval dynasty of Arab world -- Intellectual and artistic activity -- The end of Mamluk rule ---- Part 6. Ottoman rule and independence -- The Arab lands as Turkish provinces -- Egypt and the Arab crescent -- The changing scene : impact of the West
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 63_Madinah-to-Karbala-V1.pdf Madinah to Karbala* Irshad Soofi Siddiqui Chishti ThirdEnglish 308
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: ISLAM ABRAHAM THE FATHER OF MANKIND, Tasked by God to re-build the Sacred Kaaba, Three Supplications, THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD, Conditions in Pre-Islamic Arabia, Divine Revelation, Knowledge is inborn, Sincerity, Spreading the Message, Restoring faith in the One God, The Holy Qur'aan and the Holy Prophet, Loving the Messenger and the Message, Divine Alignment, Persecution, Migration, Madinah: Religion and Economics, Jews and Hypocrites, Change of Qiblah, War and Peace, The Conquest of Makkah and Mercy
Chapter-02:CONSTITUTION OF MADINAH THE FIRST WRITTEN CONSTITUTION IN THE WORLD, Rights and responsibilities of the Muslim, Jewish, and pagan communities of Madinah, THE MADINA CHARTER: FULL ARABIC AND TRANSLATED TEXT
Chapter-03: TOLERANCE OF THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD Islam has been misrepresented, Condemn Extremism, Message of the Holy Qur'aan, No Compulsion in Religion, A Muslim does not Insult, Journey to Taif, Dua at Taif, Migration to Madinah, The only bloodless conquest in history, Sultan Salauddin Ayoubi, Emulate the Holy Prophet Muhammad
Chapter-04: JIHAD IN ITS PROPER PERSPECTIVE Literal meaning of the word Islam, Wrong perception of Jihad in this modern age, Jihad in the Holy Qur’aan, Lawful Defensive war, Different Categories of Jihad, Who can order a defensive war
Chapter-05: THE ASHĀB US-SUFFA Description, The Benevolent Gaze, THE SACRED SANCTUARY, Khanqah of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, Preservation of the pure teaching, Non-Muslims adopted these loft principles, Tolerance, Who is a Kaafir, Intolerance in the modern world, Spiritual Nourishment, Simplicity
Chapter-06:THE BLESSING OF SERVING THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD AND HIS HOUSEHOLD Hazrath Anas bin Maalik, Five branches of the deen, Methaphorical language, Comprehension beyond intellect
Chapter-07: SIGNS OF THE END OF DAYS A Slave Woman gives Birth to her Mistress, Muslim Ummah gave birth to Europe, Womb Hire, The Bare-footed Shepherds building high-rise buildings, Salaah has become Ritual Gymnastics
Chapter-08: THE CONFLICT BETWEEN PHILOSOPHIES OF LIFE Glorious Fondations, Foundation of Modern Civilization, The Challenge facing us, Reclaim Knowledge, Beware who you take your deen from, The Majority is not necessarily right, The Holy Prophet Knew All Languages, The Spiritual Heartland of Islam, Love the Holy Prophetmore than your self, Arrogance, What is the wisdom? Healing the sick heart
Chapter-09: THE HOLY PROPHET LEADER UNPARALLELED1 Wealth and power corrupts, Imams or leaders belonging to the Holy Prophet Muhammad family, Ignorance and materialism, True Tazkiyah or Sufism, The Inner Dimension of the Sunnah, Intellectual and political traditions, Tazkiyah and Islamic Leadership
Chapter-10: THE RIGHTLY GUIDED CALIPHS AND IMAMS OF AHL AL-BAYT Leadership of the Ummah, A Unique system of Government, Legacy inherited by the Companions, Two categories of Caliphate, Spiritual Sovreignity, Holy Prophet sons passed away, Holy Prophet family line continues through his daughter, Twelve Imams
Chapter-11: HAZRATH ABU BAKR AS-SIDDIQUE Lineage and Title of Abu Bakr, Early life, Acceptance of Islam, Life after accepting Islam, Persecution by the Quraysh, Migration to Madinah, Arrival in Madinah, Spending for Islam, Life in Madinah, Merits of the Immigrants and Helpers, Status of the Immigrants (Muhaajireen) and the Helpers (Ansaar), Hazrath Abu Bakr excels all the muhajireen, Passing away of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, Caliphate, Abu Bakr Elected as Caliph, Descendants of Abu Bakr, Asma bint Umais ibn Ma’bad, Passing away of Hazrath Abu Bakr and his Burial, The Burial of Hazrath Abu Bakr Siddique, Three things Abu Bakr loved most, Awliya Descending from Abu Bakr Siddique
Chapter-12: HAZRATH UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB Early life, Hazrath Umar embraces Islam, Migration to Madinah, Life in Madinah, Title of ‘al-Faruq’, Hazrath Umar as Caliph, Mu'awiyah appointed Governor of Damascus, Hazrath Umar martyred, Burial of Hazrath Umar, Awliya from the lineage of Umar
Chapter-13: HAZRATH ‘UTHMĀN IBN ‘AFFĀN Life before accepting Islam, Acceptance of Islam, Migration and life in Madinah, Caliphate of Uthman, Reign as a Caliph (644 CE–656 CE), Public works, Economic reforms, Administration, Anti-Uthman sentiment, Uthman emissaries to the provinces, Protest in Madinah, Armed revolt against Uthman, Rebels in Madinah, Blockade of Uthman, Assassination, The Funeral, The Burial, Aftermath, Awliya from lineage of Uthman
Chapter-14: HAZRATH ALI IBN ABU TALIB Born in the Kaaba, First of the Forty to Accept Islam Is Hazrath Ali, Migration to Madinah, Life in Madinah, The Marriage of Ali to Fatimah the Bonding of Two Spiritual Oceans, Family Life, Military Career, La fattah illa Ali, la saif illa Zulfikaar The Conqueror of Khyber, Service for Islam, The Status of Hazrath Ali, Realise the status of loving Hazrath Ali, Nabi and Wali, Hazrath Ali left his salaah for the Holy, Prophet Muhammad, Ali and the Rashidun Caliphs, Election as Caliph, Opposition to Ali, The clash between Ali and Muawiyah, The Battles of Jamal (the Camel), Kufa, the Administrative Capital, Rivalry between the Hashimites and the Umayyads, Ali attempts to resolve conflict with Muawiyah peacefully, Battle of Siffin 37 AH/ 657 CE, Kharijites (Khawaarij خوارج ), literally "Those who Went Out of the fold of Mainstream Islam, The Battle of Nahrawan, Betrayal, Ummayyad Rule
*Holy Blood on Unholy Hands, Volume One, The Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jama‘ah, Chishti Sufi Perspective

Keywords: Islam, Shia, Karbala, Hasan and Husayan, caliphate


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 66_Conquest-Egypt-Africa.pdf THE MUSLIM CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND NORTH AFRICA Lieutenant General A. I. AKRAM ThirdEnglish 345
Table of Contents
Part-01: THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT 1. The Golden Ball 2.The Reluctant Caliph 3.The March to Memphis 4.The Struggle for Babylon 5.The Fall of Babylon 6.The Copts of Egypt 7.The Advance to Alexandria 8.The Conquest of Alexandria 9.The New Capital of Egypt 10.The Caliph and the Nile 11.The Conquest of Barqa and Tripoli 12.Amr and the Caliphs 13.The Second Conquest of Alexandria
part-02: THE CONQUEST OF NORTH AFRICA 14.Objective Africa 15.The Battle of Subetula 16.War in the Mediterranean 17.The Last Days of Amr bin A1 Aas 18.Back to Africa 19.Uqba bin Nafe 20.Uqba’s Invasion of the Maghreb 21.The End of Uqba 22.The Fourth Invasion of Africa 23.The Fifth Invasion of Africa 24.The High Priestess 25.Musa bin Nuseir 26.A Pause for Reflection
Appendices: Appendix A: Bibliography, Appendix B: The Hijri and Christian Years, Appendix C: Index of Places, Appendix D: Index of Persons

Keywords: Islam Jihad, Africa, Conquest, Egypt, Battles, Invasion

Review: Many people claim Islam did not spread by sword. All the battles were defensive in nature, attack on India was due to arrogance of rulers in Sindh. By reading this book, one may try to understand what offense African people made to Islam that they were attacked. One important point to notice is that the author of book is a person of Islamic faith and that too from Pakistan.


Review: this book does not contain any section on Bibliography though there are inline references. The book on page-9 mentions "Polyandry was universal and its earliest indication to be found in the Rig-Veda itself". The statement "Polyandry was universal" itself tells about the intellectual capacity and scholarship of the author. The author has also given reference to Book of Manu but did not metion the chapter or paragraph of either Rig Veda or Book of Manu. In the last few pages of the book, there is a timeline of The Rashidin Caliphs, The Ommeyyade Sovereigns of Damascus, The Abbasid Caliphs of Bagdad and The Fatimide Caliphs of Egypt.

Overall, this books is written by a kaphirophobe who ridiculed and demonized pagans while expressing supremacy of Islamic (rather Muhammandan) teachings.
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 63_Caliphate-Umayyad.pdf THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE 65-86/684-705 ‘Abd al-Ameer ‘Abd Dixon 1971English 238
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: AN INTRODUCTION TO ‘ABD AL-MALIK (a)‘Abd al-Malik's early life (b) His political, social and religious background, and its effect on his later policies on becoming caliph
Chapter-04: THE CIVIL WAR (a)‘Abd al-Malik and Mus’ab ibn al-Zubair (b)‘Abd al-Malik and ‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubair (c)Al-Jufra (d)The Revolt of ‘Amr ibn Said (e)Relations with the Byzantine Empire
Chapter-05: OTHER OPPOSITION MOVEMENTS (a)The Revolt of ‘Abdallah ibn al-Järüd (b)The Revolt of the Zanj in Basra (c)The Insurrection of the Azd in ‘Urnan (d)The Revolt of 'Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Ash’ath
Chapter-06: THE KHARIJITE OPPOSITION (a)Al-Najdât (b)Al-Azariqa (c)Al-Sufriya: Salih ibn Musarrih and Shablb ibn Yazid al-Shaibânl (d) The Ibadiyya
Chapter-07: BIBLIOGRAPHY a)Sources (b)Modern Works (c)Periodical Publications

Keywords: Islam, Caliphate, Revolt, Civil War, Umayyad, Abbasids, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Mawali

Review:The 'Asabiyya (tribal feuds), a dominant phenomenon of the Umayyad period, is examined in the third chapter. An attempt is made to throw light on its causes, and on the policies adopted by 'Abd al-Malik to contain it. most of the extant sources dealing with our period have come down to us from the time of the ‘Abbasids, those inveterate enemies of the Umayyads, Apart from the pious caliph, ‘Umar II, all the Umayyads are represented as irreligious and frivolous.

When he was only ten years old he witnessed the storming of the house of the Caliph ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affin in Medina, in which the caliph was killed. In the year 63/682, the Medinese expelled the Umayyads from their city and revolted against the Caliph Yazid I. ‘Abd al-Malik lived through this event and was one of those expelled.

In Medina where he was born and reared, there were two intellectual climates. The first was that of Qur’anic study, and more especially, study of the Hadith. The second was the field of poetry, songs and music. Another example of ‘Abd al-Malik trying to extend the glory of Islam through building in Syria is his attempt to add the Church of St. John in Damascus to the mosque beside it. As soon as he was secure enough at home to turn his attention to an aggressive foreign policy, he continued the previous struggle with the Byzantines, by waging the Jihad against the infidels almost every year.

One of the most important events of the first century of Islam was the revolt of al-Mukhtâr ihn Ab! ‘Ubaid al-Thaqafl in Kûfa 66/685. It contributed to a large extent to the development of the Shia as a sect. The fact that al-Mukhtâr used as his war-cry “Ya Mansür Amit” is not without significance. Al-Mansur is a messiah awaited by the Yemenites to restore their power. War against “al-Muhillin” (those who regard the blood of the Prophet’s family as licit, i.e. the Umayyads and their supporters).

In practice, in this period the ‘Arabs did not allow the non-Arab Muslims the rights which Islam granted them. The ‘Arabs monopolized the high posts in society, such as the offices of judge, or of leadership in the army or in prayer.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 66_Ottoman-Caliphate.pdf THE GOVERNMENT OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE* ALBERT HOWE LYBYER, Ph. D. 1918 English 357
Table of Contents

Keywords: Caliphate, Ottoman, Turks,


Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 67_Book-of-Emaan-Eng.pdf Book of Eemaan* Muhammad Naim Ya-Sin Al-Firdous Ltd, LondonEnglish 267
Table of Contents
Chapter-01::Faith in Allah The Glorious and Exalted Types of Tawheed (Monotheism), 1 - The Tawheed of Lordship (Rububiyyah), 2 - The Tawheed of Worship (Uluhiyyah), 3 - The Tawheed of Names And Attributes:
Chapter-02: Faith In The Angels The Characteristics of Their Creation, The Number of Angels, Belief In The Angels, The Effect ofBeliefin the Angels on the Life ofa Believer
Chapter-03: Faith in the Prophets and Messengers The Prophets and Messengers mentioned in the Qur'an, The Messengers of Strong Will, The Subject of the Messages, Our Duty Towards The Messenger, Faith In The Prophet Muhammad
Chapter-04: Faith in Divine Scripture 1- TheTorah Revealed to Moses. 2- The Bible Revealed to Jesus. 3- The Psalms Revealed to David. 4- The Scriptures Revealed to Abraham and Moses. 5- The Qur'an - Last of Divine Revelation.
Chapter-05: Faith in The Day of Resurrection The Qur'an's Focus on this Issue and the Wisdom behind it, The Reasons for this Interest in the Last Day, Signs of The Hour, The Minor Signs, The Major Signs, The Beginning of The Last Day
Chapter-06: Faith In AI-Qadaa' Wal Qadar (Divine Preordainment)
Part-02: THE REALITY OF EEMAAN The Increase and Decrease in Eemaan, Main Reasons for the Increase in Eemaan
Part-03: Section-1: The point at which a Kaafir becomes a believer, Evidence of this principle
Part-03: Section-2 The point at which a believer becomes a Kaafir: The General Rule, The First Kind of Denial, The Second Kind of Denial, The Third Kind of Denial, The Fourth Kind of Denial, The Approval of Kufr is Kufr and the Disapproval of Islam is Kufr, The Meaning of Taking Disbelievers as Awliya' (Muwaalaat), Taking Precautionary Measures Against Considering a Believing Individual a Disbeliever
Conclusion Committing Sins only does not take a Muslim out of Islam, Ahlu Sunnah Acknowledge Punishment for Sins as Stipulated, Major Sins, Actions Which Remove Punishment From Sinner
*The Basis, reality and invalidation of Eemaan

Keywords: Kufr, Sin, Eemaan, Disbeliever, Tawheed, Quran, Sunnah, Angels

Review: "Allah, the High and Exalted, said that the polytheists attested to the fact that Allah alone created everything yet they remained polytheist. Most people do not deny the creator, or His Lordship over all creation, but most of their infidelity (Kufr) comes from their worship of other than Allah, the Exalted and Glorious."

"The Quran and the Sunnah tell us that the angels are beings of light, having no physical body which can be discerned by the human senses. They are unlike man in that they don't eat, drink, sleep or procreate; they are pure, devoid of animal desires, sins and misdeeds; nor do they have any of the tangible physical attributes of a man."

"Allah entnisted the sun and the moon to certain angels and He did the same with the planets, the mountains, the clouds and rain. The wombs were entrusted to angels who supervise the nutfah (sperm) and the stages it goes through until it completes the human form. He entrusted death to certain angels, and to every servant He assigned angels who guard over him. Each creature, and every event and phenomenon in the universe is under the supervision of particular angels."

ISLAM AT WAR: A History by George F. Nafziger and Mark W. Walton

Table of Content:

1. Birth of Islam: Islamic Expansion and Muhammad as Battlefield Commander, 2. The Great Conquests, 3. Islam and the Crusades, 4. The Sword and India: The Moghul Conquest, 5. Egypt in the World of Islam, 6. The Muslim Conquest and Loss of Spain, 7. The Rise of the Ottoman Empire, 8. The Sick Man of Europe: The Balkans and the Fall of the Ottoman Empire, 9. The Sword and the Sea: Muslim Navies, Lepanto, and Malta, 10. Mullahs and Machine Guns: Colonial Wars in the Middle East, 11. Mullahs and Missiles: Islamic Wars since 1945, 12. Islam and Jihad: For It Is Ordained unto You, 13. Dying for God: The Assassins—Past and Present, 14. Conclusion.

Pg-63: The word mamluk in Arabic is the past participle of the word to "own," that is, "owned." Once in Egypt, they were sold to prominent men and trained in the use of the bow, lance, sword, and mace on horseback.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 56_Conquest-of-Continent.pdf THE CONQUEST OF A CONTINENT* MADISON GRANT 1933English 437
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Foreword
Chapter-02: The Cradle of Mankind
Chapter-03: The Nordic Conquest of Europe
Chapter-04: The Nordic Settlement of America
Chapter-05: The Puritans in New England
Chapter-06: The Gateways to the West from New England and Virginia
Chapter-07: Virginia and Her Neighbors
Chapter-08: The Old Northwest Territory
Chapter-09: The Mountaineers Conquer the Southwest
Chapter-10: From the Mississippi to the Oregon
Chapter-11: The Spoils of the Mexican War
Chapter-12: The Alien Invasion
Chapter-13: The Transformation of America
Chapter-14: Checking the Alien Invasion
Chapter-15: The Legacy of Slavery
Chapter-16: Our Neighbors on the North
Chapter-17: Our Neighbors on the South
Chapter-18: The Nordic Outlook

Keywords:Protestant churches, Anglo-Saxons, Bipedal prehuman, sense of smell, Mongoloid, Australoids, Aryan, Indo-European race, Caucasian, Germanic race, Nordic, Mulatto, Negro,

Review: One of the most racist book which highlight the savage Europeans who exploited and promoted slavery to the largest extent possible. The author have used all means to describe that the races (including Sanskrit language) in Indus Valley and around were Nordic in origin. The book reminds me the dumb and ignorance western intellectuals who use the terms "Discovery of America", "Discovery of India"... to describe their supremacy and spread of Christian faith. Their barbaric forefathers were given a monetary boost by even more barbaric Christian rulers to sail over the world, colonize the people and loot their treasures (gold, diamond and farms). The book describes without any remorse how natives Mayans of North America were eliminated by whites.

In Colonial times Americans were almost unanimously Protestants. Now the claim is made that one in seven is a Catholic and one in thirty a Jew. But in Germany, for instance, the Germans along the North Sea and the Baltic coasts are Protestant Nordics, while those of Bavaria, of Austria, and of other parts of the south are Catholic Alpines. In America the events of the last hundred years, especially the vast tide of immigration, have greatly impaired our purity of race and our unity of religion and even threatened our inheritance of English speech.

There was some crossbreeding between Englishmen and Indian squaws along the frontier, but the offspring was everywhere regarded as an Indian, just as a mulatto in the English colonies was regarded as belonging to the Negro race. This racial prejudice kept the white race in America pure, while its absence and the scarcity of white women ultimately destroyed European supremacy in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies.

Other European nations suffered similarly from the abolition of slavery in their American colonies. Undiluted white blood has almost disappeared in Jamaica and Puerto Rico, while the natives of the Virgin Islands are nearly all Negroes and Mulattoes.

It is probably from Eurasia that man spread out to the uttermost parts of the habitable globe, carrying with him his language and such cultural features as had developed at the time of each successive migration. The American Indians appear to have been derived from the Mongoloid tribes of northeastern Asia before the latter had developed some of those extreme specializations which characterize the typical Mongols of Central Asia and China proper today. Judging from the culture which these American Indians brought with them, this migration began before 10,000 B.C.

The Negro problem must be taken vigorously in hand by the Whites, without delay. States which have no laws preventing the intermarriage of white and black should adopt them. The Christian churches in some parts of the North have also taken an unwise stand, in trying to break down the social barriers between Negro and White. "We have been discussing Senator Sumner's annual bill entitled 'An act to amend the act of God whereby there is a difference between white and black.'" Compared with the Negro, the American Indian offers no serious problem to American unity. On the entire continent north of Mexico there are only about 4,32,000. The 1930 census gives the Indian population of the United States as 3,32,397. Since white occupation a few tribes have increased in numbers. Most have diminished, and some have become extinct, more frequently from the white man's diseases and from whiskey than from the results of fighting.

Books on American Region
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 56_History-Mexican-War.pdf HISTORY OF MEXICO AND THE EXICAN WAR* JOHN FROST, LL.D. 1850 English 652
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Geographical Outline of Mexico
Chapter-02: The Aztec Empire before the Conquest
Chapter-03: Manners, Customs, and Social Condition of the Aztecs
Chapter-04: Ancient Monuments of Mexico
Chapter-05: History of the Conquest by Cortes
Chapter-06: Mexico under the Spaniards
Chapter-07: The Mexican Revolution
Chapter-08: History of the Mexican Republic
Chapter-09: Causes of the Mexican War
Chapter-10: Opening of the Campaign on the Rio Grande. Siege of Fort Brown
Chapter-11: Battle of Palo Alto
Chapter-12: Battle of Resaca de la Palma
Chapter-13: Bahita and Matamoras captured
Chapter-14: Events subsequent to the Capture of Matamoras
Chapter-15: March to Monterey
Chapter-16: Storming of Federation and Independence Hills
Chapter-17: Storming of Monterey
Chapter-18: Capitulation of Monterey
Chapter-19: Operations subsequent to the Capture of Monterey
Chapter-20: March of General Wool to Monclova
Chapter-21: Santa Anita's March to Buena Vista. Battle Ground and Skirmish of February 22d
Chapter-22: Battle of Buena Vista
Chapter-23: Conquest of California and New Mexico
Chapter-24: Siege of Vera Cruz
Chapter-25: March towards the Capital, and Battle of Cerro Gordo
Chapter-26: The Guerrilla Warfare
Chapter-27: March to the Capital, and Battles or Contreras and Churubusco
Chapter-28: The Armistice
Chapter-29: Storming of Molino del Rey
Chapter-30: Storming of Chapultepec
Chapter-31: Storming of San Cosme and Belen Gates
Chapter-32: Entrance into the Capital
Chapter-33: Siege of Puebla
Chapter-34: Battles of Huamantla and Atlixco
Chapter-35: Capture of Guaymas, and Movements of the Guerrillas
Chapter-36: Operations in California and New Mexico
Chapter-37: Close of the War



The Missions And Missionaries Of California: Volume. IV.

Upper California, Part III. General History, with Illustrations, Tabular Reports and Facsimiles CONTENTS

Section I.

CHAPTER I. Change in the Territorial Government. — A New Constitution. — Chico Opens the Assembly. — Law of November 7th, 1835. — Attitude of the Friars.— "Dos Palabritas."— The Jesuits in Canada, Lower California, and Paraguay. — Majority of the Californians Opposed to Confiscation. — Foreign Settlers Opposed to It. — Missionaries Slandered. — Action of Fathers Moreno and Duran. — Who Is to Blame for the Ruin? — Chico and the Indians. — Neophytes Contented Under the Friars. — Pico's Confession 3

CHAPTER II. Governor Chico Complains to Fr. Duran. — His Hypothetical Question. — Fr. Duran's Candid Reply. — Neophytes' Right to Their Property. — Inviolable as That of Private Individuals. — Decision of Minister Espinosa. — Insolent Officials. — Chico's Spite. — "Secularizes" Santa In s and San Buenaventura. — Action of the Assembly. — Spence's Report. — First Lynching in California. — Queer Story. — Chico at Los Angeles. — Wants Fr. Duran Banished. — Santa Barbara in Revolt. — Chico Himself Exiled.— Spiteful to the Last 19 CHAPTER III. Nicolas Gutierrez Temporary Governor. — His Declaration on Divine Worship. — Fr. Duran's Brilliant Protest. — The Government as "Patron" of the Church. — "Quidquid Semel Domino Consecratum, Sanctum Sanctorum Erit Domino." — Consequences of Defrauding Divine Worship. — Revolt Against Gutierrez. — Animosity Between Californians and Mexicans. — Proclamation of Castro, Alvarado, Buelna and Jos Ant. de la Guerra. — They Declare California Independent. — They Constitute Themselves the Congress. — Jose Castro, President. — His Proclamation. — Mariano Vallejo also Proclaims. — Alvarado, Governor. 41 CHAPTER IV. Alvarado Proceeds to Force Recognition in the South. — How Received by Fr. Presidente Duran. — The Latter's Efforts in Behalf of the Indians. — Fr. Duran Saves California. — Alvarado's Scheme. — The New Assembly at Santa Barbara. — An Emissary Goes to Mexico. — Fr. Garcia Diego Reports to the Government. — His Recommendations. — Carlos Carrillo Appointed Governor. — Installed at Los Angeles. — Alvarado Refuses to Surrender the Office. — "Battle" at San Buenaventura. — Alvarado Appointed. — Attitude of the Friars. — Vallejo Congratulated 60 CHAPTER V. Changes Among the Friars in Mexico and California. — Fr. Duran Takes the Oath of Allegiance.— Hittell's Silly Tirade. — The Missionaries and Their Wards. — Fr. Garcia Diego's First Memorial. — What Became of the Custom Revenues? — His Second Memorial. — Spiritual and Temporal Success of the Missions down to 1832. — Number of Missionaries. — Recommends Appointment of a Bishop. — The Government Ac- cedes to the Proposition. — Diocese of Both Californias Created. — The Last Two Missions Confiscated. — How the Missions Were Mulcted. — Vallejo in Debt to a Mission. — Paisano Chiefs Offended. — Vallejo's Overbearing Manners 78 CHAPTER VI. Fr. Duran's Exposition of Mission Affairs. — Shameless Treatment of Aged Missionaries. — Insolence of the Administrators. — Mexican Name Detested. — Recommendations. — Sad Results of French "Philosophy." — Deluded Pagans. — Figueroa Compelled to Issue Confiscation Decree. — The Neophytes Under Administrators. — Californians Worse than Moors and Turks. — Situation in General. — The Americans. — Friars Want to Leave. — Conditions Intolerable. — Fr. Duran to Fr. Rubio. 98 CHAPTER VII. Fr. Duran Indignant. — Regret of the Friars. — No More Conversions. — Fathers Duran and Ri bio. — The Latter Made Vicirio Forineo. — Matters Political. — New Legislature. — Vallejo and Alvarado Disagree. — Booty Divided.— A Supreme Court— Alvarado and Isaac Graham. — Statistics. — The Missions Under the Administrators. — Bancroft's Description. — How the Plunder Was Accomplished. — Revenues from the Custom-house. — No Relief for the Neophytes 118 CHAPTER VIII Mariano Vallejo Keeps the Indians in Bondage. — Manuel Torres's Description. — Vallejo Reverses Himself. — The Mission System and His System. — Illegal Disposal of Mission Cattle. — The Administrators and the Missionaries. — Chief Sufferers. — Bancroft's Senseless Animosity. — Alvarado's Reglamento. — Shifting the Blame.— Inspector W. Hartnell.— What He Discovered at the Various Missions. — Difficulty of Making Re- forms. — At Santa Barbara. — Missions to the North. — Mission San Jose under Jose Vallejo. — Dolores, San Rafael, Solano 136 CHAPTER IX. Inspector Hartnell. — Cruelties to Indians. — Marked Change at Santa Barbara under Fr. Duran.— The Fr. Prefecto Discouraged. — Wants to Leave the Territory. — Insolence of Pio Pico. — San Gabriel under Juan Bandini. — Parasite Paisano Families. — Fr. Est nlga's Lament. — Fr. Duran's Indignation. — Demands His Passport. — Alvarado Submits a New Reglamento. — Opinion of Fr. Gonzilez Rubio. — Fr. Duron's Views. — Various Letters on the Subject. — Opposed to Fixed Revenues for the Missionaries 156 CHAPTER X. New Reglamento. — Fr. Duran to Alvarado. — Fr. Duran's Circular. — Poor to the Last — Hartnell's Difficulties. — Vallejo's Audacity. — Fr. Duran Indignant. — Poor Fr. Ibirra. — Pico's Misrule at San Luis Rey. — Situation in the South. — Pico Refuses to Surrender. — Indian Emancipation. — Hartnell Resigns.— Situation at San Luis Obispo. — San Juan Capistrano. — Glorious Results of "Secularization." — Bishop Proposed for California. — Pious Fund to Be Surrendered to the Bishop. — Fr. Diego's "Informe" to the Metropolitan Chapter. — Conditions in California. — Candidates Proposed. — Mexican Ambassador Petitions the Pope to Erect the Diocese and to Appoint a Bishop. — The Promise of Support. 175

Section II.

CHAPTER I. Pope Gregory XVI. Establishes the Diocese of Both Californias. — Fr. Garcia Diego Named Bishop. — Bulls to the Clergy and Laity. — Bishop Diego Consecrated at Guadalupe, Mexico. — His First Pastoral. — The Pious Fund Surrendered to Him. — He Appoints a Director for the Estates. — Memorial to the President on the Conditions in California. — Grand Projects. — Reply of Minister Marin. — Declaration of Minister I. Iturbide 195 CHAPTER II. Visitation and Chapter at Guadalupe. — Fr. S6ria Demands Report. — Fr. Gonzalez Rubio's Discouraging Description. — Humiliation of the Missionaries. — Fr. Gonzilez Refuses Landed Properties. — Franciscans Inflexible on the Subject of Poverty. — Fr. Soria's Circular. — Bishop Diego Endeavors to Enlist Priests. — Prepares to Leave Mexico. — Mariano Vallejo Heard From. — The Bishop Arrives at San Diego. — His Attendants. — His Letter to Fr. Gonzilez. — San Diego Not Suited for a Bishop 213 CHAPTER III. The Bishop Welcomed at Santa Barbara. — His Letter to Governor Alvarado. — Petition of the Barbareftos. — Simpson's Description of the Town. — John C. Jones's Views. — The Bishop Decides to Stay at Santa Barbara. — State of the Church in Upper and Lower California. — The Bishop's First Official Acts. — His First Pastoral. — Unwise Measures. — Pious Fund Confiscated by Santa Anna. — His Pretext. — Bancroft on the Subject. — Bishop Diego's Predicament. — Appeals to the National Government. — Has to Pay Tonnage. — Appoints Tithe-Collectors. — Mariano Vallejo Again Heard From 230 CHAPTER IV. Bishop Garcia Diego Embarrassed. — Appeals to Governor Micheltorena. — Governor's Noble Reply. — The Bishop Appeals to the Mexican Government. — Reminds of Promises Made. — Mexican President's Command. — Result. — Trigueros's Reply to Agent Rodriguez. — Last Decree on the Pious Fund. — Tithe Collectors Resign. — Building Projects Fail. — Holy Orders Conferred at Santa Barbara. — The Bishop Visits the South. — Situation in Lower California. — Patron Saints for the Diocese. — Pastoral on the Subject. — How Carried Out at Santa Cruz. — Grants of Land for a Seminary. — Seminary Formally Established. — Visit to the North. — Confirmations. — Reception at Monterey. — Bishop Diego Endeavors to Secure the Property of the Church — Letter to Micheltorena. — Vallejo's District Avoided. — Return to Santa Barbara 251 CHAPTER V. Alvarado and Vallejo at Loggerheads. — New Governor Appointed. — His Soldiers. — Takes the Oath. — In Want. — Restores the Missions to the Friars. — The Decree. — Mission System Vindicated. — Fr. Duran's Circular. — Emancipated Indians. — Corpus Christi at Los Angeles. — New Constitution. — Cause of Mexican Disorders. — Santa Anna Admits Jesuits. — The Bishop's Delight. — Santa Anna Admits Spanish Priests. — New Legislature. — Candidates for Congress and Legislature. — Characteristic Paisano Assault on the Missions 268 CHAPTER VI. Fr. Duran's Vigorous Protest. — Castanares's Tirade Against the Missionaries. — Missions Restored to the Friars. — Those in Charge. — Fr. Rubio Resigns Office of Presidcnte. — Zacatecans Desire to Leave. — Fr, Antonio Real's Pathetic Appeal. — Fr. Lorenzo Quijas Appointed Vice-Comisirio. — The Bishop Displeased. — Warm Dispute. — Fr. Quijas's Circular. — The Bishop Very Much Offended. — Complains to the Governor. — The Roman Faculties under Which Franciscan Missionaries Exercised Their Ministry 288 CHAPTER VII Indians Discontented. — Vallejo's Wild Language. — Indians Turn Horse-Thieves. — Troubles in the South. — Indian Depredations. — The Channel Indians. — Horse-Stealing in Santa Clara Valley. — Ambrosio. — Castro's Threats. — Disaster on the Rio San Estanislao. — Indians in the North. — Salvador Vallejo's Cruelties. — In the Sacramento Valley. — Pico's Contract with Indian Fighters. — Indians Using Their Wits. — President Taft's Opinion. — Wilkes's Observations. — The Californians. — Cause of the Troubles. — Epidemics. — Smallpox. — Its Consequences. — Fr. Duran's Last Report 306 CHAPTER VIII. Revolt Against Micheltorena. — The Motives. — Micheitorena Marches Against the Rebels. — Pico Calls the Legislators to Los Angeles. — Pico Declared Temporary Governor. — Micheltorena Capitulates. — Resigns. — Micheltorena and Education. — The "Cholos." — Spoils Divided Among the Paisano Chiefs. — Bancroft and Jones on Pico. — The Bishop and Fr. Duran Congratulate Pico. — What California Owed to the Missions. — Laws Concerning the Missions. — Friars Once More in Charge. — Pico Hastens to Deprive the Friars of Their Charge. — His "Instructions." 325 CHAPTER IX. Fr. Duran's Emphatic Remonstrance in Behalf of the Indians. — Refuses to Assist in the Robbery. — Pico's Extraordinary Note to Fr. Duran. — Legislative Committee's Recommendation. — Pico's Bando. — Fr. Duran's Circular. — Statements of Fathers Antonio Jimeno, Juan Moreno, Jose J. Jimeno, Bias Ordiz, Thomas Estenaga, Jose M. Zalvidea, and Vicente Oliva. — Fr. Jose Redl's Indignant Protest. — Paisano Depredations. — Fr. Gutierrez's Statement 343 CHAPTER X. No Necessity for Meddling with Mission Temporalities. — Fr. Moreno Protests Against Pico's Action. — Fr. Darin's Dip- lomatic Reply to Pico. — Pico's Frank Confession of Hostility. — Wants to Save Appearances. — Sends Bandini as Agent to Fr. Duran. — Fr. Duran's Views. — His Recommendations. — Vote of Thanks to Fr. Duran and to Bandini, — Assembly Decree Against the Missions. — Its Illegality. — Bancroft's Duplicity and Strange Ethics. — Fr. Duran Deceived. — The Missionaries Disheartened, Yet True to Their Indian Wards. 363 CHAPTER XI. Pico Announces Assembly Decree to Fathers Duran and Anzar. — Fr. Durdn's Circular. — His Communication to Pico. — Pico's Haste to Take Over the Missions. — Fr. Estenaga. — Fr. Duron's Regret.— He Again Yields for the Sake of Peace. — Submissiveness of the Friars. — The Indians at Santa Barbara. — Useless Comisionados. — Hijar Sent to California. — Action of the Assembly. — The Territory Reapportioned. — Dearth of Priests. — Montereyans Displeased. — Fr. Antonio Re4!'s Pointed Missive. — Micheltorena Intercedes. — The Bishop's Depressing Letter to Micheltorena. — Ungrateful Paisanos 380 CHAPTER XII. Bishop Diego to Pico on the State of His Diocese. — Threatens to Leave the Territory. — Propositions. — Supreme Government Friendly to the Bishop, but Powerless. — The Bishop's Attorney. — His Efforts in Behalf of California. — Decree Restoring the Pious Fund. — Rodriguez's Report. — Results. — Herrera Elected President. — Public Prayers Requested. — The Bishop's Representations to Commissioner Hijar. — Memorial to the President. — Asks for Priests. — Several Friars Depart for Mexico. — Fr. Antonio Real's Petition. — Death of Fr. Juan Moreno. — Ordinations at Santa Barbara. — New Priests Assigned 397 CHAPTER XIII. California Maidens. — Why Everybody Had to Be Catholic. — Marriages Before Other Than Priests. — Sutter's Assumption. — The Bishop's Declaration. — Animosity Between Mex- icans and Paisanos. — Bishop Diego's Circular. — Politics. — Another Circular of the Bishop. — Protest of Fathers Duran and J. Jimeno. — Micheltorena's Assumption. — A Ridiculous Charge. — Fr. Mercado and the Paisano Chiefs. — Jose Castro's Usurpation. — Jose Pico's Unscrupulous Yarns. — Paisano Chiefs Not Guided by Religion. — Fr. Mercado Honored by the Bishop. — Supreme Government's Anxiety for California. — President Hcrrera's Confidence in Fr. Duran and the Fernandinos. 413 CHAPTER XIV. Jose Castro's Independence. — Captain J. C. Fremont Arrives. — Ordered to Leave. — Raises the United States Flag. — With- draws. — Castro's Proclamation. — Calls a Military Junta. — Its Resolutions and the Signers. — Pico Protests. — Factions. — Pico Governor of Right at Last. — New Legislature. — Pico's Address. — Castro Denounced. — Pico Calls a Consejo General. — Castro Protests. — Vallejo. — Fr. Duran Invited by Pico. — Joint Reply of Fathers Duran and Gonzalez. — Out of Politics. — Pico's Junta Fails. — Pico Leads Troops Against Castro. — Bandini Rampant. — Castro According to Bancroft. — Hittell's Deductions. — Root of the Evil. — Bancroft's Summary 477 CHAPTER XV. Embarrassment of the Friars. — Fr. Duran's Six Articles. — Pico's Confession of Failure Before the Assembly. — Pico After the Pious Fund. — Action of His Assembly. — Decree Restoring the Pious Fund. — Pico Tries to Move Fr. Duran. — The Fr. Prefccto Clears Up the Case. — Refusal. — Suggestions. — Inflexible on the Rights of the Indians. — Pico Tries the Bishop. — His Lordship Would Not Alienate as Much as a Real. — The Bishop's Distress. — Pico Determines to Sell the Missions at All Hazards. — His Lack of Authority. — He Draws Up a New Reglamento. 430 CHAPTER XVI. Pico's Reglamento for the Sale and Leasing of Missions. — Fr. Duran's Remarks on Said Act. — His Severe Judgment on the Indians. — Disorderly Neophytes at Santa Barbara. — Discouragement of Fr. Duran. — His Loving Solicitude for the Wayward Indians. — The Mexican Government Forbids the Sale of Missions. — Pico Ignores the Government. — How Missions Were Leased. — Pico to Fr. Duran. — Santa Barbara Mission Leased. — Pico to Fr. Duran Once More. — Missions Sold. 445 CHAPTER XVII. Fr. Duran to Pico on Distributing the Proceeds. — Mission Santa Barbara. — Pico's Last Letter to Fr. Duran. — Fr. Duran's Last Communication to Pico. — Still Watchful for the Welfare of the Indians. — The Bone of Contention. — Castro versus Pico. — Elections. — Pico and Castro Abuse Each Other. — Supreme Government Warns Pico and Castro. — Danger of War on Account of Texas. — Various Governmental Orders. — Why Pico and Castro Continued to Wrangle 461 CHAPTER XVIII. Pico Not Contented. — His Address Before the Assembly, March 2nd, 1846. — Bandini's Address. — His Plan. — Mission Committee's Report. — Bandini's Plan Adopted Nevertheless. — Mexican Government Forbids the Sale of Missions. — Who Were the Culprits? — Bancroft's Statement. — Pico Determined. — His Motives. — Jose Castro Follows Pico's Example. — Indian Rights Disregarded by Both. — Missions Sold and Prices Paid. — Pico Triumphs. — The Missions Wiped Out at Last. — Specimen of Deeds Conveying Indian Missions 495 CHAPTER XIX. Sentiments of the Missionaries. — Treatment of the Priest at San Luis Obispo. — The Bishop's Remonstrance. — He Appoints Two Vicars-General. — Appointment Announced. — Priests Signing the Circular. — Death and Funeral of the Bishop. — Pico and Castro Notified. — Sketch of His Life. — His Failures and the Causes. — Fr. Gonzilez Rubio Named Administrator. — San Fernando College. — Death of Fr. Duran. — Sketch of His Life. — Testimony of Fr. Rubio. — Death of Fr. Zalvidea.— Sketch 512 CHAPTER XX. Summary of Mission Work. — Motives of the Missionaries. — Spiritual Results. — Table. — Remarkable Success. — Character of the California Indians. — Methods of the Missionaries. — Mr. Charles F. Lummis's Opinion. — Material Results. — Agriculture and Stock-Raising. — Tables. — Almost Everything Used by the Neophytes Produced at the Missions. — Mechan- ical Results. — Remarkable Success in Every Branch. — Influence of Missionary Methods on the Indians of the Present Time. — Mission Indians Farther Advanced Than Indians Elsewhere. — Major James McLaughlin's Conclusion. — Horticulture at the Missions. — Mission Architecture 527

Section III.

CHAPTER I. New Era. — Raising of the Bear Flag. — Proclamation. — M. Valiejo a Prisoner. — Excitement — Castro's Bando. — Pico's Proclamation. — Castro and Pico Reconciled, Retreat. — New Colonization Scheme. — Outcome. — Commodore J. D. Sloat at Monterey. — Orders to His Men. — Troops Land and Raise United States Flag. — Wisc Proclamation. — Castro and Pico Asked to Surrender. — U. S. Flag Raised at San Francisco, Sonoma and Sutter's Fort — Commodore Stockton Arrives. — Sloat Withdraws. — Stockton in Command. — Unwise Proclamation. — Pico's Call to Arms. — How Received. — Castro's and Pico's United "Army" at Los Angeles. — Stockton at San Pedro. — Demand on Castro Rejected. — Castro and Pico Leave the Country. — Bancroft's Judgment 541 CHAPTER II. Los Angeles Occupied hy U. S. Troops. — Stockton's Proclamation. — Elections. — First Newspapers in California. — Stockton's Premature Boasting. — Revolt. — Los Angeles and Santa Barbara Cleared of U. S. Troops.— Stockton Takes Action. — Defeat Before Los Angeles. — Jose M. Flores Summons Legislature. — Elected Governor ad Interim. — Decree on Mission Property. — Call to Arms by Flores. — Fremont Marches Towards Los Angeles. — Arrives at Cahuenga. — Stockton Sails for San Pedro and San Diego. — General Kearny Leaves Santa Fe for California. — Hardships on the Way. — At Warner's Ranch. — Encounter with Mexicans at San Pascual. — Heavy Losses. — Awful Condition of the Troops. — Relief. — Mexicans Retreat. — Kearny Arrives at San Diego. — Dissensions Among the Mexicans 561 CHAPTER III. Americans March to Los Angeles. — Stockton Offers Amnesty. — Battles. — Flores and Manuel Castro Retire to Sonora. — Surrender of the Californians. — Joint Proclamation of Commodore Shubrick and General Kearny. — Fremont Courtmartialed. — Kearny's Proclamation. — Peace. — Emory's Views on Mission Ownership. — Attitude of the U. S. Officers. — Kearny's Proclamation on Mission Property. — Colonel Mason Succeeds Kearny as Governor. — General Order on Mission Property. — Order Concerning Santa Clara and San Jose.— Mason Pleased With Fr. Jose Real.— The Governor to Fr. Real and Captain Naglee.— Fr. Real Forbidden to Sell Mission Land. — The Mormon Battalion. — Quartered at San Luis Rey. — Mormon Fidelity. — Mason Desirous to Have Them Reenlist. — Warning Against Depredations. — Good Example of the Mormons 577 CHAPTER IV. Captain Hunter Appointed Indian Sub-Agent. — Instructions. — Object of the Appointment. — His Success. — Record of U. S. Troops Elsewhere. — Governor Mason's Attitude Toward the Laws of the Catholic Church. — Appeal to Mason Regarding Mixed Matrimonial Unions. — Fr. Gonzilez Asks for a Prohibitive Order. — The Governor Agrees. — Mason's Circular. — Fr. Gonzdlez's Circular to the Clergy. — Changed Conditions. — Lieutenant-Colonel H. S. Burton First to Disregard General Order. — Fr. Gonzilez Appeals to General Riley. — Reply. — Administrator's Pastoral on Mixed Marriages. — Pastoral on Support of Religion 593 CHAPTER V. Discovery of Gold. — Description by Governor Mason. — Coloma. — Effects of the Discovery. — Manner of Mining Gold. — Character of the Immigrants. — Scarcity of Priests. — Fr. Gonzalez Appeals to Honolulu. — Arrival of the First Picpus Fathers. — Appeal to Oregon. — Archbishop Blanchet's Answer. — Arrival of Very Rev. J. B. Brouillet and Other Priests. — An Impostor. — Halleck's Letter. — Priest Without Requisite Papers. — More Priests Needed. — Fr. Gonzilez's Pastoral. — Appeal to Archbishop Bonamie. — Reply. — Another Letter From Fr. Gonzilez. — Second Reply of Archbishop Bonatnie. — Arrival of Picpus Fathers. — Fathers Jose Jimeno and Francisco Sanchez Resign. — Fr. Gonzalez Acknowledges Their Services. — Picpus Fathers Appointed. — Arrival of Various Secular and Regular Priests. 609 CHAPTER VI. Treaty of Peace with Mexico. — Governor Mason's Proclamation. — Jose Castro Permitted to Return. — Pio Pico Returns. — Mason's Instructions. — Colonel Stevenson's Report. — His Description of Pio Pico. — Pico's Pretensions. — The Governor's Action. — Indians Demoralized. — Situation at San Gabriel, San Luis Obispo, and San Jose. — Indian Horse-Thieves. — Lieutenant W. Sherman's Advice. — Mariano Vallejo in Favor of the Iron Hand. — Mason's Proclamation Against Liquor. — His Kindly Sentiments Towards the Natives. — Instructions to Captain Hunter. — Punishment of Indian Horse-Thieves. — Depredations in Various Sections. — Mason's Lesson to M. Vallcjo. — Circular on Indian Disorders. — Priests Should Be Assisted 629 CHAPTER VII. Indians Not Alone Blamable. — Their Complaints. — Degradation of Mission Indians. — Bartlett's Description. — Los Angeles Star's Regrets. — Indians Cheated, Maltreated, Massacred. — Horrible Butchery in Nome Cult Valley. — Massacre at Humboldt. — Chief Causes of Disappearance of Indians. — Reservation System Introduced. — Poor Copy of the Mission System. — Dwinelle's Regrets. — Home Rule for California. — People's Demands. — General Riley's Call for a Convention. — Election of State Officials. — California Admitted Into the Union of States. — General Riley's Thanksgiving Proclamation. — Fr. Gonzalez's Circular. 647 CHAPTER VIII. Mexican Government Demands Bishop for Lower California. — Fr. Gonzilez Rubio Proposed. — Holy See's Conditions. — President Refuses to Recognize Bishop Alemany's Jurisdiction. — Demands that Fr. Gonzalez Take Charge of the Peninsula. — Archbishop Lazaro Urges Fr. Gonzalez to Comply. — Fr. Gonzalez Consents; then Declines. — Reasons. — College of Guadalupe Accepts Northern Lower California; Dominicans Retain Southern District. — Jesuits Arrive for Upper California. — Fr. Gonzilez's Letter of Welcome. — Joint Letter of Fathers Accolti and Nobili. — Bishop Alemany Arrives at San Francisco. — Goes to Santa Barbara. — His Notes. — First Pastoral. — Fr. Gonzalez Appointed Vicar-General. — Churches and Priests in the Diocese 668 CHAPTER IX. Bishop Alemany at Monterey. — First Convent School. — Sisters of Notre Dame at San Jose.~Changes Among the Clergy. — Jesuits at Santa Clara. — First Dominican Novice. — First Ecclesiastical Synod. — Decrees. — Pious Fund and Mission Lands. — Fr. Gonzalez Appointed Administrator. — The Bishop at First Plenary Council of Baltimore. — Goes to Mexico. — Steps to Secure Pious Fund. — Happy Result. — First Ordination. — Cholera in California. — First Catholic Orphanage. — Sisters of Charity. — Fathers Gonz41ez and Sinchez Stay in California. — Last Franciscans. — Bishop Alemany Petitions for a Novitiate. — Request Is Granted. — Reply of Franciscan Delegate-General. — The Friars Decide on a College. — The Bishop Grants Mission Santa Barbara. 687 CHAPTER X. Franciscans Establish College at Santa Barbara. — First Novices. — Interest and Sympathy of the Dominicans. — Compact. Archbishop Alemany Orders Books Restored. — Diocese Divided. — San Francisco an Archdiocese. — First Archbishop. — New Bishop of Monterey. — Fr. Gonziilez Vicar-General. — Fr. Gonzalez Embarrassed. — Attempts to Sail for Mexico. — Barbareflos Interfere. — First Synod of the Archdiocese. — Arrival of Nuns. — Presentation Sisters. — Sisters of Mercy. — First Seminary of the Archdiocese. — Ordination of Priests. — Bishop Amat Arrives. — Relics of St. Vibiana. — Bishop's Pastoral. — Sisters of Charity for Los Angeles. — Bishop Amat Takes Up Residence at Mission Santa Barbara. — Ordinations. — Assignments. — College of Vincentians at Los Angeles. — Death of Fr. J. Jimeno. — Bishop Amat Desires to Exchange Mission for Church and Convent in Santa Barbara. — Change Effected. — College at Mission Retains Title. — Spiritual Favor for the Mission Church. — College of San Fernando de Mexico. 706 CHAPTER XI. Suspicions Aroused. — U. S. Officials Watchful. — Gov. Mason on Alleged Privileges. — Halleck Calls for Dates. — Pico Not at Los Angeles as Claimed. — Halleck's Confidential Letter. — Proofs of Pico's Absence. — Mason to Alcaldes and Indian Agents. — Confidential Agent Proposed. — W. C. Jones Appointed. — His Instructions. — Searches Archives in California and Mexico. — His Report. — Bishop Alemany's Initial Moves for Recovering Church Property. — Land Commission Ap- pointed. — Bishop Alemany's Claims. — Witnesses Called. — Commissioner Felch. — College at Santa Ins. — Land at San Miguel. — At San Luis Obispo. — Church Property and Mission Property. — Decision 723 CHAPTER XII. Land Claims Before the Commission. — Land Case "The United States vs. Andres Pico et Alios." — Claim Stated. — Absence of Documents. — Witnesses. — Judge Ogden Hofleman's Decision.— Land Case "J. W. Redman et Al. vs. The United States." — Fatal Discrepancies. — Pico Not at Los Angeles on Dates Claimed. — Claim Rejected. — Land Case "Thomas O. Larkin vs. The United States." — Absence of All Proofs. — The Montesdeoca Order. — Claim Rejected for Want of Authority in the Governor to Make Either Grant or Sale 746 APPENDIX. A. — Mariano Vallejo and Fr. Narciso Duran 773 B. — Juan B. Alvarado and Fr. Duran 783 C. — Vallejo and Support of Religion 791 D. — Nuestra Sefiora de la Luz 793 E. — Freedom of Religion under Liberalism in Mexico 794 F. — Bull of Pope Leo X 799 G. — Decrees of the First Ecclesiastical Synod of California 802 H. — Mission Tales in Word and Picture 804 I. — Ecclesiastical Superiors of California 815 J. — Civil and Military Governors of California 816

The Death and Resurrection of the Beloved Son by Jon D. Levenson: The near-sacrifice and miraculous restoration of a beloved son is a central but largely overlooked theme in both Judaism and Christianity, celebrated in biblical texts on Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, Joseph, and Jesus. In this highly original book, Jon D. Levenson explores how this notion of child sacrifice constitutes an overlooked bond between the two religions. Levenson argues that although the practice of child sacrifice was eradicated during the late seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E, the idea of sacrificing the first-born son (or the late-born son whose preferential treatment promotes him to that exalted rank) remained potent in religious literature. Analyzing texts from the ancient Near East, the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and rabbinic literature, Levenson shows how tales of the son handed over to death by his loving father in the Hebrew Bible influenced the Church's identification of Jesus as sacrificial victim. According to Levenson, the transformation of the idea of child sacrifice was central to the accounts given by the people Israel and the early Church of their respective origins, and it also underlay the theologies of chosenness embraced, in their differing ways, by the two religions. Furthermore, the longstanding claim of the Church that it supersedes the Jews, says Levenson, both continues and transforms elements of the old narrative pattern in which a late-born son dislodges his first-born brothers. Levenson's book, which offers novel interpretations of several areas crucial to biblical studies, will be essential reading for scholars in the field.

Exodus 1-18 by William H.C. Propp --- "Exodus is the heart of the Hebrew Bible, the defining moment in Israel’s birth as a people, the dramatic triumph of their God. Yahweh, Pharaoh, Moses, Aaron, the Hebrew slaves, the plagues, the parting of the Red Sea—these larger-than-life characters and epoch-making events capture the imagination of everyone from biblical scholars to moviemakers. However, the meaning and significance, the beauty and nuance, of this captivating biblical book are lost unless we have a world-class Scripture scholar to open our eyes to its riches. In Exodus 1–18, William H. C. Propp translates the original text in all its grandeur, then provides a masterful exploration and analysis of the book’s first eighteen chapters. Here the fate of the Hebrew slaves hangs in the balance of the dramatic conflict between the God of Israel and the Pharaoh of Egypt. From the discovery of Moses in a basket made of bulrushes to the story of the Burning Bush, from the ten plagues visited upon Egypt by God to water from the rock and quail and manna from the skies, Exodus is filled with the miraculous and the dramatic."

Project Guttenberg Collection
  1. Between Winds and Clouds: The Making of Yunnan (Second Century BCE-Twentieth Century CE) by Bin Yang --- Yang distinguishes himself with a global perspective on a Chinese frontier with a long term approach. The book examines the transformation of Yunnan, an ethnic and frontier province sandwiched by Tibet, mainland Southeast Asia, and southwest China, from a non Chinese culture into part of China during a period of over 2,000 years. Unlike existing scholarship which only emphasizes Chinese imperial efforts, the book has fit Yunnan in a broad world that was participated in by Southeast Asia, Tibet, the Indian Ocean, the modern European World-system, and East Asia, and demonstrated that both local, Chinese, and international forces interplayed in this long-term transformation.
  2. Societies, Religion, and History: Central East Tanzanians and the World They Created, c. 200 BCE to 1800 CE by Rhonda M. Gonzales --- Gonzales uses historical linguistics to build the framework upon which she interweaves the findings of cutting edge-archaeologists as well as documented ethnographic sources taken since the late 19th century among such people as the Kaguru, Zaramo, and Gogo. Because the Swahili Coast is such a well-known region, this book is important in its own right, but it also is a part of an emerging body of new perspectives on the history of a large region of Africa that has been of worldwide significance since the early first millennium CE.
  3. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier by Shah Mahmoud Hanifi: Hanifi focuses on trade, literacy, and state building in locating para-colonial Afghanistan in the contexts of imperial and capitalist histories. Connecting Histories is the first monograph-length treatment of the economy and society of nineteenth-century Afghanistan and the first sustained consideration of British Indian colonialism's formative impact on the country. The monograph engages a number of issues of comparative appeal, including the power of printed texts and the expansion of the bureaucratic infrastructure in Afghanistan, state-sponsored industrialization and commodity monopolization, and the important roles of minority and indigenous nomadic communities in a multi-ethnic state. In detailing the political economy of this trans-national frontier zone, Hanifi draws on an impressive blend of archival, narrative, and oral historical sources.
  4. Belongings: Property, Family, and Identity in Colonial South Africa by Laura J. Mitchell: Based on a decade of research, Belongings describes the contours of conflict among Dutch East India Company officials, settlers, indigenous Khoisan, and Indian-Ocean slaves. It intricately details the ways in which settlers themselves-rather than Company policy or an imperial army-brought a distant frontier first into a colonial orbit, then gradually under colonial control.
  5. Sensual Encounters: Monastic Women and Spirituality in Medieval Germany by Erika Lauren Lindgren: Lindgren compares "Sister-Books," the literature written in the female Dominican monasteries, with the material culture of the women's surroundings. She examines the ways in which spirituality becomes culturally constructed and the roles of physicality in religious behavior. She develops a holistic view of the intersection between materiality and spirituality in female monasteries.
  6. Pursuit of an 'Unparalleled Opportunity': The American YMCA and Prisoner of War Diplomacy among the Central Power Nations during World War I, 1914-1923 by Kenneth Steuer: Comprehensively researched, this analysis sheds fresh light on both the general subject of WWI prisoners of war, and the role of one of the world's first NGOs, the YMCA. The author is particularly successful in demonstrating the Y's role in the increasingly chaotic conditions of East Europe, and merits credit as well for his insight into the synergy of Christian witness and secular tough-mindedness that informed the best of the Y's people.
  7. Arms and the Woman: Just Warriors and Greek Feminist Identity by Margaret Poulos: Poulos explores the intersections of militarism, nationalism, and feminism, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She argues that the essentially ambiguous nationalist imagery of a woman warrior has not been entirely efficient in the women's emancipation agenda. The result is "an ambitious, interesting, and successful dissertation."
  8. From Heads of Household to Heads of State: The Preaccession Households of Mary and Elizabeth Tudor, 1516–1558 by J. L. McIntosh: This study seeks to answer the question: if Tudor England was a patriarchal society, then how did two women—Mary and Elizabeth Tudor—consecutively succeed to the throne? In From Heads of Household to Heads of State: The Preaccession Households of Mary and Elizabeth Tudor, 1516–1558, J. L. McIntosh argues that Mary and Elizabeth established themselves as credible authority figures before their accessions by heading their own independent households.
  9. Miss Yourlovin: GIs, Gender, and Domesticity during World War II by Ann Elizabeth Pfau: What do shared beliefs about and behavior toward women tell us about the generation of men who served in the U.S. Army during World War II? This question drives Ann Pfau’s study of wartime gender roles. Focusing on five categories of real and imaginary women, Pfau uncovers conflicts of obligation and desire. These conflicts, although seldom directly articulated, were never far from the surface of soldiers' thoughts and beliefs about women, family, and home. By looking beneath the surface, we gain a deeper understanding of the nature of wartime military service and of the domestic yearning that sparked the postwar marriage and baby booms.
  10. "Trivial Complaints:" The Role of Privacy in Domestic Violence Law and Activism in the U.S. by Kirsten S. Rambo: In "Trivial Complaints:" The Role of Privacy in Domestic Violence Law and Activism in the U.S., Kirsten S. Rambo examines the history of domestic violence law and activism in the U.S., particularly as this history has been affected by privacy. Legal and cultural concepts of privacy have historically influenced the ways in which this society has understood domestic violence. Rambo explores the relationship between privacy and domestic violence through an analysis of domestic violence litigation that is historically situated.
  11. Architecture and Memory: The Renaissance Studioli of Federico da Montefeltro by Robert Kirkbride: The studioli of the ducal palaces at Urbino and Gubbio, Italy, demonstrate architecture's capacity to transact between the mental and physical realms of human experience. In Architecture and Memory: The Renaissance Studioli of Federico da Montefeltro, Robert Kirkbride investigates the position of the studioli in the Western tradition of the memory arts, an approach not previously considered. Drawing on the densely layered imagery in the studioli and text sources readily available to the Urbino court, he examines how architecture equipped the late quattrocento mind with a bridge between the mathematical arts, which lend themselves to mechanical pursuits, and the art of rhetoric, a discipline central to memory and eloquence.
  12. Caught in the Crossfire: Adrian Scott and the Politics of Americanism in 1940s Hollywood by Jennifer E. Langdon --- In the summer of 1947, Crossfire, a controversial thriller exposing American anti-Semitism, became a critical and box-office hit, and RKO producer Adrian Scott was at the pinnacle of his career. Within several months, however, he was infamous as a member of the Hollywood Ten, blacklisted for his refusal to cooperate with the House Un-American Activities Committee. In Caught in the Crossfire: Adrian Scott and the Politics of Americanism in 1940s Hollywood, Jennifer E. Langdon reconstructs the production and reception of Scott's major films to explore the political and creative challenges faced by Hollywood radicals in the studio system and to reassess the relationship between film noir, antifascism and anticommunism, and the politics of Americanism.
  13. Pestilence and Headcolds: Encountering Illness in Colonial Mexico by Sherry Fields --- In Pestilence and Headcolds: Encountering Illness in Colonial Mexico, Sherry Fields explores the cultures of health and illness in colonial Mexico as illuminated by popular beliefs and practices following the encounter of indigenous and European medical traditions. Her use of ex-votos as sources is especially interesting.
  14. Trafficking Materials and Gendered Experimental Practices: Radium Research in Early 20th Century Vienna --- by Maria Rentetzi Trafficking Materials and Gendered Experimental Practices: Radium Research in Early 20th Century Vienna is "a complex, creative, and fascinating study" of women in Vienna working as independent researchers. She includes documentary research, material culture and built environment analysis, and oral histories to examine the culture of women in the unique positions of radioactivity researchers during the early twentieth century.
  15. "Make It Yourself": Home Sewing, Gender, and Culture, 1890–1930 by Sarah A. Gordon --- In "Make It Yourself": Home Sewing, Gender, and Culture, 1890–1930, Sarah A. Gordon uses home sewing to examine domestic labor, marketing practices, changing standards of femininity, and understandings of class, gender and race. As industrialization made ready-made garments increasingly available, many women, out of necessity or choice, continued to make their own clothing. In doing so, women used a customary female skill both as a means of supporting traditional ideas and as a tool of personal agency. The shifting meanings of sewing became a contested space where businesses promoted sewing machines as tools for maintaining domestic harmony; women interpreted patterns to suit—or flout—definitions of appropriate appearances; and girls were taught to sew in ways that reflected beliefs about class, race, and region. Gordon uses established as well as more unusual source materials, including dresses, sewing workbooks and paper dolls, to argue that home sewing is a unique vehicle for understanding larger changes in American culture.
  16. Manhood in the Age of Aquarius: Masculinity in Two Countercultural Communities, 1965-83 by Timothy Hodgdon --- This is a study "full of rich interpretation" that explores the diverse forms of masculinity found in counter cultural radicalism. Hodgdon argues that conceptions of masculinity developed along two main lines: anarchism and mysticism. These are explored by examining the communities of the Diggers of San Francisco, and The Farm in Tennessee.
  17. How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century by Tonio Andrade --- The incorporation of Taiwan into the early modern European colonial trading networks, and its subsequent incorporation into the Chinese empire, are topics almost completely unexplored in Western language scholarship. This superb monograph not only opens them up but does so in an exciting way by exploring the complex interactions between the European trade diasporas and existing patterns of Asian migration and trade. The author is well acquainted with recent and current debates on the critical transformation taking place in the global economy during the late 16th and 17th centuries, and imaginatively covers a broad range of issues. He argues convincingly, and in wonderfully rich detail, that it was Dutch protection that made possible the slow Chinese colonization of Taiwan-and ultimately its incorporation into China. Andrade brilliantly reminds us of how important the brief episode of European occupation was to the future development of Taiwan, including the birth of its sugar industry.
  18. Advocating The Man: Masculinity, Organized Labor and the Market Revolution in New York, 1800-1840 by Joshua R. Greenberg --- In his "thorough, and imaginative exploration" of the relationship between masculinity and the young labor movement in the Jacksonian era, Greenberg examines diverse sources, such as plays, debates about birth control and comic valentines. He argues that domestic issues and concerns guided workplace and political reactions to the new industrial economy.
  19. The Creation of Color in Eighteenth-Century Europe by Sarah Lowengard --- Seldom does any monograph attempt to be comparative, in this case to cross the Channel and to say new and interesting things about the scientific culture found in both England and France. By using color, as a practice as well as a branch of optical theory, the author manages to weave material culture along with abstract science—again an integration seldom found in a first work.

Buddhist Texts and Books

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 08_Buddha-Wheel-of-Law.pdf he Wheel of the Law Alabaster, Henry 1884English 0383
Table of Contents
Part-02: Introduction Summary of the “ Life of Buddha”
Part-02-Chapter-01: THE GLORIOUS MARRIAGE: The first council of Buddhism convened by King Adjatasattru— Ananda relates the “Life of Buddha” —The wheel of the law —King Singhanu —Pre-existences of Maia —Her beauty and virtue —Her interview with Brahmins sent to find a wife for Suddhodana, son of Singhanu —Dream of King Singhanu —Preparations for the marriage —The marriage
Part-02-Chapter-02: THe DEscENT FROM THE TUSHITA HEAVENS: The pre-existences of the Being that would be Buddha —His charities —Five portents preceding advent of a Buddha —The angels invoke him to descend from heaven —Five signs of end of an angel’s life —The nature of angels— The five considerations as to birth in the world —The gardens of the angels —The descent — Wonderful manifestations throughout the world
Part-02-Chapter-03: Tux BIRTH IN THIS WORLD: The feast of the full moon of the eighth month —Conduct of Queen Maia —Her dream —The conception —The interpretation of the dream —Her life and worship — Her journey towards Dewadaha —The birth in the forest— The child regards the world, and proclaims himself greatest of all beings —The thirty-two miraculous signs —Seven other things produced at same time —The return to Kapila
Part-02-Chapter-04: PREDICTIONS OF FUTURE GREATNESS: Rejoicings of the angels —Story of Kaladewila —Prophecy of the Brahmins —The thirty-two signs of a Grand Being —His feet —Prophecy of Kondanya that he would be Buddha
Part-02-Chapter-05: THE Four VISIONS: He is named Angkhirasa and Sidharta —P achapati (on the death of Maia) becomes his foster-mother —Miracle at sowing festival —His lotus pool —His palace —Display of skill in the arts —He marries —He visits his garden and on four distinct occasions sees an old man, a sick man, corpse, and a devotee —The birth of his son —The incident of Kisagotami
Part-02-Chapter-06: THE COMMENCEMENT OF A RELIGIOUS CAREER: His last night in his harem —Repulsive exhibition of womankind —He determines on adopting religious life —Description of his horse —His look at his newly-born son —He leaves his palace— Mara tempts him to remain —His journey of two hundred miles in one night —He disrobes, and cuts off his hair —He receives the ought priestly requisites
Part-02-Chapter-07: THE PRACTICE OF ASCETICISM: He sends back his attendant —Death of the horse —After seven days’ fast, he marches two hundred miles to Rajagriha —His interview with King Bimbisara —He studies with masters of philosophy —He goes to the Uruwela solitude —Five ascetics come and attend on him —For six years he practises extreme mortification, even to ceasing to take food —Mara tempting him, is worsted— Accepting a suggestion of Indra, he again takes food, at which his five companions are offended, lose their faith in him, and leave him
Part-02-Chapter-08: Tue FINAL EFFORT: The woman Suchada prepares an offering for the angel of the Banyan-tree —Five visions seen by the Great Being — Buddha receives Suchada’s offering in a golden bowl— He goes to the river-side and casts the bowl into the stream —It sinks to the realms of the Nagas —He marches, attended by angels, towards the Bo-tree —A bundle of grass, given him by the way, Placed under the Bo-tree, becomes a throne
Part-02-Chapter-09: THE CONTEST WITH THE EVIL SPIRIT: Mara’s daughters tempts him —Mara and his host assail him — He relies on his virtue —The discussion with Mara —He invokes the earth —The angel of the earth appears and discomfits the host of Mara —The angels and Mara unite in praising him
Part-02-Chapter-10: THE ATTAINMENT OF THE BUDDHAHOOD: He attains supernatural knowledge —Discovers the law of the circle of existence —Realises that all existence is unstable, sorrowful, and illusive —He sees Nirwana, and enters the four paths —Passing through the paths, he attains the Buddhahood, NATIVE CONCLUSION: The Buddha does honour to the Bo-tree —He silences the angels by a display of his power, CONTINUATION (placed as Note 172): Buddha spends seven weeks by the Bo and other trees —He is sheltered by the King of Nagas —Two merchants are his first almsgivers and converts —By entreaty of the angels, he consents to preach —He turns the wheel of the law at Benares —He makes numerous converts during his first season —Proceeds to Rajagriha —Converts King Bimbisara, who gives him the Weluwana monastery— Visits his father —Founds an order of nuns —Has a public contest with the heretics —The fable of Kappaka’s donkey —Visit to the heavens —Descent at Sangkashi— Visits to Ceylon and Siam —Plots of his opponente —Ananda appointed his attendant —His reception by the courtesan —His entertainment by the gold smith —His last meal —His death.



"The Wheel of the Law" --- Buddhism, illustrated from Siamese sources by the Modern Buddhist, a Life of Buddha, and an account of the Phrabat (SIAMESE FOOTPRINT OF BUDDHA) by Alabaster, Henry - 1884. "Life of Buddha" translated "from a popular Siamese work, Pathomma somphothiyan": Preface - "All Buddhists, throughout the wide range of countries where the doctrines of Buddha prevail, call their religion the doctrine of “The Wheel of the Law.", Pg-xxix: "We do not find an Athanasian Creed; for so far as this book enlightens us, we find that the Buddhist speaks of heaven rather than of hell, and never thinks of such uncharity as to damn everlastingly those who differ with him.", "We find Brahminical superstitions, a continual reference to Brahmin soothsayers and the Vedas, and an adherence to Brahminical rites in all matters pertaining to royal ceremonials. Those who know that by the Brahmins the Buddhists were extirpated from Central India, the birthplace of their religion, must wonder to see Brahmins and Buddhists pictured side by side in harmony."

Pg-16: After the religion of Buddha had spread abroad, a certain king, desiring to know the truth as to cosmogony, inquired of the monks, and they, knowing the omnisctence of Buddha, and yet fearing that if they said Buddha never taught this, people would say ‘your Lord is ignorant, and admired without reason, took the ancient Vedas, and various expressions in the Sutras and parables, and fables, and proverbs, and connecting them together into a book, the ‘Traiphoom, produced it as the teaching of Buddha. The people of those days were uneducated and foolish, and believed that Buddha had really taught it; and if any doubted, they kept their doubts to themselves, because they could not prove anything.

Pg-216: Wipassana, a Pali word, I suppose to be derived from the Sanscrit Pragna, (prachh, “to ask”), “a question.” Pg-251: Fah Hian mentions two footprints in Ceylon. "Buddha, by his spiritual power, planted one foot to the north of the royal city, and one on the top of a mountain; the distance between the two being fifteen yojanas (say a hundred miles).”

The Life Or Legend Of Gaudama: the Buddha of the Burmese by Bigandet, Paul Ambrose, d. 1894

Catalogue of Sanskrit and Pali Books in the British Museum. Trubner and Co. London. by Haas, Ernst (1876)

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 08_Buddha-Catena-Script.pdf A CATENA OF BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES Samuel Beal 1871 English 0450
Table of Contents
Introduction: Introductory Remarks - Importance of Chinese Buddhism - The Translation of the Canon - Comparison of the Chinese version with the Sanskrit - Works known only in China - The Vessantara Jataka The intercommunication of East and West - Customs and myths borrowed from Buddhism - The Divine method as traced in the history of Buddhism - Scope of the present work
Part-1-Chapter-01: LEGENDS AND MYTHS Works consulted - The Swabhavika system of Buddhism - The Sun-gem or Sura-mani - The opinions of Wang-Pub - The Buddhist Kosmos by Jin-Ch'au - The meaning of Dharma in later Buddhist works - The origin of the work of Wang-Pub - Difference between northern and southern schools of Buddhism - The seven divisions of the work of Jin-Ch'au - The identity of mind and matter, according to the Swabhavikas - The Bhadra Kalpa - The meaning of the expression Sahalokadhatu - The origin of the name 'India' - The continent of Jambudwipa - China considered as the "Middle Country" - The superior reputation of India - The measurement of its position - The Mountain kings Origin of Rivers - The Navel of the earth - The Wheel kings - Sanskrit letters - The pleasantness of climate - The Reasonable Medium - The Rishi or Genii - On Faith and Unbelief - Karma - Necessity of watchfulness over ourselves
Part-1-Chapter-02: THE HABITABLE WORLD The four great continents — The southern continent — The eastern continent — The western continent — The northern continent— The superiority of Jambudwipa — On the Karma that leads to birth in these worlds — On certain signs at time of death — On the nine mountain girdles and the eight seas— On the causes of earthquakes — On the land of the Naga Rajahs — On the country of the Garudas— On the country of the Asuras — On the war of the Asuvas with the Devas — On the bodily size of diiferent beings — On the general names for Hell - On the eight Burning Hells — On the different degrees of punishment — On the eight Cold Hells- On the Three fronticr Hells — On emerging from the Narakas (Hells) — On the abode of King Jemma (Yama) — On the Pretas — On birth as a brute
Part-1-Chapter-03: THE SUPERIOR HEAVENS The palace of the Sun — The palace of the Moon — On the variable splendour of sun and moon — On the palace of the Star Devas — On birth in the Paradise of the Devas — On the conduct leading to such birth — The thirty -three Heavens — The Karma that leads to birth in these Heavens — A consecutive account of the three worlds — The size and longevity of the Devas — The Karma that leads to birth among these Devas — The comparative lustre of the bodies of Devas and men — The relative purity of food — The three worlds and the nine earths — Respecting the Lord of the Devas — The four divisions of Dhydua Heavens — The occupants of the Heavens— General summary — The five marks of decadence — On the way the heart generates the six modes of birth
Part-1-Chapter-04: THE COLLECTIVE UNIVERSE The great chiliocosm — The extent of the different systems of worlds — On the length of time called a Kalpa — On the Kalpa of perfection or renovation — On the Kalpa of establishment — On the Kalpa of decadence — On the Kalpa during which there is void — General summary — The various Buddha-kshetras — The pure lands of the eastern region — The pure land of the western region— On the true cause of birth in that land — A general summary of the subject — On the various tiers of worlds - On the names of the great numbers used in Buddhist books — Concerning the infinite expanse of the universe
Part-1-Chapter-05: LEGEND OF SAKYA Origin of the Sakya family — Probably a northern race — Tombs of the Scyths — Modes of burial — Memoirs by Wang Puh— Descent of Sakya — His horoscope — His early life — His conversion — His ascetic life— His enlightenment — His preaching — Conversion of Sariputra and Moudgalapoutra — The various scenes of Sakya's teaching— His methods of teaching — The various developments of his doctrine — The conclusion of his mission— His death — His burial — Division of relics — The eternity of his law — His successors —The epitome of Buddha’s life
Part-2-Chapter-06: BUDDHISM AS A EELIGION The character of this development -Its probable origin — The method of it — The idea of worship — The necessity of meditation — Buddhism as an atheistic system — As a nihilistic system — Primitive ideas — The Four truths - Gathas — Allusion to this subject in the Surangama Sutra — In the Pratimoksha — In the Maha-pari-Nirvana Sutra - Avadanas— The Goddess Meilt and the Goddess Blaelnes — The young Brahman — The merchant— The poisonous tree— Pile of filth— The deep abyss — The tank — The wise minister — The broken chariot -The rich man’s house— The poor man’s want— The land-tortoise— The Autumn moon— The sweet melon— The full moon— The just monarch — The lamp— The dried-up river — The destructive had — The character of death — As a fire — As a deluge — As a tempest of wind — As a Garuda — As the trees on the river’s bank — The power of Narayana— As the hypocrite- As the rain-fall- As Mara— As the flattering minister
Part-2-Chapter-07: NIRVANA The character of Nirvana — Chinese definitions — The discussions found in the Maha-pari-Nirvana Sutra — With Basita — With Sena — With Kasaypa— With Purna (or, Purana) — With Vatsa-putra
Part-2-Chapter-08: THE SUTRA OF THE FORTY-TWO SECTIONS Comparison of this work with the Dhauima-pada — Its historical position in China— Its ethical character — Definition of a Shaman — Capacities of a Rahat — Object of a religious life — Duties of a Shaman — Ten inducements to evil, and ten to good — Conseiiuence of impenitence — The rule of returning good for evil — The folly of reviling good — The nature of unselfish charity — The relative worth of good deeds— The difiSculties of a religious life — The method of advance — Definition of a good man— The character of an impure life — The illumination conseipient on religious devotion — The supreme end of life — The impermanence of all around us — The character of Faith — Of self-refiection — The pursuit of personal pleasure — The love of wealth — The chraacter of Love — Sexual inclinations — Desire — Example of disappointed lust— The stream of life — Enbelief— Looking on a woman— The destiny of lustful desires — The folly of mere bodily mortification — The history of the lustful maid — The comparison with the warrior — The wearied Shaman — The foundry — The comparison of the "Good" and the “Bad” — Difficulties — The value of life — Obedience — Comparison of honey and the knife — Counting beads — The comparison ot the wearied oxen — The true worth of earthly dignities
Part-2-Chapter-09: THE PRATIMOKSHA Original rules of the Buddhist profession — The Telesdliutanga rules — The “Four Divisions” — The divisions of the Pratimoksha — Introductory Gathas — Preparatory questions — Commeneomont — The four Parajika rules — The thirteen Saughadisesa rules — Ihe two Anitya rules — The thirty Nissaggiya-pachittiya rules — The ninety pachittiya rules — The four Phatidesaniya rules — The hundred Sekkhiya rules — The seven “Mieh-Tsaug” laws
Part-2-Chapter-10: THE DAILY MANUAL OF THE SHAMAN Verses to be said on awaking from sleep — On hearing the Convent Bell — On rising from bed — On assuming tbe robes — On working — On washing - On drinking water — On spreading out the mat — On entering the sacred precincts - On bowing before Buddha — On adoring a Tope — Other occasions mentioned in the Office
Part-2-Chapter-07: THE TIAN T'AI SCHOOL OF BUDDHISM The priest Chi-K’ai — His retirement from the world — The scene of his labours — His system of Doctrine — A recent account of his successors — A conversation respecting Buddhist belief — The meaning of production and annihilation in a Buddhist sense (jati and marana) — The book known as the Sian-chi-kwan— The meaning of Chi-Kwan— The introductory verses — Means to be used — Five external means — Observing the Precepts— Clothing and food — Dwelling-place — Freedom from worldly concerns — Promotion of virtuous knowledge — Continuation of the system of Tian-t’ai — Chiding the evil desires — The lust after beauty — The lust after sound— The lust after perfumes — The lust of taste — The lust of touch — The misery consequent on indulging these desires — Casting away hindrances — The hindrance of covetousness — The hindrance of anger — The hindrance of sloth — The hindrance of restlessness — The hindrance of unbelief — Harmonising the faculties — Duties as to food — Duties as to sleep — Duties as to the regulation of the body, breathing and thinking — Adjustment of the clothes — Straightening the body — Position of the hands and feet — Cleansing the mouth — The four ways of breathing — Suppressing confused thoughts — Overcoming deadness — Destroying flightiness — Excluding excitement — Emerging from Samddhi — Concluding verses
Part-3-Chapter-08: SCHOLASTIC PEEIOD General division of the Buddhist development —The Prajna Paramita Sutras — Pari-Nirvana as defined in the Vajra-checlika Sutra — The condition of the Absolute — Difficulty of defining this condition — Quotations from Christian writers— From Buddhist Sutras — Meaning of the word paramita — Chinese versions of the prajna Paramita — Comparative size of the works in question — The Sin-king or heart Sutra— The edition by Wu-tsing-tsze — The Commentary by Tai-theen — The agreement of three sects — Illustration of arguments used by Wu-tsing-tze
Part-3-Chapter-09: TRANSLATION OF SUTRAS The Maha-Prajua-paramita-hridaya-Sutra — The Devata of the Sutra— The Rishi off the Sutra — The character of the argument — Concluding Dharani — The Surangama Sutra— Chinese name — Translated by Paramiti— Commentators — Date — Eeferences to it in other works — Size of the work — Introductory sections — Commencement of the argument — The seat of the mind and the eye — Argument with Prasenadjit — Existence of a soul — The true nature of Tathagata — The hallucination of the senses —The argument of “harmonious union” — The nature of the elements — The true character of phenomenal existence — The oneness of being and not-being — Conclusion drawn from the madness of Yadjnadatta — The comparison of the cataract of the eye — The loosening of the knots and the return to the fundamental unity
Part-4-Chapter-10: MYSTIC PERIOD Definition of mysticism — The convent at Nalanda — Arya-deva — Rahula-bhadra — The Western Paradise — Amitabha — Origin of the myth — Signification of the name — Chinese explanations of it — Mystical meaning — Kwan-shai-yin — The invocation of Amitabha — Virtue attending faith — Modes of worship — Result of faith — The Western Paradise — Work translated by Kumarajiva — Sanscrit name — Situation — Perfection of it— Blessedness of its inhabitants — The worship of Kwan-yin —Origin of this cultus — Probably derived from the ambiguous meaning of Samantamukha — Yagishwara-Devi — The early worship of Avalokiteshwara- Translation of the Buddhist Canon in Ceylon- The cave Aloka — The Abhaya Vihara — The chapel called Bddhi — The island of Poo-to — Yames used in Nipal— Mystical aspect of the worship of Kwan yin— Reference to Kwan-yin in the Suraugama Sutra — In the Saddharma-Pnndarika
Part-4-Chapter-11: TRANSLATIONS Translation of the Manifestation (samanta) section— Origin of the name Kwan-shai-yin — Results to those who invoke him — Protector against fire, water, robbers — Deliverer of those bound — Protector of merchants — Saviour from the power of lust — Patron of women — Reasons of Kwan-yin’s manifestation — Methods or expedients (upaya) — Offering of Akchayamati — Recitation of Gathas— The Liturgy of Kwan-yin — Origin of this office not recorded — Published in the Ming dynasty — Similarities in outline with Christian Liturgies — Possibly shaped after a Nestorian model — Imperial preface by Tung-loh— Introduction — Mode of consecrating the Mandala — Rules for worshippers — The entrance — Hymn of incense — Oblation of flowers — Mystic hymn — Invocation — Prayer — Chant of praise — Triple invocation, lesson, invocation, lesson — The Dharani — Humble confession — Vows of repentance — Dismissal
Part-5-Chapter-12: DECLINE AND FALL Mystical Pantheism — Adoption of Tantra worship — Fusion with the sects — Sivite objects of worship — Chinese exposition of this development — The Dharani of Tchundi — The origin of this name — Anotner form of Durga — The idea of Georgi with reference to it — The mode of sitting — The position of the hands — The Gathas of Nagarjuna — The Dharani of the pure world — The Dharani of Manjusri — The Dharani of Tchundi — The circle-dharani — Gathas
Part-5-Chapter-13: NAGA WORSHIP The character of this superstition - The Sutra for asking rain — Its Sanscrit name — Translated into Chinese by Nalanda Yasa— Age — Imperial preface by Kien-Lung — The cause of its being published — Abstract of the Sutra — Buddha’s residence when it was delivered — The infinite number of Nagas -Their mode of worship — The address — The reply — The recitation of Dharani - Names of Tathagatas — Description of Naga temple — Conclusion

Keywords: Sanskrit, Nalanda, Mandala, Nagarjuna, Aryadeva

Review:Pg-371: "Between the time of Nagardjuna and Asaṅga this monastery had been destroyed by the opponents of Buddhism on three different occasions. Yet the establishment had revived after each overthrow, and again established itself as a great centre of learning."

A CATENA OF BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES from the Chinese by Samuel Beal: Excerpts --- "It is well known that in many of the larger monasteries of that country there are to be found not only complete editions of the Buddhist Scriptures in the vernacular, but also Sanscrit originals, from which the Chinese version was made.", Pg-1: "Buddhist books began to be translated into Chinese so early as the middle portion of the first century A.D.", "...a careful study of the Chinese version of the Buddhist Scriptures may render to the cause of literature generally, but especially towards a critical acquaintance with the original Sanscrit text of the Tripitaka.", "the Avatamsaka Sutra, written, as it is said, by Nagardjuna, and which, under the name of the "Fa yan King" is one of the commonest and most widely circulated Sutras in China.", "The ideas found in the Inferno of Dante are many of them purely Buddhist. The conceit of the early painters who surrounded their saints with a glory of light is borrowed from the East."

pg-22: In reference to Sanscrit letters. These letters are like the old seal characters amongst us. They have remained the same from the creation of the world, unchanged through successive myriads of years. In this respect they differ from any letters we possess, for both the seal and the square characters with us have undergone numerous changes. The Sanscrit letters were originally imparted to men by Brahma (Fan tien), hence the books are called Brahma Books. For this reason all the Buddhas in delivering the Law have used Sanscrit words. The sound Om pronounced during worship is an acceptable offering to all the Buddhas.

Pg-40: “King Frasenajit asked Buddha if every Brahman, Tchatriya, Yaisya, and Sudra on returning to life would be born in his own caste.” To which Buddha replied; “It is possible it may be so, but the matter stands thus — there are four distinct classifications of men... According to the Agama Sutras, Buddha declared that there were eight causes and occasions of earthquakes.

Pg-372: It will be remembered that the earliest idea of the Universe, which seems to have prevailed (if we may judge from the architecture of the Stupas), down to about the period of Kanishka, was, that it consisted of a central mountain, Meru, around which were the seas and continents and girdles of rocks, and above, the abode of Indra and the thirty-three gods (symbolising, as it seems, the year, the four quarters, and the twenty-eight days of the month).

Chinese Buddhism by REV. JOSEPH EDKINS, D.D. --- Like most of the book written by Christian pastors, this book has used subtle means to demean idolatry and project Christian superiority. E.g. in the preface itself - page viii: 'Yet Buddhism is powerful in China by its doctrines. It has made the Chinese idolaters, and besides this it has taught them the wind and water superstition which has proved to be an effective barrier against civilised improvements and a most thorough hindrance to true enlightenment." On page xi: "Science and philosophy on arriving in India originated science and philosophy in that country under new forms. Buddhism forsook the Veda religion so far as to omit all mention of the gods Varuna, Agni, and the Maruts. Buddha did not cite the Vedas as authorities." Another very typical example of how Chisrist colonizer tries to demean Hindus, pg-xiii: "Hindu sculpture is based on that of Greece. Hindoo arithmetic is Babylonian in origin. Babylonian thought was adopted by the Hindoos, because it was more refined and profound than their own." They Christian cannot rely on the language of OT and need to show Greek better as it is language of NT. However, one good thing is that we can use this book to still show the arguments to be more assertive in favour of hinduism as an enemy will never try to write good thing about its opponent.

The book is more to interject Western Christist thought than actually describe the topic of the book. E.g. on page --- "When the Buddhists began to teach races to whom the subtle Hindoo metaphysics were a riddle beyond their comprehension, they taught, for the Nirvana, a Western Heaven ruled by a newly-invented Buddha, and additional to the paradises of the Devas." Another geom coming from the cult who prosecuted astronomers for heliocentrix model of universe, page xxiii: "Christianity fosters mental growth, and the science of the West is eminently stimulating to thought. The descendants of the men whose mariners sailed with the compass seven hundred years ago..." From the reference nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/compass --- "Chinese scientists may have developed navigational compasses as early as the 11th or 12th century. Western Europeans soon followed at the end of the 12th century."

Page-2: "The numerous Indian priests who came to China early in the Christian era were indefatigable translators, as is shown by what they have bequeathed to their disciples. These monuments of the highly civilised race that spoke the Sanscrit language, give to the inquiry a special literary interest." Page-12: "The date of Shakya’s birth is very variously given. The Siamese, Peguans, and Singhalese, all using the Pali versions of the Buddhist classics, differ among themselves. The numbers as stated by them are b.c. 744, 638, and 624. The Chinese historian, Ma Twan-lin, mentions two dates as assigned by various authorities to this event, viz. 1027 and 668. The former is what is commonly given in Chinese books. What was the original language of Buddhism is another point not yet fully determined. .. to Buddha’s identity. If Sanscrit was the language in which he taught his disciples, it must have been just dying out at the time, for the old Buddhist inscriptions, in the countries watered by the Ganges, are in a dialect derived from the Sanscrit and differing little from Pali".
Books on Women

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 85_Hist-Woman-Suffrage-V1.pdf HISTORY OF WOMAN SUFFRAGE Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, And Matilda Joslyn Gage 1948-61English 0921
Table of Contents
Chapter-03: THE WORLD'S ANTI-SLAVERY CONVENTION, LONDON, JUNE 12, 1840 Individualism rather than Authority —Personal appearance of Abolitionista —Attempt to silence Woman —Double battle against the tyranny of sex and color —Bigoted Abolitionists —James G. Birney likes freedom on a Southern plantation, but not at his own fireside —John Bull never dreamt that Woman would answer his call —The venerable Thomas Clarkson received by the Convention standing— Lengthy debate on ‘Female’ delegates —The ‘Females’ rejected— William Lloyd Garrison refusing to sit in the Convention
Chapter-04: NEW YORE The First Woman’s Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, July 19-20, 1848 —Property Rights of Women secured —Judge Fine, George Geddes, and Mr. Hadley pushing the Bill through —Danger of meddling with well-settled conditions of domestic happiness —Mrs. Barbara Hertell’s will —Richard Hunt's tea-table —The eventful day —James Mott President —Declaration of sentiments —Convention in Rochester —Opposition with Bible arguments
Chapter-05: MRS. COLLINS’ REMINISCENCES The first Suffrage Society —Methodist class-luader whips his wife —Theology enchains the soul —The status of women and slaves the same —The first medical college opened to women —Petitions to the Legislature laughed at, and laid on the table —Dependence woman's best protection; her weakness her sweetest charm —Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell’s letter —Sketch of Ernestine L. Rose.
Chapter-06: OHIO The promised land of fugitives —"Uncle Tom’s Cabin" —Salem Convention, 1850 — Akron, 1851 —Masailon, 1852 —The address to the women of Ohio —The Mohammedan law forbidding pigs, dogs, women, and other impure animals to enter a Mosque —The New York Tribune —Cleveland Convention, 1853 —Hon. Joshua R. Giddinys —Letter from Horace Greeley —A glowing eulogy to Mary Wollstonecraft — William Henry Channing’s Declaration —The pulpit and public sentiment— President Asa Mahan debates — The Rev. Dr. Nevin pulls Mr. Garrison’s nose —Antoinette L. Brown describes her exit from the World’s Temperance Convention —Cincinnati Convention, 1855—Jane Elizabeth Jones’ Report,
Chapter-07: REMINISCENCES BY CLARINA I. HOWARD NICHOLS VERMONT: Editor Windham County Democrat—Property Laws, 1847 and 1849— Address to the Legislature on school suffrage, 1852. Wisconsin: Woman’s State Temperance Society —Lydia F. Fowler in company— Opposition of Clergy— ‘Woman's Rights’ wouldn’t do —Advertised “Men’s Rights.” Kansas: Free State Emigration, 1854—Gov. Robinson and Senator Pomeroy— Woman's Rights speeches on Steamboat, and at Lawrence —Constitutional Convention, 1859 —State Woman Suffrage Association—John O. Wattles, President— Aid from the Francis Jackson Fund —Canvassing the State —School Suffrage gained. Missouri: Lecturing at St. Joseph, 1858, on Col. Scott’s invitation— Westport and the John Brown raid, 1859 —St. Louis, 1854— Frances D. O98 Rey. Wm. G. Eliot, and Rev. Mr. Weaver.
Chapter-08: MASSACHUSETTS Women in the Revolution —Anti-Tea Leagues —Phillis Wheatley —Mistress Anne Hutchinson —Heroines in the Slavery Conflict —Women Voting under the Colonial Charter —Mary Upton Ferrin Petitions the Legislature in 1848 —Woman’s Rights Convention in 1850,'51 —Letter of Harriet Martineau from England —Letter of Jeannie Deroine from a Prison Cell in Paris —Editorial from The Christian Enquirer —The Una, edited by Paulina Wright Davis —Constitutional Convention in 1858— Before the Legislature in 1857 —Harriot K. Hunt’s Protest against Taxation— Lucy Stone’s Protest against the Marriage Laws —Boston Conventions— Theodore Parker on Woman’s Position
Chapter-09: INDIANA AND WISCONSIN Indiana Missionary Station—Gen. Arthur St. Clair —Indian surprises —The terrible war-whoop —One hundred women join the army, and are killed fighting bravely —Priirie scbooners —Manufactures in the hands of women —Admitted to the Union in 1816 —Robert Dale Owen— Woman Suffrage Conventions— Wisconsin— C. L. Sholes’ report
Chapter-10: PENNSYLVANIA Wilham Penn —Independence Hall —British troops —Heroism of women —Lydia Darrah— Who designed the Flag —Anti-slavery movements in Philadelphia —Pennesyvania Hall destroyed by a mob —David Paul Brown — Fagitives —Millard Fillmore —John Brown—Angelinu Grimké —Abby Kelly —Mary Grew —Temperance in 1848 —Hannah Darlington and Ann Preston before the Legislature —Medical College for Women in 1850 —Westchester Woman’s Rights Convention, 1852 —Philadelphia Convention, 1854 —Lucrotia Mott answers Richard H. Dana —Jane Grey Swisshelm —Sarah Josepha Hale —Anna McDowell —Rachel Foster searching the records —Sketch of Angelina Grimké
Chapter-11: LUCRETIA MOTT Eulogy at the Memorial Services held at Washington by the National Woman Suffrage Association, January 19, 1881. By Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Chapter-12: NEW JERSEY Tory feeling in New Jersey —Hannah Arnett rebuked the traitor spirit —Mrs. Dissosway rejects all proposals to disloyalty —Triumphal arch erected by the ladies of Trenton in honor of Washington —His letter to the ladies —The origin of Woman Suffrage in New Jersey —A paper read by William A. Whitehead before the Historical Society —Defects in the Constitution of New Jersey —A singular pamphlet called ‘Eumenes’ — Opinion of Hon. Charles James Fox— Mr. Whitehead reviewed
Chapter-13: MRS. STANTON’S REMINISCENCES Mrs. Stanton’s and Miss Anthony’s first meeting —An objective view of these ladies from a friend’s standpoint —A glimpse of their private life —The pronunciamentos they issued from the fireside —Mrs. Wright, Mre. Seward, Mrs. Worden, Mre. Mott, in council —How Mrs. Worden voted —Ladies at Newport dancing with low necks and short sleeves, and objecting to the publicity of the platform —Senator Seward discussing Woman’s Rights at a dinner-party —Mrs. Seward dctlares herself a friend to the reform —A magnetic circle in Central New York —Matilda Joslyn Gage: her early education and ancestors —A series of Anti-Slavery Conventions from Buffalo to Albany —Mobbed at every point— Mayor Thatcher maintains order in the Convention at the Capital —Great excitement over a fugitive wife from the insane asylum —The Bloomer costume —Gerrit Smith’s home
Chapter-14: NEW YORK First Steps in New York —Woman’s Temperance Convention, Albany, January, 1852 —New York Woman’s State Temperance Society, Rochester, April, 1853— Women before the Legislature pleading for a Maine Law— Women rejected as Delegates to Men’s State Conventions at Albany and Syracuse, 1852; at the Brick Church Meeting and World’s Temperance Convention in New York, 1858 —Horace Grecley defends the Rights of Women in The New York Tribune —The Teachers’ State Conventions —The Syracuse National Woman’s Rights Convention, 1852 —Mob in the Broadway Tabernacle Woman’s Rights Convention through two days, 1853 —State Woman's Rights Convention at Rochester, December, 1853 —Albany Convention, February, 1854, and Hearing before the Legislature demanding the Right of Suffrage —A State Committee appointed —Susan B. Anthony General Agent —Conyentions at Saratoga Springs, 1854, '55, '50— Annual State Conventions with Legislative Hearings and Reports of Committees, until the War —Married Women’s Property Law, 1860 —Bill before the Legislature Granting Divorce for Drunkenness —Horace Greeley and Thurlow Weed oppose it —Ernestine IL. Rose, Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton Address the Legislature in favor of the Bill —Robert Dale Owen defends the Measure in The New York Tribune —National Woman’s Rights Conventions in New York City, 1856, 58, '59, '60 —Status of the Woman’s Rights Movement at the Opening of the War, 1861
Chapter-15: WOMAN, CHURCH, AND STATE Woman ander old religions —Woman took part in offices of early Christian Church Councils —Original sin —Celibacy of the clergy —Their degrading sensuality —Feudalism— Marriage— Debasing externals and daring ideas —Witchcraft —Three striking points for consideration —Burning of Witches— Witchcraft in New England— Marriage with devils —Rights of property not recognized in woman— Wife ownership— Women legislated for as slaves —Marriage under the Greek Church— The Salic and Crom wellian era —The Reformation — Woman under monastic rules in the home —The Mormon doctrine regarding woman; its logical result —Milton responsible for many existing views in regard to woman —Woman’s subordination taught today —The Lee trial —Right Rev. Cox —Rev. Knox-Little —Pan-Presbyterians— Quakers not as liberal as they have been considcred —Restrictive action of the Methodist Church —Offensive debate upon ordaining Miss Oliver —The Episcopal Church and its restrictions — Sunday-school teachings —Week-day school teachings —Sermon upon woman’s subordination by the President of a Baptist Theological Seminary —Professor Christlieb of Germany —‘Dear, will you bring me my shawl? ’—Female sex looked upon as a degradation —a sacrilegious child —Secretary Evarts, in the Beecher-Tilton trial, upon woman’s subordination —Women degraded in science and education —Large-hearted men upon woman’s degradation— Wives still sold in the market-place as ‘mares,' by a halter around their necks —Degrading servile labor performed by woman in Christian countries — A lower degradatioun —"Queen’s women — "Government women" —Interpolations in the Bible —Letter from Howard Crosby, D.D., LL.D.

Keywords: Might Makes Right, Turkish Harem

Review: Pg-13: "She has been bought and sold, caressed and crucified at the will and pleasure of her master. But if a chivalrous desire to protect woman has always been the mainspring of man’s dominion over her, it should have prompted him to place in her hands the same weapons of defense he has found to be most effective against wrong and oppression." Pg-16: The Church, too, took alarm, knowing that with the freedom and edacation acquired in becoming a component part of the Government, woman would not only outgrow the power of the priesthood, and religious superstitions, but would also invade the pulpit, interpret the Bible anew from her own stand-point, and claim an equal voice in all ecclesiastical councils.

Pg-754: Woman had acquired great liberty under the old civilizations. In Rome she had not only secured remarkable personal and property rights, but she officiated as priestess in the most holy offices of religion. Not only as Vestal Virgin did she guard the Sacred Fire, upon whose preservation the welfare of Rome was held to depend, but at the end of every consular period women officiated in private worship and sacrifice to the Bona Dea, with mystic ceremonies which no man’s presence was suffered to profane. 1,200 years before Christ; she founded its literature, the “Sacred Songs” of Isis being deemed by Plato literally 10,000 years old; as priestess she performed the most holy offices of religion, holding the Sacred Sistrum and offering sacrifices to the gods; Pg-755: The women of Scandinavia were regarded with respect, and marriage was held as sacred by both men and women. These old Berserkers reverenced their Alruna, or Holy Women, on earth, and worshiped goddesses in heaven.

Pg-755: The Council of Laodices, a.p. 365, in its eleventh canon forbade the ordination of women to the ministry, and by its forty-fourth canon prohibited them from entering into the altar. The Council of Orleans, A.D. 511, consisting of twenty-six bishops and priests, promulgated a canon declaring that on account of their frailty, women must be excluded from the deaconship. Council of Paris (A.D. 824) bitterly complaining that women serve at the altar, and even give to the people the body and blood of Jesus Christ. The Council of Aix-la-Chapelle, only eight years previously, had forbidden abbesses from taking upon themselves any priestly function. A curious old black-letter volume published in London in 1632, entitled “The Lawe's Resolutions of Women’s Rights” says, “the reason why women have no control in Parliament, why they make no laws, consent to none, abrogate none, is their Original Sin.”

Council of A.D. 347, consisting of twenty-one bishops, forbade the ordination of those priests who had been twice married, or who had married a widow. A Council of A.D. 395, ruled that a bishop who had children after — ordination, should be excluded from the major orders. The Council of A.D. 444, deposed Chelidonius, Bishop of Besancon, for having married a widow; while the Council of Orleans, A.D. 511, consisting of thirty-two bishops, decided that any monk who married should be expelled from the ecclesiastical order.

Pg-758: St. Chrysostom, whose prayer is repeated at every Sunday morning service of the Episcopal Church, described woman as “a necessary evil, a natural temptation, a desirable calamity, a domestic peril, a deadly fascination, and a painted ill.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 85_Hist-Woman-Suffrage-V2.pdf HISTORY OF WOMAN SUFFRAGE Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, And Matilda Joslyn Gage 1948-61English 0985
Table of Contents
Chapter-16: WOMAN'S PATRIOTISM IN THE WAR The first gun on Sumter, April 12, 1861 Woman's military genius Anna Ella Carroll - The Sanitary Movement- Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell -The Hospitals-Dorothea Dix -Services on the battle-field -Clara Barton -The Freedman's Bureau -Josephine Griffing -Ladies' National Covenant -Political campaigns -Anna Dickinson -The Woman's Loyal National League -The Mammoth Petition -Anniversaries -The Thirteenth Amendment
Chapter-17: CONGRESSIONAL ACTION First Petitions to Congress December, 1865, against the word "male" in the 14th Amendment — Joint resolutions before Congress — Messrs. Jenckes, Schenck, Broomall, and Stevens — Republicans protest in presenting petitions — The women seek aid of Democrats — James Brooks in the House of Representatives — Horace Greeley on the petitions — Caroline Healy Dall on Messrs. Jenckes and Schenck — The District of Columbia Suffrage Bill — Senator Cowan, of Pennsyl- vania, moved to strike out the word "male" — A three days' debate in the Senate— The final vote nine in favor of Mr. Cowan's amendment, and thirty-seven against
Chapter-18: NATIONAL CONVENTIONS IN 1866-67 The first National Woman Suffrage Convention after the war — Speeches by Ernestine L. Rose, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, Henry Ward Beecher, Frances D. Gage, Theodore Tilton, Wendell Phillips— Petitions to Congress and the Constitutional Convention— Mrs. Stanton a candidate to Congress— Anniversary of the Equal Rights Association
Chapter-19: THE KANSAS CAMPAIGN 1867 The Battle Ground of Freedom— Campaign of 1867— Liberals did not Stand by their Principles— Black Men Opposed to Woman Suffrage— Republican Press and Party Untrue — Democrats in Opposition— John Stuart Mill's Letters and Speeches Extensively Circulated— Henry B. Blackwell and Lucy Stone Opened the Campaign— Rev. Olympia Brown Followed— 60,000 Tracts Distributed— Appeal Signed by Thirty-one Distinguished Men— Letters from Helen E. Starrett, Susan E. Wattles, Dr. R. S. Tenney, Lieut.-Governor J. B. Root, Rev. Olympia Brown — The Campaign closed by ex-Governor Robinson, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan, B. Anthony, and the Hutehfnson Family— Speeches and Songs at the Polls In every Ward in Leavenworth Election Day— Both Amendments lost — 9,070 Votes for Woman Suffrage, 10,843 for Negro Suffrage
Chapter-20: NEW YORK CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION Constitution Amended once in Twenty Tears — Mrs. Stanton before the Legislature Claiming Woman's Right to Vote for Members to the Convention— An Immense Audience in the Capitol— The Convention Assembled June 4th, 1867. Twenty Thousand Petitions Presented for Striking the Word "Male" from the Constitution— "Committee on the Right of Suffrage, and the Qualifications for Holding Office" Horace Greeley, Chairman— Mr. Graves, of Herkimer, Leads the Debate in favor of Woman Suffrage — Horace Greeley's Adverse Report — Leading Advocates Heard before the Convention — Speech of George William Curtis on Striking the Word "Man" from Section 1, Article 11— Final Vote, 19 For, 125 Against Equal Rights Anniversary of 1868
Chapter-21: RECONSTRUCTION The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments — Universal Suffrage and Universal Amnesty the Key-note of Reconstruction— Gerrit Smith and Wendell Phillips hesitate— A Trying Period in the Woman Suffrage Movement -Those Opposed to the word "Male" in the Fourteenth Amendment Voted Down in Conventions — The Negro's Hour — Virginia L. Minor on Suffrage in the District of Columbia — Women 'Advised to be Silent — The Hypocrisy of the Democrats preferable to that of the Republicans — Senator Pomeroy's Amendment — Protests against a Man's Government — Negro Suffrage a Political Necessity — Charles Sumner Opposed to the Fourteenth Amendment, but Voted for it as a Party Measure — Woman Suffrage for Utah — Discussion in the House as to who Constitute Electors — Bills for Woman Suffrage presented by the Hon. George W. Julian and Senators Wilson and Pomeroy — The Fifteenth Amendment — Anna E. Dickinson's Suggestion— Opinions of Women on the Fifteenth Amendment— The Sixteenth Amendment — Miss Anthony chosen a Delegate to the Democratic National Convention July 4, 1868 — Her Address Read by a Unanimous Vote — Horatio Seymour in the Chair — Comments of the Press— The Revolution
Chapter-22: NATIONAL CONTENTIONS 1869 First Convention in Washington— First hearing before Congress— Delegates Invited from Every State— Senator Pomeroy, of Kansas— Debate between Colored Men and Women— Grace Greenwood's Graphic Description— What the Members of the Convention Saw and Heard in Washington — Robert Purvis — A Western Trip — Conventions in Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Springfield, and Madison— Editorial Correspondence in The Revolution — Anniversaries in New York and Brooklyn—Conventions in Newport and Saratoga
Chapter-23: THE NEW DEPARTURE UNDER THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT Francis Minor's Resolutions— Hearing before Congressional Committee— Descriptions by Mrs. Fannie Rowland and Grace Greenwood— Washington Convention, 1870 — Rev. Samuel J. May — Senator Carpenter — Professor Sprague, of Cornell University — Notes of Mrs. Hooker — May Anniversary in New York— The Fifth Avenue Conference — Second Decade Celebration — Washington, 1871 — Victoria Woodhull's Memorial — Judiciary Committee — Majority and Minority Reports- George W. Julian and A. A. Sargent in the House— May Anniversary, 1871— Washington in 1872— Senate Judiciary Committee— Benjamin F. Butler— The Shennan-Dahlgren Protest— Women in Grant and Wilson Campaign
Chapter-24: NATIONAL CONVENTIONS 1873, '74, '75 Fifth Washington Convention— Mrs. Gage on Centralization— May Anniversary in New York — Washington Convention, 1874 — Frances Ellen Burr's Report— Rev. O. B. Frothingham in New York Convention — Territory of Pembina — Discussion in the Senate— Conventions in Washington and New York, 1875 — Hearings before Congressional Committees
Chapter-25: TRIALS AND DECISIONS Women Voting under the XVI. Amendment — Appeals to the Courts — Marilla M. Ricker, of New Hampshire, 1870 — Nannette B. Gardner, Michigan — Sara Andrews Spencer, District of Columbia — Ellen Rand Van Valkenburgh, California—Catherine V. Waite, Illinois — Carrie S. Burnham, Pennsylvania — Sarah M. T. Huntingdon, Connecticut — Susan B. Anthony, New York — Virginia L. Minor, Missouri — Judges McKee, Jameson, Sharswood, Cartter — Associate Justice Hunt— Chief Justice Waite — Myra Brad well — Hon. Matt. H. Carpenter — Supreme Court Decisions
Chapter-26: AMERICAN WOMAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION Circular Letter — Cleveland Convention— Association Completed — Henry Ward Bcecher, President — Convention in Steinway Hall, New York — George William Curtis Speaks — The First Annual Meeting held in Cleveland — Mrs. Tracy Cutler, President— Mass Meeting in Steinway Hall, New York, 1870 — State Action Recommended— Moses Coit Tyler Speaks — Mass Meetings in 1871 in Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore, Pittsburgh — Memorial to Congress — Letters from William Lloyd Garrison and others — Hon. G. F. Hoar Advocates Woman Suffrage — Anniversary celebrated at St. Louis — Dr. Stone, of Michigan — Thomas Wentworth Higgtnson, President, 1872 — Convention in Cooper Institute, New York — Two Hundred Young Women march in — Meeting in Plymouth Church— Letters from Louise May Alcott and Elizabeth Stuart Phelps — The Annual Meeting in Detroit— Julia Ward Howe, President— Letter from James T. Field— Mary F. Eastman Addresses the Convention. Bishop Gilbert Haven President for 1875 — Convention in Steinway Hall, New York — lion. Charles Bradlaugh Speaks — Centennial Celebration, July 3d — Petition to Congress for a XVI. Amendment — Conventions in Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Washington, and Louisville

Keywords: Women, Suffrage, American, Civil war, Voting Rights

Review: Another book with details on how the participation of women in American society was supressed long after the independence.

The Lawes Resolutions of Womens Rights: or, The Lawes Provision for Women --- A methodicall collection of such statutes and customes, with the cases, opinions, arguments and points of learning in the lavv, as doe properly concerne women. Together with a compendious table, whereby the chiefe matters in this booke contained, may be more readily found. The PDF version of this book can be found here. From library.law.yale.edu/news/taussig-collection-womens-rights: "One of the Library’s notable Taussig acquisitions is the first work devoted to the laws and rights of women in English law, and the only edition of that work. Published anonymously in 1632, The Lawes Resolutions of Womens Rights, or, The Lawes Provision for Woemen has sometimes — though inconclusively — been attributed to Sir John Doddridge (1555-1628), the Renaissance jurist, antiquarian and Justice of the King’s Bench. The editor of the work, signed as T.E. and sometimes associated with a “Thomas Edgar,” pleads ignorance about the identity of the original compiler, but notes that he has added cases and corrected mistakes. The role of T.E. in organizing the work may have been substantial, yet its genesis remains something of a puzzle."

Excerpts from lawbookexchange.com/pages/books/41383: The first work devoted exclusively to women's law, this incomparable digest of laws is also known as The Womens Lawyer. An anonymous work, its preface is signed T.E. Often attributed to Thomas Edgar [fl. 1615-1649], some believe the author was actually Sir John Doderidge [1555-1628], an important legal figure during the reign of James I. Lord Campbell considers it "a learned work on the subject of marriage" (cited in Sweet & Maxwell: A Legal Bibliography of the British Commonwealth of Nations). It also treats such diverse topics as age of consent, dower, hermaphrodites, polygamy, wooing, partition, chattels, divorce, descent, seisin, treason, felonies and rape.

Pg-5:"I may not doubt but every woman is a temporall person, though no woman can be a spirituall Vicar." Here temporall or modern temporal mean connected with the real physical, material world and not to spiritual matters - वास्तविक भौतिक संसार से संबंधित न कि आध्यात्मिक मामलों से; लौकिक, सांसारिक. Pg-6: "In sorrow shalt thou bring forth thy children, thy desires shall bee subject to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee." Pg-7: "At 9. yeares age, shee is able to deserve and have dowre. At 12. yeares to consent to marriage."

Pg-7: The learning is 35. Hen. 6. fol. 40. that a Woman hath divers speciall ages, at the 7. yeare of her age, her father shall have aide of his tenants to marry her. At 9. yeares age, shee is able to deserve and have dowre. At 12. yeares to consent to marriage. At 14. to bee hors du guard [out of protection]: at 16. to be past the Lords tender of a husband. At 21. to be able to make a feoffement: And per Ingelton there in the end of the case, a woman married at 12. cannot disagree afterward, but if she be married younger, shee may dissent till shee be 14. The age of 7. yeares, when Bracton wrote this aide, for making the sonne a Knight, or marrying the daughter, was due de gratia [due to grace] & non de Jure [not of law], and pro necessitate [for necessity] & indigentia domini capitalis [the necessity of master’s capital]: measured by the indigence of the Lord, and opulence of the tenants: But West. 1. Cap. 35. in the third yeare of Edward 1. the Law was made certaine, the Lord shall have aide of his tenants, as soone as his daughter accomplished 7. yeares age for the marriage of her.

Pg-55: "IF after the Sponsion or first betrothing, and before Matrimony contracted, some evill disease (as leprosie, or some violent cause or casualty) make one of the parties unfit for generation, the other may repudiate and abandon him or her, which shall be so diseased or unabled." Pg-59: "And so forth their Childrens Children, which after the fourth degree, are againe by all lawes permitted to marrie, contrahitui & affinitas per illicitum cortum."

Pg-59: "..by Constitution of holy Church, marriage is forbidden betwixt persons of divers Religions, as Jewes and Christians." Pg-61: "Women which within the yeare of mourning for their husbands betake them to wedlocke againe, should be reputed infamous and defamed."

Franke Marriage (liberum maritagium): the tenure in feudal law by which a man and his wife held an estate granted by a blood relative of the wife in consideration of their marriage, whether before or after it, to be held of the donor by the issue of the marriage to not less than the fourth generation and without other service than fealty (fealty: a feudal tenant's sworn loyalty to a lord e.g. "I owed fealty to the Earl rather than the King"). The book has many references to bondwoman, concubines, child-marriage, marriage while under age and even in infancy...

The History of Prosecution by Samuel Chandler in four parts viz. I. Amongst the Heathens II. Under the Christian Imperors III. Under the Papacy and Inquisition IV. Among Protestants

I. Abraham persecuted, II. Socrates, and others, persecuted amongst the Greeks, III. Egyptian Persecutions IV. Persecutions by Antiochus Epiphanes V. Persecutions under the Romans VII. Persecutions by the Mahometans

BOOK II. Of the Persecutions under the Christian Emperors: I. Of the Dispute concerning Easter II. Of the Persecutions begun by Constantine III. The Nicene Council IV. The first Council of Constantinople V. The Council of Ephesus VI. The Council of Chalcedon VII. The Second Council of Constantinople VIII. The Third Council at Constantinople IX. The Second Nicene Council

BOOK III. Of Persecutions under the Papacy; and, particularly, of the Inquisitions I. Of the Progress of the Inquisition -The Cruelties committed in the Country of Tholoase -In Spain, against the Jews and Moors -Against Christian Hereticks II. Of the Officers belonging to the Inquisition: Inquisitors -Familiars -Tail-keepers -Description of the Tails III. Of the Crimes cognizable by the Inquisition: Heresy, Suspicion of Heresy, Relapse into Heresy, Polygamy, Solicitation of Boys and Women in the Sacramental Confession, Sodomy, Blasphemy

Sect. IV. Of the Manner of Proceeding before the Tribunal of the Inquisition -The Witnesses -Examination of the Prisoners -Artifices to bring them in Confession -The Tortures used in Inquisition -Penances -Process against the Dead -The Act of Faith -The Execution -The principal Inquities of the Tribunal of the Inquisition enumerated

BOOK IV: Of Persecutions amongst Protestants I. Luther's Opinion concerning Persecution II. Calvin's Doctrine and Practice concerning Persecution III. Persecutions at Bern, Basil, and Zurich IV. Persecutions in Holland, and by the Synod of Dort V. Perfecutions in Great Britain VI. Persecutions in New England

Conclusion: I. The Clergy the great Promoters of Persecution II. The Things for which Christians have persecuted one another, generally of small Importance III. Pride, Ambition, and Covetousness, the grand Sources of Persecution IV. The Decrees of Councils and Synods of no Authority in Matters of Faith V. The imposing Subscriptions to human Creeds unreasonable and pernicious VI. Adherence to the sacred Scripture the best Security of Truth and Orthodoxy VII. The Christian Religion absolutely condemns Persecution for Conseience-sake

Books on Assyria and Babylonia

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 45_Assyria-Rise-Fall.pdf Assyria* ZENAIDE A. RAGOZIN SixthrdEnglish 0474
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: The Rise of Asshur -- 1. Natural boundary of Assyria towards Babylonia. 2. Beginnings of Asshur. First colonies. Assyrian Patesis. 3. Assyria Proper. 4. Asshur—a Semitic nation. Religious affinities with the Hebrews. Asshur, the supreme god. 5-6. Parallel between passages from Assyrian inscriptions, and from the Bible. 7. Difference between the relation towards the deity of Assyrian and Hebrew kings. 8. The emblems of Asshur on the monuments. 9. Assyrian Pantheon identical with the Babylonian. 10. Early relations between Assyria and Babylon. 11. First appearance of Egyptian conquerors in Western Asia. 12-13. Brief survey of earlier Egyptian history. Ifyksos invasion. 14. Egyptian conquests in Asia. Acts of retaliation. 15. Battle of Megiddo. First collision between Assyria and Egypt. 16. The Khetas or Hittitcs. Their power and wealth. 17—18. Their capitals and empire. 19. The long duration of the Hittite power. 20. Hittite writing and art. 21. Early aggrandizement of Assyria. First conquest of Babylon.
Chapter-02: The First Empire. —Tiglatii Pileser I. 1. Lakes Van and Urumieh and the Dead Sea. 2. The “Lands of Nairi.” 3. The rock sculpture of Tiglath-Pileser I. by the sources of the Tigris. 4. The cylinder of Tiglath-Pileser I. used for a test of Assyriology. 5, 6, 7. Tiglath-Pileser’s campaigns to Nairi, as narrated on the cylinder. 8. His expeditions to the west. First mention of the Aramaeans. Beginning of this race’s long political career. 9. Tiglath-Pileser’ s summing up of his military achievements. 10. His wise home-rule. 11. His hunting exploits, and love of sport. 12. His flying visit to the sea-coast. 13. His last years troubled with disasters. Unfortunate expedition to Babylonia. 14. Blank in the history of Assyria after Tiglath-Pileser, and for the space of 200 years. 15. Tiglath-Pileser the real founder of Assyria’s greatness.
Chapter-03: The Sons of Canaan; Their Migrations. —The Phoenicians 1. Wealth and greatness of the Phoenicians about 1100 B.C. 2. The Canaanitic races. The “Pount” or “Puna.” 3. Conjectures about their early migrations. 4. Pie-Canaanitic inhabitants of Syria and Palestine. 5. Conjectures as to “who were these people?” 6. The Phoenicians and their narrow sea-coast home. 7. Rise of their trade and wealth. 8. The purple dye. What a small shell-fish did for a nation. 9. It promotes maritime discoveries and colonization. 10. Voyages for tin. 11. Tarshish. 12. The “Cassiterides.” Land route across France and sea route to the English “Tin Islands.” 13. The Pillars of Melkarth. Gades. Tales about Tarshish. 14. Trade with amber. Land route across Germany. 15. Land routes across Western Asia. 16. Great wealth and splendor of Tyre. 17. Money-making the key to the Phoenician character and historical mission. 18. They are wanting in literary gifts, and lack inventiveness and originality. 19. Their great importance as the agents for spreading material civilization and establishing intercourse between distant countries.— They may be called the Peddlers of the Ancient World. Low moral standard of such a mission.
Chapter-04: 'he Sons of Canaan. Their Religion. —Sacrifice as an Institution. —Human Sacrifices 1. Materialism and sensuality distinctive features of the Hamitic races. 2. Materialistic character of their religions, yet with a certain tendency towards monotheism. 3. Dualism of Canaanitic religions. Baal, Moloch and Ashtoreth. 4. Melkarth, the Baal of Tyre. 5. Obscurity of Phoenician myths. 6. Ashtoreth and her different forms. 7. High places, sacred groves and the Ashera. 8,9. Baal and his different forms. 10, 11. Self-torture and human sacrifice features of ancient worship. 12, 13. The nature of ancient sacrilege. 14. Consecration a form of sacrifice. Sacrifice, to be perfect, demands destruction of the object offered. 15. Victims or offerings, to be acceptable, must be perfect of their kind. 16. Human sacrifices a logical sequence and culmination of the idea of sacrifice; sacrifices of children the most valuable, hence the most perfect of all. 17. The sacrifice of the first born a primeval institution; consecration and ransom substituted at a more advanced and milder stage of culture. 18. Human sacrifices supposed to be of divine institution. Phoenician legend on the subject. 19. The legend illustrated by the sacrifice offered by Mesha, king of Moab. 20. Hindu legends. 21. Greek legend. 22-24. Intense emotional nature of the Orientals. —Orgiastic religions. 25. Human sacrifices the special due of Baal Moloch, the Destroyer, in times of public calamity. 26-28. Child-sacrifices at Carthage and among the Jews. 29. Vows. The Jewish “Kherem." 30. Sanchoniatho and the garbled account of Phoenician Cosmogony. 31. The myth and worship of Adonis-Thammuz. 32 - The Kabirim. 33. The Phoenicians carry their religion and worship to their colonies.
Chapter-05: The Neighbors of Asshur. —Revival of the Empire 1. Revival of Assyria. 2. The “Limmu” and the Eponym Canon. 3. State of affairs in Syria. 4. Along the sea-coast. 5. Growth of Israel. The Hebrew monarchy. 6. Idolatry long tolerated. The centre of national worship established at Jerusalem. 7. Solomon’s despotism. 8. The division of Israel a consequence of Solomon’s harsh rule. 9. The revival of Assyria favored by the dissensions in Syria. 10. Renewal of Assyrian conquests in the North. 11. King Asshurnazirpal. His campaign in Nairi. 12. His atrocious cruelty. He collects tribute from the Phoenician cities. 13. His constructions. Rebuilds Kalah and makes it his residence. 14. The sculptures of his time. 15. His hunts. 16. The rise of the Kaldu (Chaldeans proper). 17. The princes of Chaldea. Their policy and ambition.
Chapter-06: Shalmaneser II. —Asshur and Israel 1. Character of Shalmaneser II.’s reign. 2. Summary of his military career. 3. First campaigns. 4. First Syrian expedition. The Syrian League. 5. Alliance between Ahab of Israel and Benhadad of Damascus. 6. Battle of Karkar. 7. Second Syrian campaign. 8. Third Syrian campaign. Submission of Jehu of Israel. 9. The Black Obelisk. 10. Jehu’s submission not mentioned in the Bible. 11. The gates of Balawat. 12. Shalmaneser’s retirement. Rebellion of his eldest son. Accession of his other son, Shamshi-Raman III. 13. Raman-Nirari III. 14-16. The Story of Semiramis. 17. Utter historical worthlessness of the story. 18. Urartu and the Alarodians. 19. Rise of the kingdom of Van. Its culture and writing borrowed from Assyria. 20. Second Decline of Assyria. Accession of Tiglath-Pileser II. 21. His double name: Phul or Pul and Tiglath-Pileser. 22. The mission of the prophet Jonah not mentioned on the monuments. Suggested explanation of the whale story. 23. Foundation of Carthage. Appendix to Chapter VI - The Stele of Mesha the Moabite.
Chapter-07: The Second Empire.—Siege of Samaria . 1. Assyria’s greatness under Tiglath-Pileser II. 2. Political Character of the Second Empire. 3. Annexations. Wholesale deportations. 4. Generals in command. 5. Plan of operations in the West. 6. First Campaigns: in Kaldu, the Zagros and Nairi. 7. Syrian Campaign of 738 B.C. Menahem of Samaria pays tribute. 8. Syria and Israel against Judah. 9. Approaching dissolution of Israel. Ahaz of Judah’s embassy to Tiglath-Pileser, entreating aid. 10. Syrian Campaign of 734 B.C. 11. Taking of Damascus. 12. Chaldean Campaign. 13. Merodach Haladan of Bit-Yakin pays homage. 14. End of Tiglath-Pileser’s reign. 15. Shalmaneser IV. 16. Renewed hopes and revolts in the West. 17. Revival of Egypt under Shabaka the Ethiopian. 18. His readiness to support the Asiatic cities and kingdoms. His powerlessness and Isaiah’s warning. 19. Revolt of Tyre. Siege of Tyre by the Assyrian's. 20. Revolt of Israel. Siege of Samaria.
Chapter-08: The Pride of Asshur. —Sargon 1. Fall of Samaria and transportation of the people of Israel. 2. Sargon's parentage unknown. 3. His vigorous policy at home and abroad. 4. Discontent in the West and intrigues with Egypt. 5. Disastrous rising in Syria. 6. Battle of Raphia. 7. Submission of Tyre. 8. Great rising in Nairi. Merodach Haladan, king of Babylon. 9. General conspiracies and repressions. 10. Capture of Karkhemish, the final blow to the Hittite nation ality. 11. Campaign against Urartu. 12. Expedition into Media. 13, 14. Popular rising cpielled in Ashdod. 15. Merodach Baladan prepares for war. 16-17. His "embassy" to Hezekiah, king of Judah. 18. Sargon invades Chaldea. 19. Merodach Baladan flies to Elam. 20. Sargon invited to enter Babylon. 21. His consummate generalship and the capture of Dur-Yakin. 22. He conciliates the cities of Babylonia. 23. He receives the homage of seven kings of Cyprus. 24. His last military and political acts. 25-27. Construction of Dur-Sharrukin. 28. Marvellous wealth of Sculptures in Sargon’s palace. 29. Summary way of peopling the new city. 30. Sargon’s wise and beneficent home rule. 31. His invocations for prosperity and long life. 32. His assassination.
Chapter-09: The Sargonides. —Sennacherib. (Sin-Akhi-Irib.) 1. Sennacherib’s name long familiar from the Bible. 2, 3. General character of his reign. 4. His first successes in Chaldea. 5. Merodach Baladan’s flight. 6. Campaign against the Kasshi and Ellip. 7. Preparations for a campaign against the West and Egypt. 8. Hezekiah of Judah revolts. 9, 10. Siege of Lakhish and submission of Hezekiah. 11, 12. Messengers sent by Sennacherib to Hezekiah. 13. The King of Judah comforted by the prophet Isaiah. 14. Battle of Altaku. 15. Sennacherib compelled to retreat by the plague breaking out in his army. 16. Second campaign to Chaldea; disappearance of Merodach Baladan. 17. Campaign into Nairi. 18. Maritime expedition across the Gulf into Elam. 19. Unsuccessful expedition into the Zagros. 20. Third campaign against Babylonia. Advance of the forces of Elam and Babylon. 21. Battle of Khaluli. 22. The Bavian rock inscription. 23, 24. Sack and destruction of Babylon. 25. Last scanty notice of Sennacherib’s military career. 26. His assassination by two of his sons. 27. Reconstruction of Nineveh. 28. Sennacherib’s palace at Nineveh.
Chapter-10: The Sargonides: Esarhaddon (Asshur-Akhi-Idin.) 1. Scarcity of monuments of this king’s reign. 2. His “addresses” to Ishtar, and Ishtar’s messages. 3. Esarhaddon’s brief war against his brothers. 4. Troubles in Bit-Yakin. 5. Reconstruction of Babylon. 6. Expedition against the “distant Modes” in the east and against the Gimirrai (Cimmerians), in the North. 7. Arabian campaign. 8. Rising in Sidon repressed. 9. Esarhaddon receives the homage of twenty-two kings. 10. Construction and inauguration of his palace at Nineveh. 11. Troubles in Syria. 12. Rising in Tyre repressed. 13. Egyptian campaign. 14. Esarhaddon’s abdication and death. 15. Appointment of Shamash-Shumukin to the viceroyalty of Babylon.
Chapter-11: The Gathering of the Storm. —The last Comer among the Great Races 1-3. Appearance on the scene of the Aryan race, the last among the four great races. 4. Migrations of the Aryan or Indo-European race. 5. Its great qualities. 6.Ariana. 7. Eran and Turan. 8. The Medes. 9. Their early social conditions. 10. Their advance towards the West. 11. They supplant nations of other, especially Turanian, stock. 12. Aryan migrations into and across Russia. 13.—The Cimmerians. 14. Their migration into Thrace, driven before the Scythians. 15. Asia Minor early peopled by llittitcs. 16. llittite sculptures in Lydia. 17. in Cilicia. 18. in Cappadocia. 19. Lydia and its early traditions. 20. The Phrygo-Thracian family of nations. 21. The Cimmerians cross the Bosphorus and invade Asia Minor.
Chapter-12: The Decline of Asshur. —Asshurbanipal (Asshur-bani-habal) 1. Brilliant beginnings of Asshurbanipal’s reign. 2-4. Egyptian campaign and sack of Thebes. 5. Rising and submission of Tyre and Arvad. 6-8. Incident with Gyges, King of Lydia. 9. Uncertain chronology of this reign. 10. Assyria threatened from several points. 11. Danger from the Scythians south of the Caucasus. 12. Defeat of Gog the Scythian king. 13. First war with Elam: Urtaki, King of Elam, opens hostilities and is defeated. 14. His brother Teumman succeeds. Second war. 15. The Ishtar vision. 16. Battle on the Uku and death of Teumman. 17. Tortures and executions. 18. Revolt of Shamash-Shumtikin. 19. Encouraging dream of a seer. 20. Revolutions in Elam. 21. Siege of Babylon and end of Shaniash-Shumukin. 22. Nabubel-zikri of Bit-Yakin goes over to Elam. 23. More revolutions in Elam. 24. Third great war with Elam. Sack of Shushan. 25. Tragic end of Nabu-bel-zikri. 26. Pacification of Bit-Yakin. 27. Last troubles in Elam. 28. Arabian campaign. 29. Asshurbani pal’s triumph. His chariot drawn by four captive kings. 30. Uncertainty about the last years of this reign. Asshurbanipal’s palace and library. 31. The sculptures. 32. Asshurbanipal— the Sardanapalus of the Greeks.
Chapter-13: The Fall of Asshur 1. Entire lack of Assyrian monuments for the last years of the Empire. 2. Uncertainty about the last kings of Assyria. 3. Assyria rapidly loses all the conquered provinces. 4. Story of Daokes and the Medes. 5. Probable explanation of the story. 6. Median invasion of Assyria under Phraortes. 7-8. Kyaxares and the invasion of the Scythians. 9. Descent of the Scythians into Syria. 10. Description of the Scythians by the prophet Jeremiah 11. Another, by the prophet Ezekiel. 12. The Scythians probably overrun Assyria. 13. Kyaxares rids Media of the Scythians. 14. Alliance between Kyaxares and Nabopolassar, the new King of Babylon. 15. Siege and fall of Nineveh. 16. Nahum’s prophecy. 17. The prophet Ezekiel’s lament over Asshur. 18. Immediate causes that hastened the fall of Asshur.

Keywords:Supreme Triad, Hebrew plural “Elohim”, (ARBA-ILU, “the city of four gods”), Cossaean dynasty), Sun God, Baal

Review:Another book who uses history to claim that the Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations belonged the Semites and Cannan described in Old Testament. The verses from OT and specially Genesis has been extensively quoted such as famine in land of Canaan and Abraham's travel to Egypt. Pg-2: There are temple-ruins there, of which the bricks bear the names of Ishmi-Dagan and his son, Shamash-Raman, who are mentioned by a later king in a way to show that they lived very close on 1800 B.C.

Pg-24: The country was invaded and conquered by a swarm of those Semitic tribes, rovers of the desert, like the Bedouins of the present day, whom the Egyptians contemptuously designated by the sweeping name of SHASUS, i. e., “thieves, plunderers.” They entered through the foreign district in the north-east, from the peninsula of Sinai, and surely must have been assisted by their wealthy and cultured kinsfolk, for without such assistance semi-barbarous nomadic tribes could scarcely have managed more than a clever plundering raid, certainly not organized a systematic invasion.

Any race related to Hebrew Bible (OT) is presented with superiority and as cultured people. E.g. on Pag-29: KHETAS, whom we know from the Bible as Hittites —a great and powerful people, spreading over an immense territory, far beyond the bounds of the lands we have thus far surveyed, and who were reaching the height of their glory just as Assyria began to emerge from insignificance. It is always the Khetas against whom the Pharaohs’ expeditions are principally directed, and from whom they encounter the most heroic and well-regulated resistance; and though they generally defeat them, the Khetas are the only enemies with whom they occasionally treat on equal terms, and whom they mention with respect, as foes worthy of themselves.

The investment made by Christian societies and Chrischolars (Christian Scholar) on history and archeology is primarily to gather evidences of show superiority of races and people from Abraham's family. That is to show that all other races were barbarian and only the descendants of Abraham were cultured and morally superior people. Still their YHWH could not save them from famines and poverty and their prophet Abraham had to present his wife as sister to Egyptians. When an author uses phrases like "The Romans, then the rulers of the world" - it reduces him to the most ignorant people of the world. For most Chrischolars of nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the world before the myth of Christ came into existence, such as Americas and far east including China was not worth any meaningful contribution to the world civilizations.

Pg-124: This obligation we find formally and unconditionally recognized by the Hebrews, the only Semitic people whose laws are before us in their entirety. This is the notable passage (Exodus, xxii. 29) wherein this important point is laid down : “Thou shalt not delay to offer the abundance of thy fruits and of thy liquors. The first-born of thy sons shalt thou give unto me. Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with its dam, on the eighth day thou shalt give it to me.” Considering that human sacrifices, and especially of children, were a standing institution among other Semitic and the Canaanitic races, there can be little doubt that originally, in prehistorically remote times, this decree was understood literally and acted upon.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 88_Bible-and-the-Spade.pdf The Bible and the Spade EDGAR J. BANKS, Ph.D. 1913English 0232
Table of Contents I. Excavators and Excavations II. The Babylonian Story of the Creation III. The Garden of Eden IV. The Babylonian Story of the Flood V. The First Appearance of the Semites VI. The Tower Babel VII. Ur of the Chaldees VIII. Harran IX. Amraphel and Chedorlanmer X. Rachel’s Household Gods XI. Semitic Strangers in Egypt XII. Pharaoh of Egypt 13. The Land of Goshen 14. The Birth of Moses and Sargon 15. Rameses II 16. Marempthah’s Monuments 17. Sinai 18. The Laws of Hammurabi 19. The Origin of the Sabbath 20. The Tel el-Amarna Letters 21. Gezer and the High Place 22. The Long-lost Hittites 23. The Corner Stone of Jerusalem 24. The Royal Quarries 25. Shishak of Egypt 26. The Moabite Stone 27. Benhadad of Syria 28. Jehu and Shalmaneser 29. Menahem and Pul 30. Pekah and Tiglath-pileser 31. Ahaz and Tiglath-pileser 32. The Fall of Samaria 33. The Samaritans 34. The Siloam Inscription 35. Hezekiah and Sinacherib 36. Lakish 37. Manasseh and Keathadden 38. The Great and Noble Osnappar 39. Jonah and Nineveh 40. Populous No 41. Nebuchadnezzar 42. Belshazzar and the Fall of Babylon 43. Traces of the Exiles 44. The Psalms of Babylon 45. Shushan the Palace 46. Herod’s Temple Inscription 47. The Sayings of Jesus 48. Ephesus and the Temple of Diana

Keywords:Harran, Sphinx, Ibrahim, Cuthah

Review:Pg-12: Babylonia was the birthplace of the Hebrew nation. There the scenes of the first two thousand years of Bible story are laid; from there the people, later called Hebrews, migrated to Palestine, and thither they were returned as exiles during the days of Sargon and of Nebuchadnezzar. Pg-21: The author of the story of the Garden of Eden, however, certainly had in mind some part of the Mesopotamian valley, and in searching for its site, a study of the Tigris and Euphrates is essential. Six thousand years ago the rivers did not flow in their present beds. Rising in Armenia, they follow their ancient channels until they enter the alluvial plain of Babylonia, but from Bagdad to the Persian Gulf their courses are constantly changing.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 45_Babylon-Assyria-Myths.pdf MYTHS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA DONALD A. MACKENZIE ThirdEnglish 0588
Table of Contents I. The Races and Early Civilization of Babylonia, II. The Land of Rivers and the God of the Deep III. Rival Pantheons and Representative Deities IV. Demons, Fairies, and Ghosts V. Myths of Tammuz and Ishtar - VI. Wars of the City States of Sumer and Akkad - VII. Creation Legend : Merodach the Dracon Slayer VIII Deified Heroes: Etana and Gilgamesh IX. Deluge Legend, the Island of the Blessed, and Hades X. Buildings and Laws and Customs of Babylon XI. The Golden Age of Babylonia - XII. Rise of the Hittites, Mitannians, Kassites, Hyksos, and Assyrians - XIII. Astrology and Astronomy XIV. Ashur the National God of Assyria - XV. Conflicts for Trade and Supremacy - XVI. Race Movements that Shattered Empires - XVII. The Hebrews in Assyrian History XVIII. The Age of Semiramis XIX. Assyria’s Age of Splendour XX. The Last Days of Assyria and Babylonia


Review:Preface: Even at the present day traces survive in Europe of the early cultural impress of the East; our “Signs of the Zodiac”, for instance, as well as the system of measuring time and space by using 60 as a basic numeral for calculation, are inheritances from ancient Babylonia.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Introduction: Ancient Histoxy - Its Meaning— Re-peopling of the World — Beooid in the Book of Genesis — Comparatiye Philology — History traced in Language — Turanian Speech — By whom Spoken — Two Developments of Turanian Speech — Spread of the Hamitic Language Change of the Hamitic Language of Chaldea into Semitic — Spread of the Semitic Langoage-— District covered by the Semitic Family — Characteristics of the Race— Indo-Enropean Language, its Origin, Source, Division — First Division — Second Division- Third, or Arian Division — Date of the Arian Migration — Its Course-Arian Colonies in Persia and Media— Characteristics of the Indo-European Races
Chapter-01: COLONIZATION OF EGYPT. Peculiar Interest attached to Egypt — Its great Antiquity as a Kingdom— The Egypt of the Bible and the Egypt of Profne History — Egypt a type of the Bondage of Sin — Deliverance of the Israelites a Type of the Deliverance of Christians by Christ not then understood — The Egyptians had two Histories, one on the Surface, the other Hidden — Reflections thereon — Probable Date of the Deluge— Re-peopling of the Earth — The Descendants of Ham in Egypt — Description of the Country — Site of the Rise of the Nile — Fertility caused by its Inundation — The Delta — Its Productions— Constant Activity necessary for the Inhabitants to provide against the Rush of Water — Ethiopia — Meroe — Tribes of Egypt — First mention of Egypt in the Bible — Remarks on the Legendary History — Sons of Ham — Works of Menes, or Misraim Memphis — This — Result of the Long lives of the Antediluvians as regards Human Acquirements — Traditions of the Flood and Dispersion at Babel retained — Religious Ceremonies
Chapter-02: PYRAMID PERIOD, ABOUT B.C. 2460-2081. Death of Menes — Herodotus, Diodorus and Manetho — Thirty Dynasties of Kings — The Hieroglyphics a Source of Information — Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt— Relic in the British Museum — Hieroglyphics deciphered — Pyramids — Cheops — Position of the Pyramids — Great Pyramid — Sen-Suphis — Chephren — Mmycerinus — Death of his Daughter — Legend respecting her Burial — Embalming— Decree of the Oracle — Death of Mycerinus — Lid of his Coffin in the British Museum — Nitocris
Chapter-03: RELliSION OF THE EGYPTIANS. Egyptian Idolatry — Idea retained of One Supreme Being — Physical Deities — No Representation of the One Supreme Being — Reverence for his Name — Classes or Grades of Deities — Resemblance of the Story of Osiris to the great Facts of Christianity — Apis — Isis — Sacred Animals — Amun or Amun Re — Absurdity of the Egyptian Religion — The Result of their Speculations on the Attributes of the One God mixed with Traditions handed down from Noah — Reverence to Created Things — Sacred Birds and Insects — Care shown- for the Objects of "Worship — Penalties for killing any Sacred Animal — Egyptian Religion better than Greek
Chapter-04: THE KINGS OF THE PATRIARCHAL PERIOD, AND THE HYKSOS INVASION, ABOUT B.C. 2020. No continuous History can be given of the Early Kings — Pyramids — Osirtasen I. in the Time of the Patriarchs- Advanced Civilisation— Grottoes or Tombs of Beni Hassan — Powerful Kings- Lake Moeris — Labyrinth — Nilometer -Rocks above the Second Cataract — Lake Moeriii - its Extent — The Labyrinth attributed to Ammenemes III. — Description — Hyksos or Shepherd Kings — Their subsequent abandonment of the Country — Joseph — Ancient Obelisk—Division of the Land by Joseph — Goshen
Chapter-05: EGYPT AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF THE HYKSOS, ABOUT B.C. 1620-1322. Ames, or Amosis — Egypt delivered from the Shepherds — Tanis, or Zoan, the Capital of Lower Egypt — Amosis in Ethiopia — The Horse, the Word by which it is designated Semitic — Upper Egypt pre-eminent — Successors of Amosis — Thotmes III. — Queen Amun-nou-het — Obelisks now in Europe — Amunophlll. — Musical Statue, Memnon — Temple of Thebes, or Luxor — 14th century B.C., Another Dynasty of Stranger Kings — Worship of the Sun — Eemeses I. — Sethos, or Osirei — Eemeses II. — Egyptian and Greek Statues — Michael Angelo's Statues — Victories of Sethos
Chapter-06: REMESES II. OR SESOSTRIS, B.C. 1311-1171. Kemeses II., or Sesostris — Egypt divided into Thirty-six Nomes or Provinces — Armais his Brother's Regent — Treachery of Armais — Monuments erected by Sesostris — Division of Land — Conduct and Death of Sesostris — No Records or Monuments bearing the name of Sesostris — Remeses II. — His Victories recorded on the Rocks near Berytus, in Syria, and enumerated on Egyptian Monuments — Celebrated Works — Temples — Birth of Moses — Egyptian Bondage
Chapter-07: THE PERIOD OF EGTPTIAN GREATNESS, AND PROBABLY OF THE BONDAGE OF THE ISRAELITES. Mosee's Preference— Wealth and Splendour of Egypt — Memphis and Thebes — The Sphinx— Description of Thebes— Temple of Kamac — Obelisks— Gold Mines-Nubia — Moses educated in the midst of Idolatry — Divine Blessing on the early Teaching of his Mother —Moses leaves the Court of Pharaoh, or Remeses II.— Statues of Remeses — Great Temple at Ipsambul, in Nubia - Egyptian Deities— Remarks on Egyptian Idolatiy— Divine Warning to the Israelites
Chapter-08: THE PROBABLE PERIOD OF THE EXODUS, B.C. 1245. Death of Bemeses IL — Pthahmen — Exodus of the Israelites — Destruction of the Egyptian Host — Bemarks on the Tombs at Memphis and Thebes — Tradition respecting the Bed Sea — Ingratitude of the Israelites — Sculpture, as connected with the Beligion of Egypt — Contrast to the Israelites — Besemblance — Witchcraft — Jugglers — Divining Cup
Chapter-09: LAWS, MANNERS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS. Power of the Egyptian Kings — The Art of War well understood by the Egyptians — Pictures— Arms — Chariots — Not a warlike Nation — Arts and Civilisation — Classes like the Castes in India — Seven principal Castes — The King supreme but bound by Laws and Customs — Monarchy Hereditary, with Exceptions — Trial after Death — Sentence on an impious King — Funeral Ceremonies of a good King — Priests not necessarily spiritual Persons — Observances— Prophets — Judges — Nomarchs — Laws — Punishments — Theft — Law regarding Debt — Beverence for Ancestors and Elders — Physicians and Surgeons of the Priestly Caste — Also Magicians — Original Meaning of the Word — Poorer Classes in a condition of Comfort — Foreign Commerce — Inland Traffic — Shops — Domestic Life in Egypt — Countiy Houses and Gardens — Entertainments— Ceremonies — Wine— Dinner — Conversation— Position of Women in Egypt— Ladies — Dress — Preparations for Dinner — Customs at Dinner — Grace said before Dinner -Quests reminded of their Mortality — Games — Amusements of the Lower Orders — Gardens — Products of Egypt — Skill in Handicraft — Glass-blowing— Porcelain covered with Enamel- Linen — Paper— Dress — Articles for the Toilet at Thebes — Mirrors — Brazen Laver
Chapter-10: RISE OF THE INTERCOUBSE AND CONNECTION BETWEEN THE KINGS OF EQYPT AND JUDEA, B.C. 1219-734. Egypt — Israel — Rome — Greece — Bemeses III. — New Temple at Thebee — Derivation of the word Canopy — Lid of Sarcophagus in Cambridge Museum — Fall of Upper Egypt — Rise of Lower Egypt — Arabs — Copts — Strength of English Character — Commerce— Jewish History — Edom conquered by Joab — Escape of Hadad, Prince of Edom — His Reception in Egypt — Re-assertion of his Claims — The Enemy of Solomon— Shishak — Bubastis — Fall of the Thebaid to a Province — Solomon's Marriage with the Egyptian Princess — Constant Intercourse with Egypt — Commerce — Gezer — Clause of the Downfall of Upper Egypt — Desert of Shur — Amalekites — Ezion-geber — Hiram- Tyrian Sailors — Solomon's Vessels to trade on the African Coast — Gold from Ophir — Silyer, Ivory, Apes and Parrots from Abyssinia — Injury to the Trade of Egypt — Close of Solomon's Reign — Hadad — Rezin of Damascus — Jeroboam — Rehoboam-hishak — Alliance of Jeroboam with Egypt — Plunder of Jerusalem by Shishak depicted at Karnac — Asychis — Pyratadd of Brick
Chapter-11: EGYPTIAN HISTORY, ILLUSTRATED BY THE PBOPHECIES, B.C. 784-604. Successors of Shishak — Periods of Weakness and Civil War — The Ethiopians who had been subject to Egypt become independent — Tanis, or Zoan — Lower Egypt called the Plains of Zoan — Thebes conquered by the Kings of the Delta — Foreign Trade carried on for the Egyptians by the people of Tyre, Sidon, and Tarsis — Phoenician' Vessels— Prophecy of Isaiah — Fulfilment — Boochoris the Wise — Rome founded — Prophecies of War to Egypt — Egypt invaded by Sabaco, an Ethiopian King — Legend of the Egyptian Priests — Several Ethiopian Kings— Two bearing the Name of Sabaco — Hosea, King of Israel, having refused the Tribute to Shalmaneser, seeks Alliance with Sabaco— Trust in Elgypt a vain Hope — Palestine invaded — Many Israelites take Refuge in Egypt — Warning of Hosea the Prophet — Captivity of Hosea and his Poople -Tirhakah contemporary with Sennacherib — Sethos — Hezekiah — Babshakeh — Sennacherib — Hezekiah's Prayer — Sennacherib's Army destroyed — Egyptian Version of the Event — Statue of Sethos — Phoenician Vessels — Boast of Sennacherib
Chapter-12: THE DODECARCHY AND THE LEGEND OF PSAMMETICHUS, B.C. 664-610. Egyptian Intercourse with Foreign Nations — Horner — Greek States Founded by Egyptians — lingular Intercourse, 700 B.C. — Legend transmitted by Herodotus — Dodecarchy — Psammetichus — Oracle fulfilled — Dethronement of Psammetichus — Oracle of Buto — Greek Pirates — Brazen Armour — Fulfilment of the Oracle — Psammetichus sole King of Egypt — Native Monarchs re-established— Greek Soldiers— Siege of Azotus, or Ashdod — Discontent of Egyptian Troops at the Preference shown to the Greeks — The fugitive Troops — Settlement in Lands beyond Meroe, in Upper Ethiopia — Bocks in Nubia — Egyptian Children taught Greek — Interpreters — Dragomans — Embellishment of Temples at Thebes, Memphis — Legend — Irruption of Scythians— Escape of Egypt
Chapter-13: THE EGYPTIAN DOMINION IN JUDEA AND ITS DOWNFALL, B.C. 610-660. Pharaoh Necho — Naval Enterprises — Canal from the Kile to the Red Sea — Completed — Traces maybe seen — Voyage of Phoenician Sailors round Africa — Evidences given of the Truth of their Narrative — Vasco de Gamma. — Pharaoh turns his thoughts to War, and builds a Fleet — War with the Syrians — Babylonians — Josiah— Battle of Megiddo — Death of Josiah— Jehoahaz deposed and taken Captive — Jehoiakim made King — Babylon — Nebuchadnezzar— Succession of Psammis, or Psammetichus II., Son of Pharaoh Necho — Anecdote of Psammis — Apries, or Pharaoh Hophra — Alliance with Zedekiah — Babylonians — Ezekiel's Prophecy and Address to Apries — Cyrene — Amasis — Pharoah Hophra deposed by the Babylonians — Jeremiah — Lamentations — Jews in Egypt — School of Heliopolis— Egypt and Palestine
Chapter-14: AMASIS AND THE LEGEND OF HERODOTUS, B.C. 569-525. Deposition of Apries, or Pharaoh Hophra, by Nebuchadnezzar — Amasis marries a Daughter of Psammetichus III. — Theban Sarcophagus in the British Museum — Intervention of Nebuchadnezzar — Amasis, his Character — Reverence for the Gods — Degraded Conduct and low Tastes — Temple of Isis — Court or Propylseum to the Temple of Neith — Contributions towards rebuilding the Temple of Delphi — Presents to Cyrene — Lindus — Lacedemon — Remarkable Liberality from an Egyptian to Greek Temples — Law established by Amasis — Cyprus taken — Treaty with Croesus, King of Lydia — Commerce — Greek Traders — Naucratis — Precaution against the Greek Pirates — Intercourse between Greece and Egypt — Thebes — Solon — Cleobulus of Rhodes— Hecatseus of Miletus — Herodotus — Friendship of Amasis with Polycrates, Tyrant of Samos — Dissolution of Friendship — Causes for the same — Death of Polycrates — Egypt threatened with a Persian Invasion
Chapter-15: PERSIAN CONQUEST OF EGYPT, B.C. 525-411. Nebuchadnezzar — Belshaezar — Babylon taken by Cyrus — Cambyses — Expedition into Egypt — Phanes — Arab Custom — Death of Amasis — Psammenitus, his Son — Battle — Egyptians defeated — Persian Herald sent, requiring Submission — Fate of the Herald — Memphis taken by Cambyses — Egypt, Cyrene, and Barca, yield to his power — Treatment of the Vanquished, in Revenge for the Death of the Herald — Psammenitus — Croesus — Death of Psammenitus — Cambyses Conforms to some Egyptian Customs — Cambyses Treatment of the Body of Amasis — Character of Cambyses — His Expedition into Ethiopia — Failure of Food — Retreat to Memphis — Oasis of Amun, in the Libyan Desert — Derivation of Oasis — The god Amim — Cambyses' Army destroyed by a Sand-storm— Rejoicing at Memphis upon the Discovery of their god Apis — Suspicion and Anger of Cambyses — His Treatment of the Priests and of Apis — The Persian Religion the purest held by Heathen Nations— Ezekiel's Prophecy — Fulfilment
Chapter-16: EGYPT SUBJECT TO PERSIA, AND SUBDUED BT ALEXANDER THE GREAT, B.C. 411-324. Egypt a Satmpy of Persia — Cambyaes — Rule of the Persian Kings — Darius Nothus — AmyrtcBus of Sais — Dates of Kings uncertain — Learned Men of Greece in Egypt— Nectanebo I. — Defeat of the Persians — Plato — Egyptian dread of Novelty — Euripides — Nectanebo II — Defeated by Darius Ochus — Egypt again a Persian Province — Insult to Ochus — His Bevenge — Death of Ochus — Story invented by the Egyptians -Submission of Egypt to Alexander— Greek Mercenaries — Praise of Alexander — Reigious Observances— Temple in the Oasis of Amun — Site of Alexandria — Three Oases in the Libyan Desert — Temple of Amun Be — Statue —Alexander acknowledged as Son of Amun Re —Policies — Embassies from Greece— Government of Egypt — Conquest of Persia Completed — Death of Hephaestion — Divine Honours paid him — Death of Alexander
Chapter-17: GREEK KINGDOM IN EGYPT. PTOLEMY LAGUS, GOVERNOR OF EGYPT, B.C. 324-306. War and Disunion — Arrideeus — Alexander's Nominal Suceessor— Real Authority with the Generals— Ptolemy Lagus — Perdiccas — Alexander's Funeral Procession joined by Ptolemy — The Body conveyed to Memphis — Alexandria — Trade of Egypt first confined to Countries bordering on the Red Sea— Nattmil Harbour formed by the Island of Pharos — Alexandria founded — Description of the City — Poseidon — Stoma — Temple of Serapis — Reception of Alexander's Body deferred — Character of Ptolemy — Perdicass his Enemy — Ambitious Views of Perdiccas — Disaffection of his Troops— Defeat of Perdiocas, and his Assassination — Party of Perdiccas victorious— Ptolemy invades Syria, Phoenicia, and Judea— Resistance of the Jews — Jerusalem besieged and taken — Wars of Ptolemy — Subjugation of Cyprus under tzagioal Circumstances — Syria is taken by Ptolemy from Demetrius Poliorcetee, son of Antigonus — Generous Conduct of Ptolemy — Victory gained by Antigonus and Demetrius over Ptolemy — Alexandria the Capital of Egypt— Jews and Samaritans settle there— War suspended for a while — A General Peace declared — Insincere Proposals with regard to placing Alexander Mgoa, son of Alexander the Great, on the Throne of Maoedon — His Murder — Other Murders — Cyprus taken from Ptolemy — Antigonus and Demetrius proclaimed Kings of Asia
Chapter-18: PTOLEMY LAOUS OR SOTER, KING OF EGYPT, B.C. 306-284. Egypt a Kingdom under Ptolemy — Lysimachus and Seleucus Kings — Alexander's Empire Distinctly Divided — Antigonus — Ptolemy the Ally of Rhodes — Description of Siege — Assault of the City by Land under Demetrius — Helepolis — Resistance of the Rhodians — Aid sent by Ptolemy — Attempted destruction of the Helepolis — Attack of the City on all sides — Success of the Rhodians — Antigonus' Letters — Destruction of the Helepolis — Terms of the Peace — Colossus of Rhodes — Gratitude of the Rhodians to Ptolemy — Protogenes — Decline of Demetrius' power — Battle of Ipsus — Antigonus killed — His Dominions divided between Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Cassander — Alliance of Demetrius with Seleucus and Ptolemy — Pyrrhus — War renewed — Demetrius King of Macedon — League against him — Deprived of his throne — Prisoner to Seleucus — Death of Demetrius — Character of Demetrius and Pyrrhus
Chapter-19: INTERNAL CONDITION OF EGYPT UNDER PTOLEMY SOTER. Domestic Life of Ptolemy Soter — Berenice — Alexandria — The Museum — Ptolemy an Author — Apelles — Breach between him and Ptolemy — Egyptian Coinage — Ptolemy's Abdication in favour of his son Philadelphus — Ptolemy Ceraunus — Eurydice — Arsinoe - Contrast between Ancient Egypt and the Country when under the Ptolemies — Resurrection of Ancient Egypt impossible— Influence of the Greeks — Upper Egypt — Tombs of Thebes -Careleas Alteration of Names by the Greeks — The Jews Protected by Ptolemy
Chapter-20: PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS, B.C. 284-246. Ptolemy Philadelphus — Coronation and grand Procession — Pyrrhus — Roman Republic — Treaty of Alliance with Ptolemy — Silver coined at Romee — First Punic War — Domestic Disturbances and Rebellions — Gauls — Galatia — Cruelty of Ptolemy— Magas — "War between Ptolemy and Antiochns Theos, King of Syria — Brought to a Close by a disgraceful Bribe — Marriage of Antiochus and Berenice — Affection of Ptolemy for his Daughter and Antiochus — Statue of Diana — Death of Arsinoe — Philadelphus' declining Health — Characteristics of the King — His Fleet — Success — Extensive Dominions — Justice administered — Ports of Berenice and Arsinoe — Gold — Ptolemais — Elephants
Chapter-21: INTERNAL CONDITION OF EGYPT UNDER PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS. Religious Worship— Legends of the G-reeks — Temple of Isis in Philse — Temple in Alexandria — Royal Burial-place— Alexander's embalmed Remains removed from Memphis — Encouragement of Learning — Aristarchus — System of Astronomy — Library of Alexandria — Demetrius Phalereus — History of Egypt by Manetho — Josephus — The Septuagint — Favour shown the Jews — Eleazar the High Priest — Jews Released from Slavery — The Septuagint written in the Isle of Pharos — Spread of Jewish Opinions— A great Step in Civilisation — Worship of the Intellect—Zoilus — Aratus — Pamphilus and Melancthus — Achaian League joined by Ptolemy — Arsinoe First and Second — Egyptian Inscriptions — Dinochares — Arsoneum — Troglodytice — Philadelphian, a Proverb — Death of Ptolemy Philadelphus
Chapter-22: PTOLEMY EUERGETES, B.C. 246-221. Ptolemy Euergetes — Evil Consequences of the Selfish Policy of Philadelphus— Laodice recalled by Antiochus — Vengeance of Laodice — Death of Antiochus — Artemon — Seleucos Callinicus, King of Syria — Antiochus Hierax, GK)vernor of Asia Minor— Daphne — Murder of Berenice and her Son — Indignation and Revenge of Energetes — Death of Laodice— Seleucus defeated— Euergetes at Jerusalem — Prophecies of Daniel — Honours paid to the Egyptian Gods by Euergetes — Berenice's Hair — Smyrna and Magnesia Support Seleucus, and make a Treaty with him — The Words graven on a Column now at Oxford — Treachery of Antiochus Hierax — His Death — Wars of Euergetes against Ethiopia and Abyssinia — The Jewish Tribute — Onias — Joseph — Phoenician Ambassadors — Athenion — Cleomenes, King of Sparta — Alexandria — Learned Men of Egypt and Greece — Conon — Archimedes — Power and Wealth of Egypt — Sons of Euergetes
Chapter-23: PTOLEMY PHILOPATOR, B.C. 221-204. Ptolemy Philopator — His Dominions — Decay of the Army and Fleet — Murder of Berenice and Magas — Cleomenes — Supposed Origin of the name Philopator as applied to Ptolemy — Death of Antigonus — Request of Cleomenes — Philopator's Refusal — Sosibius, the Minister — Imprisonment of Cleomenes— His Escape, and Insurrection incited by him — Death of Cleomenes — Cruelty of Philopator — Antiochus, afterwards called the Great — Damascus regained by Stratagem — Seleucia — Theodotus — Soldiers and Ships of Ptolemy — Gift of Hiero, King of Syracuse — Tyre and Ptolemais delivered up to Antiochus — Towns on the Nile taken — Philopator at Memphis— Preparations for meeting Antiochus — Insuperable Difficulty with regard to Arrangements for Peace — Coele-Syria and Palestine claimed by both Philopator and Anttochus — War renewed — Battle of Raphia cotemporary with that of Thrasymene — Coele-Syria and Palestine regained by Ptolemy — Ptolemy at Jerusalem — Return to Egypt — Cruel Edicts against the Jews— Egyptian and Greek Soldiers — Alliance with Rome — Rhodes — Destruction of the Colossus by an Earthquake— Birth of a Son to Ptolemy — Hyrcanus, the Jewish Ambassador — Agathoclea — Agathocles — OEnanthe — Murder of Arsinoe — Sosibius — Philammon — Tlepolemus — Philopator's love of Literature — Eupator— Death of Ptolemy
Chapter-24: PTOLEMY EPIPHANES, B.C. 204-180. The King's Death concocted by Agathocles and his Party — Council of Alexandrian Greeks and Jews summoned — Speech of Agathocles—Murmurs and Discontent — Destruction of Agathocles and his Family determined on — Alexandrian Mob joined by the Greek Soldiers — -Tlepolemus summoned — (Enanthe — Aristomenes — Agathocles, with the young King, take Refuge — Aristomenes sent to offer Terms of Surrender — Danger of Aristomenes — His Character— The young King given up by Agathocles — His Death — Destruction of his Famiily — Philammon, one of the Murderers of Arsinoe, put to death with his Family — Rapid Growth of the Boman Power — Foreign Provinces belonging to Egypt seized by Antiochus and Philip of Macedon — Assistance rendered by the Jews to Antiochus — Favours shown in return — Request sent by the Alexandrian Ministers to Rome — Orders sent to Antiochus and Philip — Marriage of Cleopatra, Daughter of Antiochus, to Ptolemy — Her Dower — Decline of the Greek Kingdom in Egypt — Battle of Cynocephabe — Internal Condition of Egypt — Egyptian Phalanx — Faithlessness of Ptolemy — His Ministry declared at an end — His Coronation at Memphis — Decree — Aristomenes' Death by Poison — Vices of Epiphanes — Good Conduct of Cleopatra — Death of Antiochus — Epiphanes prepares for War — He is poisoned
Chapter-25: PTOLEMY PHILOMETOR AND PTOLEMY PHYSCON, JOINT KINOS, B.C. 180-145. The Death of Epiphanes an act of private Vengeance— Cleopatra Regent for her Son Philometor, or Mother-loving — Philometor crowned — Disputes with Antiochus Epiphanes after the Death of Cleopatra — Philometor a Captive in the hands of Antiochus — Ptolemy Physcon, or Euergetes II. — Ambassadors sent to Rome — Vain Attempts to secure Peace — Rhodians Allies of Egypt— Antiochus in possession of Pelusium as a Key to Egypt — Union between the Brothers — Syrians again in Egypt — Interposition of the Romans — Quarrels between the Brothers — Philometor driven from the Kingdom — nterview with Demetrius — Decision of the Roman Senate — Physcon to be King of Cyrene — The rest of Egypt under Philometor — Rebellion at Cyrene provoked by the bad Conduct of Physcon — Submission of Physcon to his Brother — Noble Conduct of Philometor — The Conduct of Demetrius of Syria provokes a Conspiracy — Treachery of Demetrius — Alexander Balas — Ptolemais taken by him — Defeat and Death of Demetrius — Balas, King of Syria — Marriage with the Daughter of Philometor — His Wife subsequently given to Demetrius Nicator in consequence of Balas' Treachery — Nicator, Son of Demetrius, acknowledged King at Antioch — Alexander Balas Defeated — Victory dearly purchased by the Death of Philometor — His Character — Learning and Science — Hipparchus — Aristarchus — State of the Jews — Onias — Jewish Temple built at On — Disputes of the Hebrews and Greek Jews, and of the Jews and Samaritans — Jews who held Offices of Trust under Philometor — The Second Book of Esther — Eeverenee for the Gods shown by Philometor — A Temple at Apollinopolis Magna— Maintenance of the Priests
Chapter-26: PTOLEMY PHYSCON, SOLE KING, B.C. 146-116. Confusion arising from the Bepetition of the same Name in the Boyal Family — Contest for the Throne — Cleopatra supports the cause of her Son — Physcon supported by the Mob — Peace made by Koman Influence — Marriage of Physcon with his Brother's Widow — Physcon acknowledged King — Murder of his Nephew — Cruel Treatment of the Alexandrians — Many learned Men seek Refuge in other Countries — Coronation of Physcon at Memphis — His Son born, and named Memphites — Physcon's Divorce of Cleopatra, and Marriage with her Daughter and his own Niece — Indignation of the Romans — Cato the Censor — Scipio Africanus sent to Egypt — His Disregard of Physcon's Treasures — Admiration of the fertile Country, its Trade, Shipping — Hierax — Cruelty of Physcon — Insurrection — Plight of the King with his wife Cleopatra Cocce and his son Memphites to Cyprus — Government of Alexandria in the hands of his first wife Cleopatra — War — Dreadful Vengeance on Cleopatra in the Murder of her son Memphites — How Cleopatra defeated Demetrius Nicanor — Zabbineus — Death of Demetrius — Peace with Cleopatra — Antiochus Grypus — Death of Ptolemy Physcon — His Family — Egyptian titles — Physcon's Taste for Literature — Schools of Alexandria — Pergamus — EumeneB— His Library — Derivatioa of Parchment —The Son of Sirach — Communication with India by Sea — Eudoxus of Cyzicus— Hippalus— Gold Mines
Chapter-27: PTOLEMY LATHYRUS AND PTOLEMY ALEXANDER I., B.C. 116-87. Cleopatra Cocce, Widow of Physcon— Her Sons Ptolemy Lathyrus and Ptolemy Alexander— Lathyms divorces his Sister and Wife Cleopatra by his Mother's orders, and marries Selene, his youngest Sister — Lathyrus and his Mother professedly joint Sovereigns — Disunion — The divorced Cleopatra marries Antiochus Cyzicenus, half-brother of Antiochus Grypus, the Husband of her Sister Tryphcena — Unnatural Warfare carried on — Siege of Antioch by Giypus and Tryphcena — Cleopatra put to death — Another Battle — Cyzicenus Conqueror — Tryphcena put to death — Judas Maccabeus— Civil War in Judea — Cleopatra Cocce sides with the Jews, Lathyrus with the Samaritans — Insurrection against Lathyrus — Selene taken from him — He is allowed to withdraw to Cyprus, his brother's Kingdom — Ptolemy Alexander made joint Kuler with his Mother — Enmity between Cleopatra and Lathyrus — Maccabees — Lathyrus sides with the royal Party in Judea, Cleopatra with the People — Attack on Cyprus — Flight of Ptolemy Lathyrus — Plot and Counter-plot between Ptolemy Alexander and his Mother — The Latter put to death — Character of Ptolemy Alexander — Insurrection— Death of Ptolemy Alexander — Cyrene — Ptolemy Apion — Lathyrus restored — Thebes — Mithridates— Sylla — LucuUus — Death of Lathyrus
Chapter-28: PTOLEMY ALEXANDER II., AND PTOLEMY AULETES, B.C. 87-56. Cleopatra Berenice, Daughter of Lathyrus, and Widow of Ptolemy Alexander, succeeds to the Throne— Crown claimed by Alexander, Son of Ptolemy Alexander and his first Wife— Cos — Mithridates' Conquest of Cos — Alexander taken by Mithridates — His Escape — By the influence of the Romans becomes King of Egypt— Agree to marry Berenice and reign with her — He puts her to Death — Is killed by his Giiards — Neus Dionysus, or Ptolemy Auletes — Power of the Romans — Temples of Dendera and Latapolis — Egyptian Gods blended with the Greek — Jerusalem taken by the Romans — Degradation of the Egyptian Jews — Decay of Egypt — Insurrection — Rhodes— Auletes' Interview with Cato — The two eldest Daughters of Auletes placed on the Throne — Embassy to Home — Gabinius — Pompey — Mark Antony — Death of Cleopatra Tryphoena — Seleucus, Son of Antiochus Grypus and Selene, to share the Throne with Berenice, who has him put to Death — She then marries Archelaus, Son of Mithridates Eupator — Auletes, supported by the Romans, returns to Egypt— Berenice put to Death— Archelaus killed in Battle — Gabinius Rabirius — Fosthumus — Cicero— State of Egypt — Death of Ptolemy Auletes
Chapter-29: CLEOPATRA, B.C. 66-30. The Will of Ptolemy Auletes — Ptolemy declared by Pothinus sole Monarch — Cleopatra - Death of Pompey — Caesar at Alexandria — His Decision in favour of Cleopatra — War declared — Alexandrian Library burnt — Oanimedes — Arsinoe — Attack on Caesar's Ships — His Defeat — Truce agreed on — War resumed — Ptolemy, elder Brother of Cleopatra, drowned after his Defeat — Caesar Master of Egypt — Ptolemy the Younger to share the Throne with Cleopatra — Caesar's Defeat of Pharnaces — Dictator — Triumphal Procession — Arsinoe killed — Civil War in Rome — Cleopatra kills her Brother, and is sole Queen of Egypt — Tarsus — Meeting of Antony and Cleopatra — Luxurious Entertainments — Antony's Return to Rome — Death of Fulvia —Marriage with Octavia — He rejoins Cleopatra in Syria — Herod — Cleopatra's Taste for Literature — Library at Alexandria — Decay of Learning at Pergamus — Cleopatra's Return to Egypt — Joined by Antony — Octavia divorced — Augustus makes War — Battle of Actium, B.C. 31 — Flight of Cleopatra — Defeat of Antony — He follows Cleopatra to Alexandria — Treachery of Cleopatra— Augustus enters Egypt — Egyptian Fleet surrenders to Augustus — Cleopatra's Flight to the Monument near the Temple of Isis —Message to Antony — His Death — Alexandria in the hands of Augustus — Cleopatra a Captive — Her Death — Egypt a Roman Province — Reputation of Alexandria for Learning and Philosophy — Influence upon the early Christian Writers and Teachers — Egypt under the power of the Arabs — Amron — Omar — Alexandrian Library destroyed — Egypt subject to the Turks since 1517 — Coptic Race Christians — Subject to the Mahometans
Chapter-01: HISTORY OF ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA. THE FOUNDATION OF THE PRIMITIVE EMPIRES OF BABYLONIA, OR CHALDAEA, AND ASSYRIA, B.C. 2000-1273. Few Eecords — Valuable from their Association with the History of the Jews — Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar, Ministers of the Divine Vengeance — Discovery of the Ruins of Assyria — Thankfulness for this Revelation of the Past — Algezira, anciently Mesopotamia— Divison of the Earth — Peleg — Moses — Semites not the earliest Inhabitants of Babylonia — Babylon a Hamite Kingdoia — Eudar Mapula — Chedorlaomer — Chaldsea a Province of Babylonia— The Chaldseans Astronomers— History for 700 years uncertain— Nineveh — Legendary History — Ninus, Son of Nimrod — Semiramis builds Babylon, conquers part of Ethiopia, consults the Oracle of Jupiter Ammon — Expedition against India — Defeat of Semiramis — Conspiracy against her — She abdicates the Throne — Worshipped under the form of a Dove — Ninyas — Sardanapalus the last of the fabulous Dynasty — Revolt against him— His Death
Chapter-02: EARLY ASSYRIAN EMPIRE, B.C. 1273-747. Nineveh — Mounds — Kouyunjik, Nimroud, Karamlass, and Khorsabad — Nebbi Yunus — Inscriptions and Bas-reliefs — The earliest known Monarch, Bel-lush — First or Upper Dynasty of Assyrian Kings, Tiglath Pileser I. — Asshui-dani-pal, or Sardanapalus, a great Conqueror — Tribute from Eth-baal, the Sidonian King, Father of Jezebel — Pialace of Nimroud — Resemblance to Solomon's Temple — Shalmanu-bar — Obelisk in the British Museum — Hamath — Hazael — Jehu — Shamas-iva — Jonah — Iva-lush III, probably Pul — Semiramis, Wife of Iva-lush, mentioned by Herodotus— Statue dedicated to Iva-lush and his Queen, now in the British Museum— Termination of the early Assyrian Empire
Chapter-03: THE ASSYRIAN CONQUEST OF ISRAEL, B.C. 747-702. Tiglath Pileser — His Defeat of Rezin, King of Damascus — Tribute from a King of Samaria — Two Invasions of Israel — Submission of Ahaz, King of Judah — Prophecy of Isaiah — Want of Faith in Ahaz — Threatenings blended with a Prophecy of the Messiah — Destruction of Syria and Israel — The Tribes of Israel taken Captiye to Assyria — Bas-reliefs of Kouyunjik — Assyria emphatically a Heathen Land — Asshur the chief (Jod — Symbols — Knowledge of the Assyrian Religion derived from Sculptures — Advance in Assyrian Art due to Connection with Egypt
Chapter-04: SENNACHERIB AND ESAR-HADDON, B.C. 702-660. Sennaclierib the most celebrated of the Assyrian Kings — Nineveh rebuilt — Magnificent Palace at Kouyunjik — Babylon invaded — Merodach Baladan defeated — Succession of Wars and Conquests — Hezekiah — Threats of Sennacherib — Tribute paid by Hezekiah — Merodach Baladan supported by a Chaldean Chief — Defeated- Babylon under the Authority of Asshur-nadin, eldest Son of Sennacherib— Second Invasion of Syria — Hezekiah enters into Alliance with Egypt — Defiance of Sennacherib — Hezekiah's Prayer — The Army of Sennacherib miraculously destroyed — Return of Sennacherib to Nineveh — Palace enlarged and embellished— Death of Sennacherib — Sculptures left unfinished — Esar-haddon a great Conqueror — Mianasseh, King of Judah — Captive— Edifices
Chapter-05: THE DOWNFALL OF THE SECOND ASSYRIAN EMPIRE, B.C. 660-62.5. Aahur-bani-pal II, or Sardanapalus, gives little attention to War — Husting — The Arts flourished — The Modes becoming Powerful — Subject States — The Downfall of Assyria rapid — Saracus the last King — Destruction of Nineveh — The Modes, Susianians, and other Tribes invade Assyria— Treachery of Nabopolassar— Marriage of the Median Princess Amyites with Nebuchadnezzar, Son of Nabopolassar — Nineveh besieged by the joint Forces of Cyaxares and Nabopolassar II. — Saracus sets fire to his Palace and perishes — Ctesias — Prophecy of Nahnm— Becent Excarations — Mr. Layard's Discoveries of Cedar Work — Ezekiel
Chapter-06: CIVILIZATION OF THE ASSYRIANS. The Independent Assyrian Empire lasts five Centuries — Rapid decline — Characters of the Assyrians — "Works of Art — Representations in the Sculptures — Ornaments and Utensils — Habitfi and Manners- Honour paid to the King — Throne — Sceptre — Ninevite Alabaster in British Museum — The Assyrian Court — Sculptures in the Palace of Shalmaneser, at Khorsabad — Situation of the Palace — Description — Religious Worship — Intrenched Camps — Furniture — Wine — Animal Food — Fish — Mode of dressing Meat — Portable Fireplace — Fans — Jehoiakim — Tombs — Gold and Silver — Spinning — Leather — Carpentry and Cabinet-making — Carving Ivory — Bricks — Glass — Mechanics — The King's Highway— Knowledge of the Arch — Vault — Fiery Furnace — Agriculture — Fruit — Commerce — Tin — Coinage — Cuneiform Characters— Decyphering the Inscriptions — Cursive. Letters — Pen Writing— Mode of Warfare — Assyrian Chariots — Horse Ornaments — Warlike Machines — Intrenched Camp— Scaling Ladders — Punishments— Boats
Chapter-07: RISE OF THE BABTLONIAN EMPIRE, B.C. 747-604. Sudden Fall of Nineveh — Herodotus — Diodoms — Rise of Babylon — Inscription left by Sennacherib — In the Eighth Century a Change in the Government of Babylon — Era of Nabonassar — Merodach Baladan — Hezekiah — Sargon — Sennacherib— Invasion of Babylon — Esar-haddon — Manasseh a Prisoner — Treachery of Nabopolassar, Governor of Babylon — His Alliance with Cyaxares — Assyrian Territory annexed to Media and Babylon — Josiah — Nineveh destroyed— Increase of Population in Babylon — Nabopolassar King of Babylon — Egyptian War — Babylonian Dominions invaded by Necho — Death of Josiah at the Battle of Megiddo— Battle of Carchemist — Nebuchadnezzar Victorious — He enters Palestine — Jehoakim submits
Chapter-08: BABYLONIAN CONQUEST OF JUDAH, B.C. 604-586. Death of Nabopolassar — Conquests of Nebuchadnezzar — Gigantic Works— Bebellions of Judea and Phcenicia — Invasion of Tyre — Bebellion of Jehoiakim, King of Judah — Jeremiah's Warning — Profane Conduct of Jehoiakim — Prophecies, written and delivered— Jehoiakim taken Prisoner by Nebuchadnezzar — Prophecy respecting his Death — Jeconiah, or Jehoaichin — His Treachery — Prophecy — Zedekiah — His Character — Alliance with Egypt — Prophecy of the Destruction of Judea by the Chaldeans— Jeremiah in son — Is shown Favour by Zedekiah — Jeremiah again imprisoned— Beleased by secret Orders from the King, who receives from Jeremiah the last Counsel from God — In 586 B.C. the King of Babylon takes possession of Jerusalem — Flight of Zedekiah — His Capture — His Sons put to death with all the Nobles — Zedekiah blinded and taken in chains to Babylon — Terrible Fate of Jerusalem
Chapter-09: THE BUILDING OF THE CITY OF BABYLON, B.C. 586-661. Siege of Tyre — Foundation of TyrePhoenicia — Its Wealth — Ezekiel's Description — Tyre taken by Nebuchadnezzar — War between Apries, King of Egypt, and Nebuchadnezzar - Rebuilding of Babylon — Humane Government of Nebuchadnezzar — Golden Image on the Plains of Dura — Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego — Acknowledgment of the Almighty Power of God by the King — Fortifications of Babylon — Euphrates — Bricks — Watch-towers — Gates of Brass - The City laid out in Streets and Squares — New Palace, and Gardens of sloping Terraces — Temple of Belus — Mound of Babel — Renovation of Temple at Borsippa — Aqueducts — Quays — Breakwater — Embankments — Unfinished Bridge— Artificial Lake — Fertility of Babylon — Canal — Dream of Nebuchadnezzar — Daniel's Interpretation of the Dream and its Fulfilment — Reign of the King after his Recovery — Inscription in the Ruins of Babylon — The God Merodach
Chapter-10: THE FALL OF BABYLON, B.C. 561-538. Death of Nebuchadnezzar — Succeeded by Evil Merodach — Release of Jeconiah, King of Judah — Murder of Evil Merodach by his successer, Neriglissar — Royal Families of Babylon and Media united by ties of blood — Differenoes formerly from Race and Religion - Astyages, King of Media, dethroned by Cyrus — Death of Neriglissar— Succession of Laborosoarchod — Conspiracy formed — The King murdered- Nabonadius succeeds him — War between Cyrus and Craesus — Nabonadius called also Labynetus — Confederacy-proposed against Cyrus — Nabonadius enters into the Scheme — Defence of Babylon — Netocris — Defeat of Croesus — Additional Defence of Babylon — Cyrus leads his conquering Army to Babylon — Nabonadius flies to Borsippa — His son Belshazzar left in Babylon— His Feast — The awful Writing on the "Wall— Daniel's Interpretation— Honour paid to Daniel — Cyrus's plan for entering the city of Babylon — Prophecies — Fall of Babylon — Death of Belshazzar—Fortifications destroyed by Cyrus — Darius appointed to the Govemment — Cyrus advances to Borsippa— Nabonadius surrenders— Is assigned a Residence and Estate in Caretmania — Rebellions and attempts to throw off the Fersian Yoke — Babylon, the second City in the Fersian Empire to the time of Alexander the Great — His Death — Division of his Dominions — Seleucus — Seleucia— Decay of Babylon — The River — Ruins — Birs Nimroud — The Present State of Babylon — Prophecy



Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 45_Babylonia-and-Assyria.pdf THE HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA HUGO* WINCKLER, Ph.D. ThirdEnglish 0362
Table of Contents BABYLONIA --- I. The Region of Western-Asiatic Civilization II. The Sumerians III. The Earliest Immigrations op Semites IV. The Babylonian Kingdom—The Earliest Times V. Kings and Patesis of Laqash VI. The Kings op Ur, Isin, Larsa VII. The First Dynasty of Babylon— “Canaaiute” VIII. The Second Dynasty of Babylon — The Sea-Land IX. The Third Dynasty op Babylon— The Kassites X. The Dynasty of Pashe XI. The Elamites as Rulers of Babylon, The Dynasty of Bazi XII. The Chaldeans XIII. Babylonia under the New Assyrian Empire XIV. Historical Retrospect and Outlook a. The Sources b. The Land in its Original State c. Irrigation d. The Arts e. Religion and Science f. Commerce, Business, Industry
ASSYRIA I. The Mesopotamian Period II. The Kings of Mitani III. The Rise of the Land of Ashur IV. The Old Assyrian Empire a. Its Rise b. The Second Advance of Assyrria c. The Aramaean Immigration V. The Middle Assyrian Kingdom VI. The New Assyrian Kingdom: Assyria the Paramount Power in Western Asia VII. The Decline VIII. The Fall IX. The Civilization, of Assyria
THE NEW BABYLONIAN-CHALDEAN KINGDOM I. Nebuchadrezzar II. The Relation of the New Babylonian Kingdom to Media III. The Fall op New Babylonia through the Persians
*TRANSLATED AND EDITED BY JAMES ALEXANDER CRAIG, Ph.D. Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures in the University of Michigan



Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 45_Babylonia-Religion.pdf THE RELIGION OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA MORRIS JASTROW, JR., Ph.D. 1898English 0794
Table of Contents I. Introduction II. The Land and the People III. General Traits of the Old Babylonian Pantheon IV. Babylonian Gods Prior to the Days of Hammurabi V. The Consorts of the Gods VI. GUDEA's Pantheon VII. Summary VIII. The Pantheon in the Days of Hammurabi IX. The Gods in the Temple Lists and in the Legal AND Commercial Documents X. The Minor Gods in the Period of Hammurabi XI. Survivals of Animism in the Babylonian Religion XII. The Assyrian Pantheon XIII. The Triad and the Combined Invocation of Deities XIV. The Neo-Babylonian Period XV. The Religious Literature of Babylonia XVI. The Magical Texts XVII. The Prayers and Hymns XVIII. Penitential Psalms XIX. Oracles and Omens XX. Various Classes of Omens XXI. The Cosmology of the Babylonians XXII. The Zodiacal System of the Babylonians XXIII. The Gilgamesh Epic XXIV. Myths and Legends XXV. The Views of Life after Death XXVI. The Temples and the Cult XXVII. Conclusion

Keywords:Old Testament, Herodotus, Berosus, Josephus, Khorsabad, Mosul, cuneiform writing, Euphrates Valley, Tigris, rulers of Lagash, dynasty of Ur

Review:Pg-1: Ctesias, the contemporary of Xenophon, from Berosus, a priest of the temple of Bel in Babylonia, who lived about the time of Alexander the Great, or shortly after. Pg-3: The rabbinical literature produced in Palestine and Babylonia is far richer in notices bearing on the religious practices of Mesopotamia, than is the Old Testament. The large settlements of Jews in Babylonia, which, beginning in the sixth century B.C., were constantly being increased by fresh accessions from Palestine, brought the professors of Judaism face to face with religious conditions abhorrent to their souls. Pg-5: The quotations from Berosus in the works of Josephus are all of a historical character; those in Eusebius and Syncellus, on the contrary, deal with the religion and embrace the cosmogony of the Babylonians, the account of a deluge brought on by the gods, and the building of a tower.

Pg-7: A new feature, however, of Layard's excavations was the finding of several rooms filled with fragments of small and large clay tablets closely inscribed on both sides in the cuneiform characters. These tablets, about 30,000 of which found their way to the British Museum, proved to be the remains of a royal library. Pg-11: Colossal statues of diorite, covered with inscriptions, the pottery, tablets and ornaments, showed that at a period as early as 3500 B.C. civilization in this region had already reached a very advanced stage. Pg-14: The links uniting the most ancient period — at present, c. 4000 B.C. — to the final destruction of the Babylonian empire by Cyrus, in the middle of the sixth century B.C., are far from being complete. For entire centuries we are wholly in the dark, and for others only a few skeleton facts are known; and until these gaps shall have been filled, our knowledge of the religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians must necessarily remain incomplete.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 45_Babylon-Persia-Conquest.pdf A HISTORY OF BABYLON* LEONARD W. KING, LITT.D., F.S.A. 1915English 0415
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: INTRODUCTORY: BABYLON'S PLACE IN THE HISTORY OF ANTIQUITY -- Babylon as a centre of civilization — Illustrations of foreign influence Babylon's share in the origin of the culture she distributed —Causes which led to her rise as capital —Advantages of her geographical position —Transcontinental lines of traffic —The Euphrates route, the Royal Road and the Gates of Zagros —Her supremacy based on the strategic and commercial qualities of her site —The political centre of gravity in Babylonia illustrated by the later capitals, Seleucia, Ctesiphon, and Baghdad —The Persian Gulf as barrier, and as channel of international commerce —Navigation on the Euphrates and the Tigris —Causes of Babylon's deposition —Her treatment by Cyrus, Alexander, and Seleucus —The Arab conquest of Mesopotamia instructive for comparison with the era of early city-states —Effect of slackening of international communications —Effect of restoi-ation of commercial intercourse with the West —Three main periods of Babylon's foreign influence —Extent to which she moulded the cultural development of other races Traces of contact in Hebrew religion and in Greek mythology - Recent speculation on the subject to be tested by the study of history
Chapter-02: THE CITY OF BABYLON AND ITS REMAINS: A DISCUSSION OF THE RECENT EXCAVATIONS --- The site of Babylon in popular tradition —Observations of Benjamin of Tudela and John Eldred —Exaggerations of early travellers —The description of Herodotus —Modern survey and excavation —Characteristics of Babylonian architecture —The architect's ideal —Comparison of Babylonian and Assyrian architectural design -Difficulties of Babylonian excavation— The extent of Babylon and the classical tradition —Remains of the ancient city —The Walls of Babylon -The Outer City-wall —The Mound Babil —The Kasr— The Inner City-wall —Imgur-Bel and Nimitti -Bel—Quay-walls and fortifications —Nebuchadnezzar's river-fortification —Change in the course of the Euphrates —Palaces of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar -The official courts of the palace —Al-Bit-shar-Babili —The Throne-Room and its enamelled facade —The private palace and the women's apartments— The Hanging Gardens of Babylon —The Ishtar Gate and its Bulls and Dragons —Later defences of the Southern Citadel —The Lion Frieze —The Procession Street —Temples of Babylon -E-makhj the temple of Ninmakh —Altars in the Babylonian and Hebrew cults —The unidentified temple —The temple of Ishtar of Akkad —Religious mural decoration —The temple of Ninib —E-sagila and the Tower of Babylon —The Peribolos or Sacred Precincts -E-zida and the Temple-tower of Borsippa —The Euphrates bridge -Merkes and tlie street net-work of Babylon —Strata of different periods—Early Babylonian town-planning —Material influence of the West-Semitic Dynasty —Continuity of Babylonian culture
Chapter-03: THE DYNASTIES OF BABYLON: THE CHRONOLOGICAL SCHEME IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT DISCOVERIES --- Chronology the skeleton of history —Principal defect in the Babylonian scheme —The Dynasties of Nisin, Larsa and Babylon —Discovery of a List of the kings of Larsa —Introduction of fresh uncertainty Relationship of the kings of Babylon and Nisin —Absence of synchronisms —Evidence of date-formulse —A fresh and sounder line of research —Double-dates supply the missing link for the chronology —The Nisin era —Explanation of the double-dates —The problem of Rim-Sin —Method of reconciling data —Another line of evidence —Archaeological research and the Second Dynasty of the Kings' List —Date-formulae of Hammurabi, Samsu-iluna and Iluma-ilum —Methods of fixing period of First Dynasty —Ammizaduga's omens from the planet Venus—Combinations of Venus, sun, and moon —Possibility of fixing period of observations —Alternative dates in their relation to historical results —The time of harvest in farming-out contracts of the period —Probable date for the First Dynasty —Re-examination of chronological notices in later texts —The Dynasties of Berossus and the beginning of his historical period —Effect of recent discoveries on the chronological scheme as a whole —Our new picture of the rise of Babylon
Chapter-04: THE WESTERN SEMITES AND THE FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON -- Original home of the Amurru, or Western Semites —Arabia one of the main breeding-grounds of the human race —The great Semitic migrations and their cause —Evidence of diminution of rainfall in Arabia —The life of the pastoral nomad conditioned by the desert The change from pastoral to agricultural life —Successive stages of Canaanite civilization —The neolithic inhabitants and the Araorite migration —Canaanites of history and their culture —Eastern Syria and the middle Euphrates —Recent excavations at Carchemish and its neighbourhood —Early Babylonian cylinder-seals on the Sajur —Trade of Carchemish with Northern Babylonia —West Semitic settlements on the Khabur —The kingdom of Khana —The Amorite invasion of Babylonia —The Dynasties of Nisin and Larsa —Recent discoveries at Ashur —Proto-Mitannians —The Western Semites in Babylon and their conflict with Assyria —Early struggles and methods of expansion —The Elamite conquest of Larsa —The three-cornered contest of Nisin, Elam and Babylon —The fall of Nisin and the duel between Babylon and Elam —Hammurabi's defeat of Rim-Sin and the annexation of Sumer by Babylon —Extent of Hammurabi's empire —Hammurabi the founder of Babylon's greatness —His work as law-giver and administrator
Chapter-05: THE AGE OF HAMMURABI AND ITS INFLUENCE ON LATER PERIODS --- The energy of the Western Semite and his perpetuation of a dying culture —His age one of transition —Contemporaneous evidence on social and political conditions —The three grades in the social scale of Babylon—The nobles a racial aristocracy —Origin and rights of the middle class —Condition of slaves —Pastoral and agricultural life in early Babylonia —Regulations sanction long-established custom —The corvee for public works —Canals and fishing-rights Methods of irrigation and their modern equivalents —Survival of the Babylonian plough and grain-drill —Importance of the datepalm and encouragement of plantations —Methods of transport by water —The commercial activities of Babylon and the larger cities - Partnerships for foreign trade —Life in the towns —Family life in early Babylonia —The position of women —Privileges enjoyed by votaries —The administration of justice —Relation of the crown and the priestly hierarchy under the Western Semites —The royal regulation of the calendar and the naming of the year —System of administration —Changes in the religious sphere and revision of the pantheon —Literary activity —The complete semitization of the country unaccompanied by any break in culture —Babylon's later civilization moulded by Hammurabi's age
Chapter-06: THE CLOSE OF THE FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON AND THE KINGS PROM THE COUNTRY OF THE SEA --- Condition of the empire on Samsuiluna's accession —Early Kassite raid the signal for revolt assisted by Elamite invasion —Resources of Babylon strained in suppressing the rebellion —Rise of an independent kingdom in the Sea -Country on the littoral of the Persian Gulf —Capacity of the Sea-Country for defence and as a base for offensive operations —Sumerian elements in its population Babylon's loss of territory and her struggle with the Sea-Country kings —Symptoms of decadence under the later West-Semitic kings of Babylon —The deification of royalty and increased luxury of ritual —Evidence of Babylon's growing wealth and artistic progress under foreign influence —Temporary restoration of Babylon's power under Ammi-ditana —Renewed activity of the Sea-Country followed by gradual decline of Babylon —The close of the West-Semitic dynasty brought about or hastened by Hittite invasion —Period of local dynasties following the fall of Babylon —Continued succession of the Sea -Country kings
Chapter-07: THE KASSITE DYNASTY AND ITS RELATIONS WITH EGYPT AND THE HITTITE EMPIRE --- The Kassite conquest of Babylonia —The Kassites probably Aryans by race and akin to the later rulers of Mitanni —Character of their rule in Babylon —Their introduction of the horse into Western Asia —The Kassite conquest of the Sea-Country and its annexation to Babylon —Gap in our knowledge of the Kassite succession —The letters from Tell el-Amarna and Boghaz-Keui —Egypt and Western Asia at the close of the fifteenth century —Diplomacy and the balance of power —Dynastic marriages and international intercourse of the period —Amen-hetep III and Kadashman-Enlil —Akhenaten and his policy of doles —Babylon's caravans in Syria —The correspondence of Burna-Buriash and Akhenaten —Egypt's loss of her Asiatic provinces —Rise of the Hittite Empire —The Hittites and their civilization —Their capital of Khatti —Their annexation of Mitanni and the Egyptian war —The relations of Khattusil with Kadashman-turgu and Kadashman-Enlil II. —Character of the Hittite correspondence —The growth of Assyria and her relations with Babylon —First phase in the long struggle of the two kingdoms —The later members of the Kassite Dynasty —Its fall to be traced to Elamite invasion —Economic conditions in Babylonia under the Kassites —Kudurru-inscriptions or boundary-stones —Their evidence on the Babylonian system of land-tenure —Gradual disappearance of tribal proprietorship as a result of West-Semitic and Kassite policy —Transition from collective to private ownership
Chapter-08: THE LATER DYNASTIES AND THE ASSYRIAN DOMINATION --- Spoils at Susa from the Elamite invasion —Recovery of her territory by Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar I. —Renewal of conflicts and treaties with Assyria —The devastation of Babylonia by the Sutu— Ephemeral Babylonian dynasties —The state of Sippar typical of the condition of the country —Renaissance of Assyria —The conquests of Ashur-nasir-pal and Babylon's abortive opposition —Babylonian art in the ninth century —Intervention of Shalmaneser III. in Babylonian politics —His campaign in Chaldea —The kingdom of Urartu and its effect on Assyrian expansion —Independence of provincial governments during a relaxation of central control Temporary recovery of Babylon under Nabonassar— Gradual tightening of Assyria's grasp upon the southern kingdom Character of her later empire —Tiglath-pileser IV's policy of deportation and its inherent weakness —The disappearance of Urartu as a buffer state —Sargon and Merodach-baladan —Sennacherib's attempt to destroy Babylon —Esarhaddon's reversal of his father's policy —The Assyrian conquest of Egypt —Ashur-bani-pal and the revolt of Shamash-shum-ukin —The sack of Susa —Babylon under the Sargonids —The policies of encouragement and coercion -Effect of their alternation
Chapter-09: THE NEO-BABYLONIAN EMPIRE AND THE PERSIAN CONQUEST --- Nabopolassar and his nascent kingdom —The Scythian invasion and its effects —The sons of Ashur-bani-pal—Nabopolassar and the Medes -The fall of Nineveh —Division of Assyrian territory —Babylon's conflict with Egypt —Nebuchadnezzar II. and the Battle of Carchemish— Capture of Jerusalem and deportation of the Jews — Occupation of Phoenicia and siege of Tyre —Nebuchadnezzar's later campaign in Egypt —Babylon and the Median suzerainty —Lydia under the successors of Ardys —Conflict of Cyaxares and Alyattes on the Halys and the intervention of Babylon —Nebuchadnezzar as builder —Condition of the Babylonian army in Nebuchadnezzar's closing years and under his successors —Gubaru, the general, and the governor of Gutium —Death of Neriglissar —Character of Nabonidus —The decaying empire under Median protection —The rise of Cyrus —His ease in possessing himself of Media, and the probable cause —His defeat and capture of Croesus and the fall of Lydia —His advance on Babylon —Possibility that Gobryas was a native Babylonian —His motive in facilitating the Persian occupation— Defeat and death of Belshazzar —Popularity of Cyrus in Babylon —Tranquillity of the country under Persian rule -Babylon's last bids for independence —Her later history —Survival of Babylonian cults into the Christian era
Chapter-10: GREECE, PALESTINE, AND BABYLON: AN ESTIMATE OF CULTURAL INFLUENCE --- Influence of Babylon still apparent in the modern world —The mother of astronomy, and the survival of her ancient system of timedivision— The political and religious history of the Hebrews in the light of Babylonian research —Echoes from Babylonian legends in Greek mythology —The Babylonian conception of the universe —The astral theory and its comprehensive assumptions —Was Babylonian religion essentially a star-worship? —Application of historical test -Evolution of the Babylonian god —Origin of divine emblems and animal symbolism —World Ages and the astral theory —Late evidence and the earlier historical periods —The astral ages of the Twins, the Bull and the Ram —Suggested influence of each age upon the historical literature of antiquity —The Old Testament and the Odyssey under astral interpretation —Astronomical defects of the astral theory —The age of Babylonian astronomy —Hipparchus of Nicsea and the precession of the equinoxes— Hebrews and Babylonian astrology —Contrast of the Babylonian and Hellenic temperaments —Mesopotamia and the coast-lands of Asia Minor -Tales that are told
APPENDICES I. A Comparative List of the Dynasties of Nisin, Larsa, and Babylon II. A Dynastic List OF the Kings of Babylon

Keywords:Euphrates, Gates of Zagros, Hellenic period, Herodotus

Review:Pg-2: It may thus appear a paradox to assert that the civilization, with which the name of Babylon is associated, was not Babylonian. Pg-7: for the sea route between the Persian Gulf and India was certainly not in use before the fifth century, and in all probability was inaugurated by Alexander. According to Herodotus it had been opened by Darius after the return of the Greek Scylax of Caryanda from his journey to India.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: BOOK I. ENGLAND. Introductory I. Laws of William the Conqueror II. Bull of Pope Adrian IV. empowering Henry II. to conquer Ireland (A.D. 1155) III. Constitutions of Clarendon (A.D. 1164) IV. Assize of Clarendon (A.D. 1166) V. Dialogue concerning the Exchequer (c. 1178 A.D.) VI. Laws of Richard (Coeur de Lion) concerning the Punishment of Criminal Crusaders (A.D. 1189) VII. Magna Carta (1215 A.D.) VIII. Statute of Mortmain (1279 A. D.) IX. Statute Quia Emptores (1290 A.D.) X. Manner of holding Parliament (fourteenth century) XI. Statute of Labourers (1349 A.D.)
Chapter-02: BOOK II. THE EMPIRE. Introductory I. The Salic Law (c. 496 A.D.) II. Capitulary of the Emperor Charlemagne (802 A.D.) III. Division of the Empire among the Sons of the Emperor Louis the Pious (817 A.D.) IV. Treaty at Aix with regard to the Division of the Kingdom of Lothar II. (870 A.D.) V. Decree of the Emperor Henry IV. concerning a Truce of God (1085 A.D.) VI. Peace of the Land established by Frederick Barbarossa (c. 1155 A.D.) VII. The Establishment of the Duchy of Austria (1156 A.D.) VIII. The Gelnhausen Charter (1180 A.D.) IX. The Count Palatine as Judge over the King of the Romans (1274 A.D.) X. The Golden Bull of the Emperor Charles IV. (1356 A.D.) XI. The Foundation Charter of Heidelberg (1386 A.D.)
Chapter-03: BOOK III. THE CHURCH. Introductory I. The Rule of St. Benedict (sixth century) II. Formulas for holding Ordeals (Carolingian time*) III. The Forged Donation of Constantino (c. 800 A.D.) IV. The Foundation Document of Cluny (910 A.D.) V. Summons of Pope Eugene III. to a Crusade (1145 A.D.) VI. Decree concerning Papal Elections (1179 A.D.) VII. General Summons of Pope Innocent III. to a Crusade (1215 A.D.) VIII. The Rule of St. Francis (1223 A.D.) IX. The Institution of the Jubilee by Pope Boniface VIII. (1300 A.D.)
Chapter-04: BOOK IV. CHURCH AND STATE. Introductory I. Decree of 1059 A.D. concerning Papal Elections (Papal and Imperial Versions) II. Documents relating to the War of the Investitures (1075-1122) 1 and 2, Decrees forbidding lay Investiture . 3. Dictate of the Pope 4. Letter of Gregory VII. to Henry IV., Dec.,1075 5. Henry's Answer, Jan. 24th, 1076 6. Letter of the Bishops to Gregory VII., Jan. 24th, 1076 7. First Deposition and Banning of Henry IV., Feb. 22nd, 1076 8. Henry's Invitation to the Council at Worms. Royal Justification (1076). 9. Justification of Gregory VII. to the Germans (1076, April or May) 10. Convention of Oppenheim: (a) Promise of the King to offer Obedience to the Pope; (b) Edict cancelling the sentence against Gregory VII. (Oct. 1076) 11. Gregory Vllth's Letter to the German Princes concerning the Penance of Henry IV. at Canossa (c. Jan. 28th, 1077) 12. Second Banning and Deposition of Henry IV. through Gregory VII. (March 7th, 1080) 13. Decision of the Council of Brixen (June 25th, 1080) 14. Letter of Gregory VII. to Bishop Hermann of Metz (March 15th, 1081) 15. Negotiations between Paschal II. and Henry V. (1111 A.D.) 16. Concordat of Worms (Sept. 23rd, 1122)
Chapter-04: No. III. The Vesancon Episode (a) Letter of Adrian IV. to Barbarossa (Sept. 20th, 1157) (b) Manifesto of the Emperor (Oct., 1157) (c) Letter of Adrian IV. to the German Bishops (d) Letter of the German Bishops to the Pope . 416 (e) Letter of Adrian IV. to the Emperor (Feb., 1158) IV. The Struggle between Frederick Barbarossa and Alexander III (a) Epistola Minor of the Council of Pavia (Feb., 1160) (b) Letter of John of Salisbury concerning the Council of Pavia (c) The Peace of Venice (1177 A. D.) V. John's Concession of England to the Pope ( 1213 A. D. ) -VI. The Bull "Clericis Laicos" (1296 A.D.) II. The Bull "Unam Sanctam" (1299 A.D.) VIII. The Law "Licet Juris" of the Frankfort Diet of 1338 A.D.
APPENDIX.: Introductory Remarks - Report of Bishop Liutprand, Ambassador of the joint Emperors Otto I. and Otto II. to the Court of Constantinople, 968 A.D

Keywords: Assize of Clarendon, Magna Carta, Statute of Mortmain, Christ, England, Ireland

Review: Pg-2: The custom of appealing to Rome a custom which had begun under Henry I whose brother was papal legate for England had assumed alarming dimensions under Henry II. The king had almost no jurisdiction over his clerical subjects. And, to make matters worse, the clergy did not refrain from crimes which called for the utmost severity of the law. In ten years we hear of more than one hundred unpunished cases of murder among them. Pg-3: It is interesting to note the comparative mildness of the measures against heretics. Half a century later heresy and apostasy were alike punished with death.

Pg-6: the Statute of Labourers, was issued after the great plague of the Black Death, which raged in Europe from 1347 to 1349. Pg-7: Firstly that, above all things, he wishes one God to be venerated throughout his whole kingdom, one faith of Christ always to be kept inviolate, peace and security. Pg-8: 9. I forbid any one to sell a man beyond the limits of the country, under penalty of a fine in full to me. 10. I forbid that anyone be killed or hung for any fault, but his eyes shall be torn out or his testicles cut off. And this command shall not be violated under penalty of a fine in full to me.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 85_Inquisition-Hist-Europe.pdf HISTORY OF THE INQUISITION* PHILIP LIMBORCH ThirdEnglish 0345
Table of Contents
Book-01: OF THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE INQUISITION. I. The Doctrine of Jesus Christ forbids Persecution on the account of Religion II. The opinion of the primitive Christians concerning persecution III. The Laws of the Emperors, after the Nicene council against the Arians and other heretics IV. The Arian persecutions of the Orthodox V. The opinion of some of the Fathers concerning the persecution of Dissenters VI. St. Aiigustine^s opinion concerning the persecution of heretics VII. The persecutions of the Popes against heretics VIII. Of the Albigcnses and Waldenses IX. Of the persecutions against the Albigenses and Waldenses X. Of Dorainicus, and the first rise of the Tholouse Inquisition XI. Of tlie wars against Raymond, father and son/ Earls of Tholouse XII. Several councils held, and the Laws of the Emperor Frederic II, by which the office of the inquisition was greatly promoted XIII. The Inquisition introduced into Arragon, France, Tholouse, and Italy XIV. Of the first hindrances to the progress of the Inquisition XV. The more speedy progress of the Inquisition XVI. The Inquisition introduced into several places XVII. Of the Inquisition at Venice XVIII. The Inquisition against the Apostolics, Templars, and others. XIX. The Inquisition against the Beguins XX. The process against Mathew Galeacius, Viscoimt Milan, and others XXI. The inquisition introduced into Poland, and restored in France XXII. Of Wickliff, Huss, and the Inquisition against the Htissites. XXIII.. Of the Inquisition in Valence, Flanders, and Artois XXIV. Of the Spanish Inquisition XXV. Of the Inquisition in Portugal XXVI. Of the attempt to bring the Inquisition into the kingdom of Naples XXVII. Of the Inquisition in Sicily, Sardinia, and Milan XXVllI. The return of the Inquisition into Germany and France at the time of the Reformation XXIX. Six Cardinals appointed at Rome Inquisitors General XXX. Of the Inquisition in Spain against heretics XXXI. Of the Inquisition in the Low Countries
Book-02: OF THE MINISTERS OF THE OFFICE OF THE INQUISITION. I. OF the Ministers of the Inquisition in general II. Of the Inquisitors. III. Of the Vicars and Assistants of the Inquisition IV. Of Assessors and Counsellors necessary to the office of the Inquisition V. Of the Promoter Fiscal VI. Of the Notaries of the Inquisition VII. Of the Judge and Receiver of the confiscated effects VIII. Of the Executor and Official of the Inquisition IX. Of the Familiars or Attendants X. Of the Cross Bearers X. Of the Visitors of the Inquisitors XII. Of the duty or power of every Magistrate XIII. Of the privileges of the Inquisitors XIV. Of the amplitude of the Jurisdiction of the Inquisitors XV. Of the power of the Inquisitors XVI. Of the povver of the Inquisitors in prohibiting books XVII. What the Inquisitors can do themselves, and what in conjunction with the Ordinaries XVIIl. Of the jail of the Inquisitors, and Keepers of the jail XIX. Of the expences requisite in the administration of the Inquisition, and confiscation of effects applied to this use XX. Of the salaries of the Inquisitors and other officers
Book-03: CRIMES BELONGING TO THE TRIBUNAL OF THE INQUISITION. I. OF Heretics, and their ecclesiastical puaishraents. II. Of thecivil punishments of Heretics III. Of epen and secret Heretics IV. Of affirmative and negative Heretics V. Of Heretics impenitent and penitent VI. Of Arch Heretics VII. Of the Believers of Heretics, and of Schismatics VIII. Of the Receivers and Defenders of Heretics IX. Of the Favourers of Heretics X. Of the Hinderers of the Office of the Inquisition XI. Of Persons suspected of Heresy XII. Of Persons defamed for Heresy XIII.Of Persons relapsed XIV. Of such who read and keep prohibited Books XV. Of Polygamists XVI. Of those who celebrate and administer the Sacrament of Penance, not being priests XVII. Of soliciting Confessors XVIII. Of one that is insordescent in Excommunication XIX. Of Blaspliemers XX. Of Diviners, Fortune-Tellers, and Astrologers XXI. Of Witches XXII. Of Jews, and such as return to Jewish rites
Book-04: OF THE MANNER OF PROCEEDING BEFORE THE TRIBUNAL OF THE INQUISITION. I. HOW the Inquisitor begins his office II. Of the promulgation of an Edict of Faith III. Of the obligation to denounce every Heretic to the Inquisition IV. Of such who voluntarily appear, and the grace shewn them V. Of the three methods of beginning the process before the Tribunal of the Inquisition VI. How the Process begins by way of Inquisition VII. How the process begins by accusation VIII. How the process begins by denunciation IX. Of the witnesses, and who are admitted as witnesses before the Tribunal of the Inquisition X. Of the number of the witnesses XI. Of the examination of the witnesses XII. How the criminals when informed against are sent to jail XIII. Of the exammatiou of the prisoners XIV. What arts the Inquisitors iise to draw a confession from the prisoners XV. How the prisunera are allowed an advocate procurator and guardian XVI. How the prisoners are interrogated by the Inquisitor, whether they allow the witnesses to be rightly examined and re heard XVII. How the piomoUr Fiscal txhibits tlic Bill of accusation. XVIII. How the interrogatories given in by the Criminals are torraed and exhibited XIX. Of the re-examining the Witritsses, and the punishment of false Witnesses XX. How the Prisoner hath a copy of the evidence, without the names of the witnesses XXI. How the articUs and witnesses for the Criminal are produced and examined XX. Of the defence of the Criminals
Chapter-04: XXI. How the Inquisitor may be rejected XX. Of the appeal from the Inquisitor XXV. How they pro<'eed ugainst such wJ.o make their escape XXVI. How the process is ended in the Inquisition XXVII. How the process is ended by absolution XXVIII. How the process against a person defamed for heresy is ended by canonical purgation XXIX. How the process is ended by torture XXX. How the process is ended against a person of heresy, as also against one both suspected and defamed XXXI. How the process against an heretic confessed and penitent ends, and first of abjuration XXXII. Of the punishment and wholesome penances injoined such as abjure XXXIII. When and how far any one is to be admitted to penance XXXIV. How the process ends against a relapsed penitent XXV. How the process ends against an impenitent Heretic and impenitent relapse XXXVI. How the process ends against a negative Heretic convicted XXXVII. How the process ends against a fugitive Heretic XXXVIII. Of the method of proceeding against the dead XXXIX. Of the manner of proceeding against houses XL. How the sentences are pronoimced, and the condemned persons delivered over to the secular arm XLI. Of an act of Faith. XLII. Memoirs of Persons who have suffered the terrors of Inquisitorial Persecution XLIII. On the re-establishment of the Inquisition in Spain, by the decree of Ferdinand VII

Keywords: Gospel, Saviour, Pentecost, Holy Spirit, Redeemer

Review:Pg-1: The Holy Inquisition, the very name of which has excited the terror of thousands and tens of thousands, and whose existence leaves a lasting stain upon the annals of mankind, so naturally connects itself with the history of the church, from whose corruptions this prodigious evil grew

A HISTORY OF THE INQUISITION OF THE MIDDLE AGES. BY HENRY CHARLES LEA, V3 BOOK III — SPECIAL FIELDS OF INQUISITORIAL ACTIVITY. Chapter I . —The Spiritual FRANCISCANS. Dissensions in the Franciscan Order from Elias to John of Parma, Joachim of Flora. —His Reputation as a Prophet, His Apocalyptic Speculations as to the Third Era, Adopted by the Spiritual Franciscans, The Everlasting Gospel. —Its Condemnation, The Spirituals Compromised. —John of Parma Removed, Persistence of the Joachites, Increasing Strife over Poverty, Bull Exiit gui seminat, Persecution of Italian Spirituals, The French Spirituals — Jean Pierre Ovi, Arnaldo de Vilanova, Disputation before Clement V. Decision of Council of Vienne, Renewed Persecution of the Spirituals, Commencement of Rebellion. —Dissensions among Them, Election of John XXII —His Character, He Enforces Obedience and Creates a Heresy, Bloody Persecution of the Olivists, They Form a New Church, Their Fanaticism. —Naprous Boneta, Suppression of the Sect. —Its Career in Aragon, Jean de la Rochetaillade. —Remains of Joachitism

Chapter II. —Guglielma anp Dolcino. Incarnation of Holy Ghost in Guglielma, The Guglielmites Form a New Church, Prosecuted by the Inquisition, Fate of the Sectaries, The Order of Apostles. —Spiritual Tendencies, Gherardo Segarelli —Burned in 1300, Dolcino Assumes the Leadership, His Open Revolt. —Suppressed after Four Crusades, Continuance and Character of the Heresy

Chapter III — The Fraticelli. Question Raised as to the Poverty of Christ, Reaction against the Holiness of Poverty, Doctrine of the Poverty of Christ Declared a Heresy, It Complicates the Quarrel with Louis of Bavaria, Marsiglio of Padua and William of Ockham, Gradual Estrangement of the Franciscans, Louis Deposes John XXII. asa Heretic, Michele da Cesena Revolts, Utility of the Inquisition. Submission of the ‘Antipope, Struggle in Germany. —The Franciscans Support Louis, Louis gradually Gains Strength. —His Death, Dissident Franciscans Known as Fraticelli, Sympathy for them under Persecution, Their Tenets, Fraticel in France and Spain, Orthodox Ascetism. —Jesuats. —Observantines, The Observantines Replace and Suppress the Fraticelli.

Chapter IV. —Political Heresy Utilized by The Church. Denial of Papal Claims Pronounced Heresy, The Stedingers —Tithes Enforced by Crusades, Crusades to Support Italian Interests of Papacy, Importance of Inquisition as a Political Agency, Advantage of the Charge of Heresy, Manfred of Naples —The Colonnas —Ferrara, John XXII and the Visconti, Cola.di Rienzo. —The Maffredi, Use of Inguisition in the Great Schism, Case of Thomas Connecte, Girolamo Savonarola

Chapter V. —Political Heresy Utilized by The State. Use of Inquisition by Secular Potentates, The Templars. —Growth and Relations of the Order, Causes of its Downfall. —Facilities Furnished by the Inquisition, Papal Complicity Sought. —Use made of Inquisition, Errors Charged against the Templars, The Question of their Guilt, Vacillation of Clenient. —The Assembly of Tours, Bargain between King and Pope. —Clement Joins the Prosecution, Prosecution throughout Europe. —Its Methods in France, The Papal Commission. —Its Proceedings, Defence Prevented by Burning those who Retract, Proceedings in Englaid. —The Inquisition Necessary, Action in Lorraine and Germany, Italy and the East, In Spain and Majorea, Torture in Preparation for the Council of Vienne, Arbitrary Proceedings Required at the Council, Disposition of Property and Persons of the Order, Fate of de Molay, Popular Sympathies, Distribution of the Property of the Order, Case of Doctor Jean Petit, Case of Joan of Arc. —Condition of the French Monarchy, Career of Joan up to her Capture, The Inquisition Claims her. —Delivered to the Bishop of Beat, Her Trial, Her Condemnation and Execution, Her Imitators and her Rehabilitation

Chapter VI. —Sorcery and Occult Arts. Satan and the Spirit World, Incubi and Succubi, Human Ministers of Satan. Sorcerers, Penalties under the Roman’ Law, Struggle between Pagan and Christian Theurgy, Repression of Sorcery by the Early Church, Magic Practices of the Barbarians, Leniency of Barbarian Legislation, Legislation of Church and State in Carlovingian Period, Practical Toleration in Early Medieval Period, Indifference of Secular Legislation, The Inquisition Assumes Jurisdiction, All Magic Becomes Heretical, Astrology. —Pietro di Abano. —Cecco d'Ascoli, Divination by Dreams, Comminatory Church Services, The Inquisition Stimulates Sorcery by Persecution, Unfortunate Influence of John XXII, Growth of Sorcery in the Fourteenth Century, Increase in the Fifteenth Century, Case of the Maréchalde Rais, Enrique de Villena

Chapter VII. —Witchcraft. Its Origin in the Fifteenth Century, The Sabbat. —Regarded at first as a Diabolic Ilusion, Adopted by the Church as a Reality, Its Ceremonies, Power and Malignity of the Witch, The Church Helpless to Counteract her Spells, Belief Stimulated by Persecution, Witches Lose Power when Arrested, Secular and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction over Witcheraft, Inquisitorial Process as Applied to Witchcraft, Case of the Witches of the Canavese, Case of the Vaudois of Arras, Slow Development of the Witchcraft Craze, Stimulated by the Inquisition and the Church, Influence of the Malleus Maleficarum, Opposition to the Inquisition. —France. — Cornelius Agrippa, Opposition of Venice —The Witches of Brescia, Terrible Development in the Sixteenth Century

Chapter VIII. — Intellect and Faith. Intellectual Aberrations not Dangerous, Theological Tendencies and Development, Roger Bacon, Nominalism and Realism, Rivalry between Philosophy and Theology, Averrhoism, Toleration in Italy in the Fifteenth Century, Modified Averrhoism —Pamponazio- Nilo, Raymond Lully, Evolution of Dogma —The Beatific Vision, The Immaculate Conception, Censorship of the Press

Chapter IX. —Conclusion. Omissions of the Inquisition. —The Greek Heretics, Questuari, or Pardoners, Simony, Demoralization of the Church, Morals of the Laity, Materials for the Improvement of Humanity, The Reformation Inevitable, Encouraging Advance of Humanity, Appendix or DOCUMENTS

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 99_The-World-Religions.pdf THE WORLD'S RELIGIONS G. T. BETTANY, M.A., B.Sc. 1890English 0917
Table of Contents
Book-01: RELIGIONS OF UNCIVILISED PEOPLES. I. Races without a Religion II. Religious Beliefs and Practices in Australasia, Polynesia, and Melanesia III. Aboriginal Religions of Africa IV. Aboriginal Religions of America V. Aboriginal Religions of India and other Parts of Asia
Book-02: RELIGIONS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. I. Life of Confucius II. The Chinese Sacred Books III. The Chinese Modern State Religion, and Confucianism IV. Lao-tze V. Development and Present Condition of Taoism VI. Shin-toism' (Japan)
Book-03: BRAHMANISM, BUDDHISM, AND PARSEEISM. I. The Early Vedic Religion II. The Brahmanism of the Codes III. Modern Hinduism. I IV. Modern Hinduism. II V. Life of Buddha VI. The Buddhist Doctrines, Order, and Sacked Books VII. Modern Buddhism. 1 VIII. Modern Buddhism. II IX. Jainism X. Zoroaster and the Zend-Avesta XI. The Zoroastrian Books—Mithraism XII. Modern Parseeism
Book-04: EUROPEAN ARYAN RELIGIONS. I. The Ancient Greek Religion: The Gods II. Greek Sacrifices, Priests, Temples and Festivals, and Morals III. Socrates, Plato, and other Greek Philosophers IV. The Roman Religion V. The Religion of the Teutons (including Scandinavians) VI. The Religion of the Slavonians VII. Celtic Religion
Book-05: EGYPTIAN AND SEMITIC RELIGIONS. I. The Egyptian Religion II. The Babylonian, Assyrian, and Phoenician Religions III. Life of Mahomet. Part I, Life of Mahomet. Part II. V. The Koran and its Teachings VI. Modern Islam. Part I. VII. Modern Islam. Part II.
Book-06: THE JEWISH RELIGION. I. Early History—Moses II.The Jewish Religion: Legislation, Festivals, Morals III. The Jewish Priesthood and Temples; the Psalms and Philosophical Wisdom IV. The Prophets of Israel V. Judaism after the Prophets VI. Modern Jewish Ritual. —The Karaites and Samaritans.
Book-07: THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. I. The Founder of Christianity II. The New Testament III. The Apostolic Times IV. Christianity Persecuted: Second and Third Centuries V. Christianity as a State Church: Fourth Century VI. The Church in the Fifth and Sixth Centuries VII. Christianity to the Separation between East and West (Seventh to Tenth Centuries) VIII. The Eastern Church—Russian and Greek IX. The Roman Church in the Middle Ages X. Religious Persecutions and the Reformation XI. The Council of Trent and Modern Romanism XII. The Lutheran, Reformed, and Presbyterian Churches XIII. The Church of England and the Nonconformists



Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 87_Inquisition-Church-Power.pdf THE INQUISITION* E. VACANDARD SecondEnglish 0296
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: First Period (I-IV Century): THE EPOCH OF THE PERSECUTIONS. The Teaching of St. Paul on the Suppression of Heretics, The Teaching of Tertullian, The Teaching of Origen, The Teaching of St. Cyprian, The Teaching of Lactantius, Constantine, Bishop in Externals, The Teaching of St. Hilary
Chapter-02: SECOND PERIOD (FROM VALENTINIAN I To THEODOSIUS II). THE CHURCH AND THE CRIMINAL CODE OF THE CHRISTIAN EMPERORS AGAINST HERESY. Imperial Legislation against Heresy, The Attitude of St. Augustine towards the Manicheans, St. Augustine and Donatism, The Church and the Priscillianists, The Early Fathers and the Death Penalty
Chapter-03: THIRD PERIOD (A.D. 1100-1250). THE REVIVAL OF THE MANICHEAN HERESIES -- Adoptianism and Predestinationism, The Manicheans in the West, Peter of Bruys, Henry of Lausanne, Amold of Brescia, Fon de l'Etoile, Views of this Epoch upon the Suppression of Heresy
Chapter-04: Fourth PERIOD (FROM GRATIAN TO INNOCENT III). THE INFLUENCE OF THE CANON LAW, AND THE REVIVAL OF THE ROMAN Law. Executions of Heretics, The Death Penalty for Heretics, Legislation of Popes Alexander III and Lucius II and Frederic Barbarossa against Heretics, Legislation of Innocent III, The First Canonists
Chapter-05: THE CATHARAN OR ALBIGENSIAN HERESY: ITS ANTI-CATHOLIC AND ANTI-SOCIAL CHARACTER. The Origin of the Catharan Heresy, Its Progress, It Attacks the Hierarchy, Dogmas, and Worship of the Catholic, Church, It Undermines the Authority of the State, The Hierarchy of the Cathari, The Convenenza, The Initiation into the Sect, Their Customs, Their Horror of Marriage, The Endour or Suicide
Chapter-06: FIFTH PERIOD (GREGORY IX AND FREDERIC II). THE ESTTASLISHMENT OF THE MONASTIC INQUISITION. Louis VIII and LouisIX, Legislation of Frederic II against Heretics, Gregory IX Abandons Heretics to the Secular Arm, The Establishment of the Inquisition
Chapter-07: SIXTH PERIOD. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INQUISITION. (INNOCENT IV AND THE USE OF TORTURE.) The Monastic and the Episcopal Inquisitions, Experts to Aid the Inquisitors, Ecclesiastical Penalties, The Infliction of the Death Penalty, The Introduction of Torture
Chapter-08: THEOLOGIANS, CANONISTS AND CASUISTS. Heresy and Crimes Subject to the Inquisition, The Procedure, The Use of Torture, Theologians Defend the Death Penalty for Heresy, Canonists Defend the Use of the Stake, The Church’s Responsibility in Inflicting the Death Penalty.
Chapter-09: THE INQUISITION IN OPERATION. Its Field of Action, The Excessive Cruelty of Inquisitors, The Penalty of Imprisonment, The Number of Heretics Handed Over to the Secular Arm, Confiscation, The auto de fe
Chapter-10: CRITICISM OF THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE INQUISITION. Development of the Theory on the Coercive Power of the Church, Intolerance of the People, Intolerance of Sovereigns, The Church and Intolerance, The Theologians and Intolerance, Appeal to the Old Testament, England and the Suppression of Heresy, The Calvinists and the Suppression of Heresy, Cruelty of the Criminal Code in the Middle Ages, The Spirit of the Age Explains the Cruelty of the Inquisition, Defects in the Procedure, Abuses of Antecedent Imprisonment and Torture, Heretics who were also Criminals, Heresy Punished as Such, Should the Death Penalty be Inflicted upon Heretics? The Responsibility of the Church, Abuses of the Penalties of Confiscation and Exile, The Penitential Character of Imprisonment, The Syllabus and the Coercive Power of the Church
Appendix-A: The Processus Inquisitionis
Appendix-B: Sentences of Bernard Gui

Keywords:Pharisee, Mosaic Law, Gnostics, Old Testament

Review:Pg-1: St. Paut was the first to pronounce a sentence of condemnation upon heretics. In his Epistle to Timothy, he writes: “Of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander, whom I have delivered up to Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.” Pg-9: From the reign of Valentinian I, and especially from the reign of Theodosius I, the laws against heretics continued to increase with surprising regularity. We can count as many as sixty-eight enacted in fifty-seven years! They punished every form of heresy, whether it merely differed from the orthodox faith in some minor detail or whether it resulted in a social upheaval.

Pg-35: During the Christmas holidays of 1051 and 1052, a number of Manicheans or Cathari, as they were called, were executed at Goslar, after they had refused to renounce their errors. Instead of being burned, as in France, "they were hanged." These heretics were executed by the orders of Henry III, and in his presence. But the chronicler of the event remarks that every one applauded the Emperor’s action, because he had prevented the spread of the leprosy of heresy, and thus saved many souls.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 87_Inquisition-its-Victims.pdf HISTORY THE INQUISITION* Charles H. Davie ThirdEnglish 0458
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: INTRODUCTION. Remarks on persecution. Usurpations of the church of Rome. Increase of its power. Interference in political affairs. Its pretensions opposed by the Albigenses and Waldenses. Persecution of these sects. Assassination of Peter of Castelnau. Establishment of the Dominicans. Innocent III. publishes a crusade. Cruelties perpetrated on the heretics. Destruction of the city of Beziers. Attack on Carcassonne. Treachery of the crusaders. Evacuation of the city. The country laid waste. Account of Saint Dominic. Said to have been the first inquisitor. Origin of the Inquisition. Established in Toulouse, Italy, Arragon. Introduced into Venice. The Venetians jealous of its powers. Crusade against the Apostolics. Abolition of the order of Templars. Molai, their grand master, burnt. Wickliff and Huss; their attacks on the papacy. Cruelties perpetrated in Bohemia.
Chapter-02: Erection of tribunals in Spain. Auto da fé in Arragon. Procedure of the ancient Spanish Inquisition. Crimes punished by the holy office. Heresy. Sorcery and divination. Invocation of demons. Neglecting to seek absolution. Schism. Exemption of legates and others. Offices of bishops. Remuneration of inquisitors. Funds of the holy office. Appointment of inquisitors. Mode of proceeding against heretics. Decay of the ancient Inquisition. Establishment of the modern Inquisition by Ferdinand and Isabella. Persecution of the Jews. Crimes laid to their charge. Holy office erected at Seville. The statues of the "four prophets." Torquemada appointed inquisitor general. His first code of laws. Holy office erected at Saragossa. Opposed by the inhabitants. Conspiracy against the Inquisitor. Peter Arbues assassinated. Extension of the Inquisition. Additions to its laws. Effects of its proceedings. The Jews of Spain offer Ferdinand a large sum for protection. Refused, through the fanaticism of Torquemada. Expulsion of the Jews. Complaints against Torquemada. He is superseded.
Chapter-03: Account of the procedure of the modern Inquisition. DENUNCIATION. Punishment of those who denounced falsely. Inquest. Examination of witnesses. Arbitrary interpretation of their evidence. Secresy observed as to witnesses. CENSURE OF THE QUALIFIERS preceded by a review of the registers. Qualifiers bound to secresy. Generally ignorant monks. Prisons. Imprisonment of the accused. Confiscation of his property. Public, intermediate, and secret prisons. Solitude reigning within them. Frequent madness of prisoners. First audiences. The accused questioned as to his property. Artifices of the inquisitors to confuse him. CHARGES: their extraordinary multiplication. Torture. Allowed to be inflicted only once. Evasion of this law. The pulley; the fire, or the chafing dish; the rack; the escalero, or chevalet; the cords; the hot iron. Requisition, or accusation. Replies of the accused. Defence. Appointment of an advocate. Papers furnished for the defence. Proof. Challenging of witnesses. PUBLICATION OF THE PROOFS. DEFINITIVE CENSURE OF THE QUALIFIERS. SENTENCE. EXECUTION OF THE SENTENCE, Autos da fe. Dresses of the accused. The stake. Infliction of death at Venice.
Chapter-04: Deza appointed Inquisitor General. His attempts to establish the holy office in Sicily and Naples fail. Persecution of the Moors in Granada. Conduct of the inquisitor Lucero. Cisneros appointed Inquisitor General of Castile, and Enguera Inquisitor General of Arragon. Their comparatively mild administration. Establishment of the holy office in various places. Apprehensions of the new christians. They offer Ferdinand a sum of money, which he refuses to accept. Death of Ferdinand. Similar offer made to Charles V., and declined. Changes in the Inquisitor Generalship. Appointment of de Lara. Complaints against the inquisitors of Arragon. The Cortes attempt to reform the Inquisition. Manriquez Inquisitor General. Prohibition of the works of Luther and other reformers. Trials of Vergara, Virues, and de Salas. Trials for sorcery. History of the famous magician, Dr. Eugene Torralba: his extraordinary adventures and revelations. List of provincial tribunals existing in 1538.
Chapter-05: Tabera appointed Inquisitor General. Establishment of the congregation of the holy office at Rome. History of Saavedra, the false nuncio of Portugal. De Silva appointed Inquisitor General of Portugal. Persecution of the Portuguese Jews. Disgrace of Cardona, Captain General of Catalonia, and the Marquis de Terranova. Loaisa Inquisitor General. Attempts to erect the Inquisition at Naples. Sicilian and Maltese tribunals and their disputes. Valdes Inquisitor General. Celebrates an auto da fe. Case of Dr. Egidius, Trial of Mary de Bourgogne. Death of Charles V. Disputes between Philip II and Paul IV. Unsuccessful attempts to extend the Inquisition. The tribunals in America. Inquisition of the Galleys. Attempted amalgamation of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. Autos da fé at Valladolid in 1559. Trials of de Soso, Juan, Jane and Antonio Sanchez, and Pedro d’ Aguilar. Autos da fé at Seville. Ponce de la Fuenta burnt. Cases of Nicholas Burton, John Fronton, Gaspard de Benarides, and Jane Bohorques.
Chapter-06: Disuse of the old laws of the Inquisition. Necessity for a new code. Complete copy of the new code of laws promulgated by Valdes. Apparently calculated to restrain the excesses of the Inquisition. Their real inefficiency. Autos da fé celebrated during the ministry of Valdes. Appearance of Don Philip of Arragon in one of these. Cases of Antonio de Villena, and Juan de Sotomayor. Singular trial of Melchior Hernandez. Being tortured, he confesses, and afterwards recants. Escapes being burnt at several autos da fé. At last is condemned and burnt. Espinosa appointed Inquisitor General. Succeeded by de Leon, de Quiroga, Manriquez de Lara, and Portocarrero. Death of Philip II. Philip III. ascends the throne.
Chapter-07: Guevara Inquisitor General. Succeeded by de Zuniga and others. History of the Moors in Spain. Forced conversions. Proposed expulsion. Remonstrances from the barons. Abandonment of the design. Renewed attempts at conversion. Their expulsion re-determined on. Renewed remonstrances ineffectual. Indignation of the Moors. Memorial to the viceroy of Valencia. Liberal offers of the Moors declined. Sailing of the exiles. Kindness of the barons. Worrors of the voyage. Barbarities perpetrated on board ship. Part taken by the Inquisition in this expulsion. Sufferings of William Lithgow. Death of Philip III. Changes in the Inquisitor Generalship. Accession of Philip IV. celebrated by an auto da fe. Followed by other autos. Trials of Beatas. Death of Philip IV. Further changes in the Inquisitor Generalship. Marriage of Charles II. and auto da fe at Madrid in 1680. Geddes’s description of an auto da fe at Lisbon. Narrativo of Elizabeth Vasconcellos. Commission to enquire into abuses of the holy office. Death of Charles and accession of Philip V. List of Inquisitors General. Trials of Donna Agneda and Diaz. Prohibition of books.
Chapter-08: Dellon’s narrative of his imprisonment in the Inquisition of Goa. His description of the auto da fé in which he appeared. His subsequent release. Trial of Galileo at Rome. Probability of his having been tortured previous to his abjuration. Fearful tortures inflicted on Isaac Orobio de Castro. His firmness under the torture, and subsequent release. Imprisonment of Don Estevan de Xcres at Lisbon. Ilis escape by means of a faithful negro servant. Licentiousness of the inquisitors of Saragossa. Extraordinary narrative of the imprisonment of young ladies at Saragossa. Anecdote of the licentiousness of confessors.
Chapter-09: Narrative of the imprisonment of Isaac Martin. Escape of Archibald Bower from the Inquisition of Macerata. Imprisonment of John Coustos. Dreadful tortures which he endured. Ferdinand VI. ascends the throne of Spain. Increasing intelligence of the Spanish people. Their growing hatred of the Inquisition. Another abortive attempt to establish the holy office in Naples. Persecution of Freemasonry. Trial and sentence of M. Tournon.
Chapter-10: Reign of Charles III. of Spain. Caution exercised by the officials of the holy office. Its procedure during this period. Expulsion of the Jesuits. Contemplated abolition of the Spanish Inquisition by d’ Aranda. Report rendered to King Charles against it. Prohibited books. Trifling cases brought before the holy office. Case of confiscation of leather. Case at Saragossa. Ridiculous seizure of a dead horse. Ship tax levied by the holy office. Case of an imprisoned Frenchman. His release effected by the dexterity of the French consul. Reign of Charles IV. Progress of knowledge in Spain. Reformation of the six grand colleges. The Inquisition declines. Is revived by the outbreak of the French revolution. Trials for possessing prohibited books. Stupidity of the officers of the Inquisition. Proposed reform. Case of Solano. Occurrence at Coimbra. Cases of two Beatas.
Chapter-11: Cases of the Lisbon nun and a Beata. Imprisonment of the Chevalier de St. Gervais. His release effected by imprisoning two Dominican friars. Reign of Ferdinand VII. Abolition of the Inquisition by Napoleon and the Spanish Cortes. Restoration of Ferdinand. Re-establishment of the Inquisition. Fulsome address presented to Ferdinand on the occasion. Its final abolition by the Cortes. Prisons at Lisbon thrown open. Horrible description of the dungeons. Prisons at Madrid thrown open. Torture of the Pendulum. Case of Mendonca. Imprisonment of Van Halen.
Chapter-12: Visit of Dr. Buchanan to the Inquisition of Goa. His reception by one of the Inquisitors. Wishes to see the dungeons. His request refused. Decline and desertion of Goa. Its Inquisition falling to ruin. The holy office at Rome in 1809. Rebuilding of the prisons in 1825. Revolution in Rome in 1849. The holy office thrown open. Discovery of skeletons and bones in the vaults. Description of the building. Inscriptions on the walls of the cells. Prisoners found within them. The chancery, archives, and libraries. Subsequent escape of prisoners. Case of Dr. Achilli. Characteristics of the Inquisition. Remarks on the church of Rome. Education of her priests. Observations on persecution. Concluding remarks.

Keywords:Papal Power

Review:Pg-2: Bad as were the intentions with which it was established, those intentions have been very far exceeded by its real acts. Pg-3: The Church of Rome is a most singular and fatal instance of the gradual usurpation and concentration of power; in tracing which we find that, owing probably to the prominency of St. Peter among the apostles.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
** *** The Beast and End-Time Events Dr. Zomaya S. Solomon 2002English 0276
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION: I. The Beast II. Nimrod, The Mighty Hunter III. The Assyrian Empire IV. America in Prophecy V. The Reconstruction of Babylon VI. The State of the Jews in Exile
Chapter-01: THE BEAST’S BEGINNINGS I. The First Image II. Nimrod and the Assyrian Empire III. Lucifer’s Rebellion IV. The Character of the Beast V. The Term "Beast" VI. The First Four Empires
Chapter-02: DANIEL’S “LITTLE HORN” I. Daniel’s Vision II. Prophecies Fulfilled III. The Symbolic Horns a. The Ten Horns b. The Little Horn c. Three "Plucked Up by the Roots"
Chapter-03: PRESENT DEVELOPMENTS I. The New Trends II. Political Trends III. Religious Trends IV. Adoration of Mary V. Cultural Trends
Chapter-04: TRANSFER OF GOD’S THRONE I. The Heavenly Places II. The Throne of God III. The Throne Confirmed to David IV. The Lord Opens the Book
Chapter-05: THE LORD’S RETURNING I. The Coming PrinceII. The Manner of His Return III. Preparations for His Return IV. "Jesus Is Coming Again"
Chapter-06: SATAN: HIS ORIGIN AND HIS FINALE I. The Origin of Satan II. Satan’s Confrontation with God III. War in Heaven IV. Michael’s Victory V. A Brief Summary
Chapter-07: THE RAPTURE OF THE CHURCH I. The Glorified, Exalted Church II. A Premillennial Position III. Jesus’ Testimony of the Rapture IV. God’s Program for Israel V. The Song of Deliverance
Chapter-08: THE INDIVISIBLE CHURCH I. The Church Is a Mystery II. Who Are the Members of the Bride? III. The One Eternal Church IV. Why Should the Marriage Supper Be on Earth?
Chapter-09: GLORIOUS EVENTS IN HEAVEN I. The Judgment Seat of Christ II. The Marriage of the Lamb III. The Marriage Supper of the Lamb IV. The Resurrection of the Martyrs
Chapter-10: THE RISE OF THE BEAST I. Search from Within II. Search from Without III. Russia and the Tribulation Period IV. The Beast As the Antichrist VI. The New System of Worship VII. The Beast’s Image
Chapter-11: THE NORTHERN INVASION I. God’s Hook in Gog’s Jaw II. A Swift March into the Holy Land III. God’s Punishment of Gog IV. Countries Allied with Gog V. Invasion Limited to Israel
Chapter-12: THE DEMISE OF APOSTASY I. The Demise of Religious Apostasy II. Judaism Scrutinized by God III. Faith Sustained by Obedience
Chapter-13: THE GREAT TRIBULATION PERIOD I. God’s Divine Judgment II. The Destruction of the First Babylon III. The Destruction of the Second Babylon IV. The Time of the Gentiles V. The Doom of the False Prophet
Chapter-14: GOD’S FINAL SUMMONS I. God’s Call to Repentance a. The 144,000 Evangelists b. The Two Witnesses c. The Angel of the Everlasting Gospel II. Salvation through Relations
Chapter-15: THE DREADFUL EVENTS ON EARTH I. The Time of Jacob’s Trouble II. Israel Led by a False Leadership a. Following the Idol Shepherd b. Following the False Pastors c. Following the False Prophets d. Following the False Priests e. Following the Lying Princes III. The Great Day of Jezreel IV. A Remnant Shall Be Saved V. The Battle of Armageddon
Chapter-16: WHO IS THE BEAST? 1. Identifying the Beast II. Different Views About the Beast: Shelton’s View, Lugt’s View, Anderson’s View, Pentecost’s View, Hagee’s View, Newell’s View III. How Does One Consider the Beast?
Chapter-17: THE MILLENNIAL KINGDOM I. The Judgment of Nations II. Life in the Kingdom III. Christ’s Rule in the Kingdom IV. Believers’ Rule with Christ V. Worship in the Kingdom
Chapter-18: THE GREAT WHITE THONE AND BEYOND I. The Great White Throne II. A New Heaven and ANew Earth III. We Should Be Ready for the Kingdom
APPENDIX B: SYMBOLIC TERMS INTERPRETED a. The first clue b. The second clue c. Who is the Beast? d. What does a horn signify? e. Who is the woman? f. Which city is referred to here? g. What does the term “waters” signify? h. What do the “two horns” mean? i. What does “plucked by roots” mean? j. What does “Five Are Fallen,” etc. means? APPENDIX C: A LIST OF SOME NEW INTERPRETATIONS APPENDIX D: TERRORISM STRIKES AMERICA



Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
** *** James, Brother of Jesus Pierre-Antoine Bernheim FirstEnglish 0336
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Brother of Jesus? Scriptural evidence, Opposing theories, The Helvidian theory, The Epiphanian theory, The Hieronymian theory and its variants
Chapter-02: A Galilean Family: A pious family, James, son of David? A modest carpenter, James' education
Chapter-03: What is a Jew? God, his people and his covenant, Living according to the law, What is the law? Circumcision, The sabbath, Dietary laws, A demanding morality, The temple system, And afterwards? A Galilean Judaism
Chapter-04: Jesus, James and the Brothers: A difficult relationship, The Synoptic Gospels, The Gospel of John, Jesus and the family, James, disciple?
Chapter-05: A Famous Brother: Why did Jesus die? The kingdom of God, Jesus and the law, Jesus and the Gentiles
Chapter-06: An Uncertain History: An edifying account, Whom to believe ?
Chapter-07: How Can One Be Christian? Jews and Gentiles, The beginnings of the mission to the Gentiles, The Council of Jerusalem, The Apostolic Decree, Trouble at Antioch, After Antioch
Chapter-08: James, the First Pope? Who gives the orders? The rise of James, James and Peter, A family affair
Chapter-09: A Strawy Epistle: A disputed letter, A cultivated author Woe to the rich! James and the law, James and Paul, A Jewish-Christian testimony
Chapter-10: The Death of a Just Man: Presumed innocent, A truncated text? Confused evidence, A settling of accounts in the temple
Chapter-11: Conclusion: The Legacy of James, The heirs, An embarrassing figure



Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 39_Seventh-Council-Nicaea.pdf The Seventh General Council, the Second of Nicaea held A.D. 787, in which the Worship of Images was Established published by WILLIAM EDWARD PAINTER, 342, STRAND. 1850 -English 0610
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: ANTE-CONCILIAR DOCUMENTS: First Letter of Gregory II. to the Emperor Leo in Defence of Images. Second Letter of Pope Gregory to the Emperor Leo on Image Worship. The Preface, addressed to John VIII, Pope of Rome, by Anastasius the Librarian, concerning his translation of the proceedings of the Council, Short Syllabus of the different Sessions, The Sacred Divalis: or, Letter of Invitation from Constantine and his Mother the Empress Irene to Pope Adrian to attend the Council, Defence by Tarasius (once a soldier and layman) of his elevation to the Patriarchate, Short History of Transactions in the year previous to the assembling of the Council at Nicea.
Chapter-02: SESSION THE FIRST. The Council for the establishment of Image Worship, consisting of upwards of three hundred and fifty Bishops besides other Dignitaries of the Church, held its first Session at Nicsea, on the 24th of September, 787. Prefatory Speech by the Patriarch, Tarasius, of Constantinople ΣAKPA (or Letter of Convocation) from Constantine and his mother Irene to the Bishops, Recantation of imputed heresy (or Iconoclasm) by Basil, Bishop of ADCYTA, Recantation of Theodore, Bishop of Myra, Recantation of Theodosius, Bishop of Ammorium, Admission of these three Bishops to the Council, Discussion on the case of Seven other Bishops more active in the Cause Of Iconoclasm, Extract from the Fifty-third Canon of the Book of Canonical Orders read in the Council, Eighth Canon of the Council of Nice, Third Canon of the Council of Ephesus, First Epistle of Basil to Amphilochius, Epistle of Basil to the Eveseniams, Epistle of Basil to the Bishops of the West, Definition of the Third Council against the Messalians, Extract from the Commonitorium of Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria, to Maximus, Deacon of Antioch, Epistle of Cyril to Gennadius, Epistle of St. Athanasius to Rufinian, Discussion on this last Epistle, Extract from the Acts of the Fourth Council of Chalcedon eve ecerseres, Extract from the Ecclesiastical History of Ruffinus, Extract from the Ecclesiastical History of Socrates, Passage from the Life of Sabbas, Extract from the Ecclesiastical History of Ruffinus, Extract from the Ecclesiastical History of Theodorus Lector, Preamble of the Council of Chalcedon, Passage (another) from the Life of Sabbas, Epistle of Basil to the Nicopolitans, Recantation of the several Bishops referred, Conclusion of the First Session
Chapter-03: SESSION THE SECOND. The Council opened on the 16th of September. Gregory, Bishop of Neocossarea, introduced. Discussion on Gregory's case of Heresy. Decision on Gregory's case postponed. Interpretation of the Latin Letter of Adrian (Pope of Old Rome) to the Emperor Constantine and the Empress Irene his mother (of New Rome or Constantinople). Epistle of Adrian to the Patriarch Tarasius. Declaration of Agreement by Tarasius in the Letters of Adrian. Concurrence of the assembled Bishops (two hundred and sixty-three in number) in the Letters of Adrian to Constantine, Irene, and Tarasius. Confession of the Monks and Abbots. Conclusion of the Seasion.
Chapter-04: SESSION THE THIRD. The Council opened on the 28th of September. Gregory, Bishop of Nescsesarea, examined. Recantation of Greqory. Discussion on the case of Gregory. Admission of Gregory into the Council. Admission of the other Bishops who recanted. Letter of Tarasius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to the Chief Priests of the Hast. Letter of the Chief Priests and Priests of the East to the Patriarch Tarasius. The Synodals of Theodore, Patriarch of Jerusalem. Declarations of the assembled Bishops agreeing with the above Letters and Symodals.Conclusion of the Session.
Chapter-05: SESSION THE FOURTH. The Council opened on the 1st of October. Passages from Scripture and from the Writings of the Fathers quoted in the Councils, as if proving the Worship of Pictures and Images. and Images from Exodus. and Images from Numbers. and Images from Ezekiel. and Images from Hebrews. Encominm of I ohn Chrysostom on Meletius. Passage from St. Gregory of Nyssa. Epistle of Cyril, Pishop of Alexandria, to Acasius, Bishop of Scythopolis. Passage from the Poem of Gregory the Divine on "Virtue", concerning the picture of Polemon. Extract from the Discourse of Antipater on the Woman with the bloody flux. Narrative of Asterius, Bishop of Amasia, concerning the Martyr Buphemia. Concurrence of the Council in these and other Legendary Tales regarding Pictures. Passage from the Martyrdom of Anastasius the Persian. Miracles of the Martyr Amnstasius. Miracle wrought by an Image in Berytus, and the Conversion of a Multitude of Jews. Epistle of Nilus to Heliodorus the "Silentiary" concerning Miracles. Letter of Nilus. the Ascetic, to Olympiodorus, the Prefect, against the Worship of Images and Pictures. Extract from the Dogmas discussed by Maximus with the Comsuls. The Eighty-second Canon of the Sixth Council. Observations by Tarasius on the Sixth Council. The Fifth Discourse of the Apolugy of Leontius, Bishop of Neapolis, in behalf Christians against the Jews, and in the matter of Image. Epistle of Anastasius, Bishop of Theopolis, to a certain (unnamed) Lawyer, concerning the Diversity of Worship. Passage from the Discourse of Anastasius to Bymeon Bishop of Miracle from the “Spiritual Meadow” of Sophronius respecting the Recluse of the Mount of Olives, who was assaulted by the Demon of Formication. Miracles of Saints Cosmas and Damian, the Physicians, called the "Anargyri"—(without money). Extract from the same Miracles concerning the Woman who was cured of the gripes. Passage from the Discourse of John Chrysostom on the Laver of Purification. Passage from the Fourth Discourse of St. Athanasius against the Arians. Passage from the Thirty Chapters of St. Basil to St. Amphilochius on the Holy Spirit. Passage from a Discourse against the Sabelliana, Arians, and the Anomaei. Legend of Symeon of the Wonderful Mount, and the barren Woman of Rhosopolis; or, the Devil and the Monk. Miracle of the Lawyer of Antioch who was afflicted with an Evil Spirit. Extract from the Sermon of Basil o0n Barlaam the Martyr. Miracle from the Life of Father John, the Faster. Extract from the Life of a Courtezan called the "Blessed Mary of Egypt". Miracle recorded in the Martyrdom of Procopius. Miracle from the Life of Theodore, Archimandrite of the Sicensians. Letter of Pope Gregory to Germanus Patriarch of Constantinople. Epistle of Germanus of Constantinople to John Bishop of Synada. Epistle of Germanus to Constantine Bishop of Nicolia. Epistle of Germanus to Thomas Bishop of Claudianople. Anathemas and Declaration by the assembled Bishops, concluding the Session
Chapter-06: SESSION THE FIFTH. The Session opened by an address from Tarasius on the 4th October. Extracts read in the Council from the Writings of the Fathers and others to prove that Samaritans, Jews, Pagans, Manichsans, Katycheans, and others, rejected Images; and therefore the Iconoclasts, who rejected Images, must be accounted Heretica viz. from the Second Catechetical Lecture of St. Cyril Bishop of Jerusalem. The Fifth Epistle of Symeon Stylites, of the Wonderful Mount, to the Emperor Justin the Younger. From the Discourse of John Bishop of Theasalonica. From the Dispute between the Jew and the Christian. From the Pretended Itinerary of the Apostles. From the Treatise of Amphilochius against the Book: of the False Inweription of Heretics. From the Letter of Eusebius Pamphilus to Euphration. From the Confutation of Eusebius's Defence of Origen by Antipater Bishop of Bostra. Extract from the Ecclesiastical History of Theodorus Lector. Extract from the Ecclesiastical History of John the Separated. Extract from the Life of Father Sabbas. Extract from Petition against Severus, Head of the Acephali. Extract from Life and Conversation of Severus the Heresiarch. Extract from the Discourse of Constantine, Deacon of Constantinople, On the Martyrs. Extract from the Old Testament and Scholiae. Extract from the Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius. Extract from the Miracles recorded in the “Spiritual Meadow” of Sophronius. Narrative from the Roll of John, Legate of the East, respecting a Jew Wizard and the Caliph Jezid. Proposition of Peter, Legate of Adrian, that an Image be brought into the Assembly and that all the Members of the Council pay to it all due honour and reverence. Anathemas of the Council, and conclusion of the Session
Chapter-07: SESSION THE SIXTH. The Session opened on the 5th of October. Definition of the Council of Constantinople against Images read by Gregory Bishop of Neocsesarea; and a pretended Refutation read in reply by Epiphanius, Deacon, and Vicar of Thomas Archbishop of Sardinia. The Definition and the Refutation are divided into Six Sections:— Section the First. Section the Second. Section the Third. Section the Fourth. Section the Fifth. Section the Sixth. Definitions and Conclusion of the Sixth Session
Chapter-08: SESSION THE SEVENTH. The Session opened on the 13th of October. Definition of the Council, the Second assembled at Nice. Approbation and Subscription of the assembled Bishops to the Definition of the Council. Letter from the Council to the Empress Jrene and her Son on the subject of the Definition. Letter from the Council to the Priests and Clerics of Constantinople on the same subject. Canons of the Council, concluding the Seventh Session.
Chapter-09: SESSION THE EIGHTH. The Session opened on the 20th October. Constantine and the Empress Irone present im person. Definition of the former Session read. Assent of the Council in these Definitions. Anathemas on all who hold not with the Councils in their reception of Timages. Passages from the Fathers, as written in the Fourth Session, again recited. Final Letter and Report of the Council addrerecd to Pope Adrian, aad conclusion of the Eighth and last Session by Tarasius.

Keywords:Iconoclasm, Patriarch, Monks, Abbots, Evil Spirit

Review: Excerpts: Lactantius (lib. i. cap. 2) argues that “images are either for the commemoration of the dead or of the absent : it being, therefore, a folly to adore either the dead or the absent, it must be much more folly to adore their images.” Tertullian yet more strongly asserts that “the Devil brought into the world the artificers of statues and images.”

A source book of mediæval history: documents illustrative of European life and institutions from the German invasion to the renaissance by Frederic Austin Ogg

Table of Contents: The early Germans -- The Visigothic Invasion -- The Huns -- The early Franks -- The Angles and Saxons in Britain -- The development of the Christian church -- The rise of Mohammedanism -- The beginnings of the Carolingian Dynasty of Frankish kings -- The age of Charlemagne -- The era of the later Carolingians -- Alfred the Great in war and in peace -- The ordeal -- The feudal system -- The Norman Conquest -- The Monastic Reformation of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries -- The conflict over investiture -- The Crusades -- The great charter -- The reign of Saint Louis -- Municipal organization and activity -- Universities and student life -- The friars -- The Papacy and the temporal powers in the later middle ages -- The empire in the twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries -- The Hundred Years' War -- The beginnings of the Italian Renaissance -- Foreshadowings of the Reformation.

Review: This books contains reference to BONIFACE VIII, THE BULL UNAM SANCTAM (1302)

Sex Elizabethan England

Sex In Elizabethan England by Alan Haynes: Revealing study of sexual behaviour in the Elizabethan age, looked at through the literature and personalities of the period, including Shakespeare, Donne and Marlowe. The book peeps behind the bed curtains at the "Virgin Queen" herself, who slept alone despite rumours that she was as sexually promiscuous as her mother, Anne Boleyn, and at characters such as Moll Cutpurse, a gutsy female transvestite who shocked and amused generations of Londoners in almost equal measure.
Ethnological and cultural studies of the sex life in England: illustrated, as revealed in its erotic and obscene literature and art; with nine private cabinets of illustrations by the greatest English masters of erotic art by Bloch, Iwan, 1872-1922; Deniston, Richard

Ethnological and cultural studies Sex Life England

Book one

Ethnological and cultural studies of the sex life in England illustrated as revealed in its erotic and obscene literature : General character of English erotica and pornography -- Rich erotic vocabulary of the English -- Highly spiced titles of erotic books -- "Droll stories" of the monks -- Coarse obscenity in the Middle Ages: Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" -- "The palace of pleasure": rare collection of 101 droll stories -- The erotic age of Shakespeare -- Shakespeare on prostitution and syphilis -- Sex life of the foremost English Rake: the Earl of Rochester -- the erotic works of the Earl of Rochester -- The greatest obscene drama in English literature: "Sodom", by the Earl of Rochester. Discovered among Harleian Manuscripts of British Museum -- Great erotic masters of England's age of debauchery -- Famous erotic novelists of the eighteenth century -- Contents of the greatest erotic poem in the English language: "The toast", by Dr. William King -- The greatest erotic novel in English literature: "Fanny Hill, or the Memoirs of a woman of pleasure" -- First English work on tribadism -- "The pleasures of love" -- Textbooks on the English art of love: the peculiar English mania for deflowering virgins -- "New Atlantis", escapades of the English aristocracy -- "Memoirs of a man of pleasure": the "masculine 'Fanny Hill'" -- "The fruit shop": the most humorous English erotic classic -- Love life of John Wilkes, the "Ugly Casanova": his notorious "Essay on woman", an obscene parody of Pope's "Essay on man" -- George Alexander Stevens: "The adventures of a speculist" -- "The pupil of pleasure": Samuel Johnson Pratt -- "The mysteries of Venus or lessons of love" -- Secret pornologic clubs in England -- Sixteen famous erotic and obscene works: 1780-1860 -- Secret sex life of Lord Byron: "Lord Byron's " suppressed works -- Edward Sellon: mad escapedes of the English Casanova: his obscene autobiographies -- "The amatory experiences of a surgeon" -- "My secret life": an encyclopaedia of fornication -- "Raped on the railway, social studies of the century" -- The "Ideal love" between two immortal English poets: Oscar Wilde and Lord Douglas -- "Ulysses", the anatomy of humanity -- Epoch-making American court decision -- "My life and loves" by Frank Harris -- Greatest erotic autobiography in the world --his first completed manuscript on art and technique of love -- "Lady Chatterley's lover" -- Supreme modern work ennabling sex passion -- Famous works on flagellation--the racial English vice in the art of love -- Erotic folk lore and song -- English erotic and obscene magazines -- Contents of hundreds of periodicals -- Ideal sex life in English utopias: Bernard de Mandeville's revolutionary sex systems -- The greatest erotobibliomaniacs in England. Their fabulous erotic treasuries described

Book two

Ethnological and cultural studies of the sex life in England as revealed in its erotic and obscene art : -- Nature of erotic and obscene art -- Anthropic survey of world erotic and obscene art -- History of Aretino's "Figurae Veneris" in England -- William Hogarth: Greatest erotic artist in the eighteenth century -- Greatest erotic artist on flagellation: James Gillray -- Thomas Rowlandson: Greatest of all artists in the depiction of eroticism in England -- 107 erotic and obscene engravings by Rowlandson -- Erotic art of the Cruikshank family -- Erotic art of George Morland -- Erotic art of Richard Newton -- Erotic art in the nineteenth century -- Nudity in art -- Eroticism among the Pre-Raphaelites: Dante Gabriel Rossetti -- Edward Burne-Jones -- The erotic genius of Aubrey Beardsley -- Spread of erotic and pornographic art -- Bibliography

Book three

A gallery of illustrations by the foremost geniuses of English art including facsimiles of the original love letters of Frank Harris, here printed for the first time : A private cabinet of the love letters of Frank Harris -- A private cabinet of the erotic art of the Cruikshanks -- A private cabinet of the erotic art of William Hogarth -- A private cabinet of the erotic art of Thomas Rowlandson -- A private cabinet of the erotic art of James Gillray -- A private cabinet of the erotic art of William Blake -- A private cabinet of the erotic art of Richard Newton -- A private cabinet of the erotic art of Aubrey Beardsley -- A private cabinet of the erotic art of famous English artists. Illustrating the sex life in England.
Book List from Public Domain
  1. Janet Abu-Lughod, Before European Hegemony: the world system, AD 1250-1350 (1991): The book traces trade networks promoted by the Mongol empire stretching across Eurasia and which flourished up until the Black Death struck. It may not be the easiest read on this list – but this remarkably bold book was years ahead of its time in showing how global connections mattered, centuries before industrialisation.
  2. Robert Bartlett, The Hanged Man. A story of miracle, memory and colonialism in the Middle Ages (2004) : A brilliant piece of detective work, based on accounts of the hanging of a Welsh man named William de Cragh around 1307. This fabulous and evocative piece of microhistory brings out the interconnections between politics, society and religion in medieval society, and does so in stylish prose.
  3. Heinrich Fichtenau, Living in the Tenth Century. Mentalities and Social Orders (1991): This is actually a translation of a book originally written in the Austrian author’s German in 1984. The translation lightened the apparatus, but preserved the freshness of the approach. The book is organised thematically, drawing on contemporary classifications and ways of thinking in medieval Europe’s perhaps most neglected century. It’s guaranteed to make you think differently not just about the tenth century, but about the Middle Ages in general.
  4. John Hatcher, The Black Death: an intimate History (2008): When the eminent economic and social historian John Hatcher retired, he set about writing a book about the Black Death that he’d long wanted to – one where he drew on imagination to fill out his own peerless knowledge of the documentary record for the impact of the Black Death on medieval England. It’s a superb book which combines empirical mastery of the sources with admirable historical sensitivity to fill out what it might have been like to live in a Suffolk village at a momentous, and terrifying, time.
  5. Rodney Hilton, Bond Men Made Free. Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381 (1977): A classic and still unsurpassed study of the famous Peasants Revolt, inspired by the 1960s protests that affected many UK universities, including Hilton’s Birmingham. It’s no wonder that it was re-issued as recently as 2003. There have been plenty of studies on the topic since, but this general overview still definitely repays reading.
  6. Maureen Miller, Clothing The Clergy. Virtue and power in Medieval Europe, 800-1200 (2014): In a beautifully produced, richly illustrated and superbly original piece of scholarship, Miller draws on an unusual kind of evidence – the changing clothing of priests and clerics – to illuminate (and to analyse) enormous shifts in Western European culture, from the soberly dressed origins of Christianity through to the jewel-laden papal monarchy. It’s a medieval history book that you will fin hard to put down.
  7. R.I. Moore, War on Heresy. Faith and Power in Medieval Europe (2012): With this book, Moore wanted to write something that might appear in airport bookshops, driving out the Dan Brown-esque nonsense that’s usually to be found there. It’s a book about the way in which a campaign to root out a perceived social problem ironically ended up generating it (a process whose modern parallels Moore does not shy away from). A future classic.
  8. Eileen Power, Medieval People (1924): A book published over 90 years ago in a list made in 2017? But Power’s Medieval People, giving potted biographies of six ordinary(ish) medieval individuals, is still fresh; and it’s no coincidence that it’s been translated into French just in the last few years. I recently set my students one of its chapters (on a Frankish peasant named Bodo), and in an end of year survey, they described it as one of the most memorable things they’d read at university. Find out for yourself (it’s so old, it’s out of copyright!).
  9. Jean-Claude Schmitt, Ghosts in the Middle Ages: The Living and Dead in Medieval Society (1999): Modern society is, generally speaking, uncomfortable with death. But in this wonderful book, originally published in French in 1994, Schmitt shows how people in medieval society thought about matters differently – and how ghosts were essentially a problem of people who refused to be forgotten. A modern must-read of cultural history.
  10. Christopher Tyerman, How to Plan A Crusade. Reason and Religious War in the High Middle Ages (2015): It’s tempting to see the Middle Ages as irrational – and there’s a long tradition of doing exactly that. But in this book, Tyerman shows how reason could often be harnessed towards ends that seem to us deeply unreasonable, in this case holy war. Behind all the ideology was, in fact, a great deal of very practical organisation: and tracking this down shows a very different side to the period.
*This list is taken from historymatters.group.shef.ac.uk.
Grant: By Ron Chernow --- Pulitzer Prize winner Ron Chernow returns with a sweeping and dramatic portrait of one of our most compelling generals and presidents, Ulysses S. Grant. With lucidity, breadth, and meticulousness, Chernow finds the threads that bind Grant's disparate stories together, shedding new light on the man whom Walt Whitman described as "nothing heroic...and yet the greatest hero."
Encounters at the Heart of the World: A History of the Mandan People: By Elizabeth A. Fenn --- The Mandan Indians were the iconic Plains people whose teeming, busy towns on the upper Missouri River were for centuries at the center of the North American universe. We know of them mostly because Lewis and Clark spent the winter of 1804-1805 with them, but why don't we know more? In this extraordinary book, Fenn retrieves their history by piecing together important new discoveries in archaeology, anthropology, geology, climatology, epidemiology, and nutritional science. Her original interpretation of these diverse research findings offers us a new perspective.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies: By Jared Diamond --- Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion - as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war - and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures.
Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World: By Jack Weatherford --- In nearly every country the Mongols conquered, they brought an unprecedented rise in cultural communication, expanded trade, and a blossoming of civilization. Vastly more progressive than his European or Asian counterparts, Genghis Khan abolished torture, granted universal religious freedom, and smashed feudal systems of aristocratic privilege.
Leningrad: The Epic Siege of World War II, 1941-1944: By Anna Reid --- On September 8, 1941, eleven weeks after Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, his brutal surprise attack on the Soviet Union, Leningrad was surrounded. The siege was not lifted for two and a half years, by which time some three quarters of a million Leningraders had died of starvation. Leningrad is a gripping, authoritative narrative history of this dramatic moment in the twentieth century, interwoven with indelible personal accounts of daily siege life drawn from diarists on both sides.
Embers of War: The Fall of an Empire and the Making of America's Vietnam: By Fredrik Logevall --- An epic story of wasted opportunities and deadly miscalculations, Embers of War delves deep into the historical record to provide hard answers to the unanswered questions surrounding the demise of one Western power in Vietnam and the arrival of another. A gripping, heralded work that illuminates the hidden history of the French and American experiences in Vietnam.
Rites of Spring: the Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age: By Modris Eksteins --- Rites of Spring probes the origins, impact, and aftermath of WWI, from the premiere of Stravinsky's ballet The Rite of Spring in 1913 to the death of Hitler in 1945. Recognizing that The Great War was the psychological turning point for modernism as a whole, Eksteins examines the lives of ordinary people, works of modern literature, and pivotal historical events to redefine the way we look at our past and toward our future.
The History of the Ancient World: By Susan Wise Bauer --- A lively and engaging narrative history showing the common threads in the cultures that gave birth to our own. Dozens of maps provide a clear geography of great events, while timelines give the reader an ongoing sense of the passage of years and cultural interconnection. Literature, epic traditions, private letters and accounts connect kings and leaders with the lives of those they ruled.
Broken Lives: How Ordinary Germans Experienced the 20th Century: By Konrad H. Jarausch --- The gripping stories of ordinary Germans who lived through World War II, the Holocaust, and Cold War partition - but also recovery, reunification, and rehabilitation. Broken Lives is a gripping account of the twentieth century as seen through the eyes of ordinary Germans who came of age under Hitler and whose lives were scarred and sometimes destroyed by what they saw and did.
A Woman of No Importance: The Untold Story of the American Spy Who Helped Win World War II: By Sonia Purnell --- In 1942, the Gestapo sent out an urgent transmission: "She is the most dangerous of all Allied spies. We must find and destroy her." Based on new and extensive research, Sonia Purnell has for the first time uncovered the full secret life of Virginia Hall - an astounding and inspiring story of heroism, spycraft, resistance, and personal triumph over shocking adversity. A Woman of No Importance is the breathtaking story of how one woman's fierce persistence helped win the war.
Democracy: A Life: By Paul Cartledge --- Ancient Greece first coined the concept of "democracy", yet almost every major ancient Greek thinker-from Plato and Aristotle onwards was ambivalent towards or even hostile to democracy in any form. The explanation for this is quite simple: the elite perceived majority power as tantamount to a dictatorship of the proletariat. Cartledge sheds light on the variety of democratic practices in the classical world as well as on their similarities to and dissimilarities from modern democratic forms, from the American and French revolutions to contemporary political thought.
The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation - By Gene Roberts & Hank Klibanoff --- An unprecedented examination of how news stories, editorials and photographs in the American press, and the journalists responsible for them, profoundly changed the nation's thinking about civil rights in the South during the 1950s and '60s.
Churchill: Walking with Destiny: By Andrew Roberts --- We think of Churchill as a hero who saved civilization from the evils of Nazism and warned of the grave crimes of Soviet communism, but Roberts's masterwork reveals that he has as much to teach us about the challenges leaders face today - and the fundamental values of courage, tenacity, leadership and moral conviction.
The Crusades: The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land: By Thomas Asbridge --- A history of the brutal struggle for the Holy Land in the Middle Ages. Renowned historian Thomas Asbridge covers the years 1095 to 1291 in this account of one of the most fascinating periods in history. From Richard the Lionheart to the mighty Saladin, from the emperors of Byzantium to the Knights Templar, Asbridge's book is a magnificent epic of Holy War between the Christian and Islamic worlds, full of adventure, intrigue, and sweeping grandeur.
The Bone and Sinew of the Land: America's Forgotten Black Pioneers and the Struggle for Equality: By Anna-Lisa Cox --- When black settlers Keziah and Charles Grier started clearing their frontier land in 1818, they couldn't know that they were part of the nation's earliest struggle for equality. But within a few years, the Griers would become early Underground Railroad conductors, joining with fellow pioneers and other allies to confront the growing tyranny of bondage and injustice. The Bone and Sinew of the Land tells the Griers' story and the stories of many others like them: the lost history of the nation's first Great Migration.
The Woman's Hour: The Great Fight to Win the Vote - By Elaine Weiss --- Nashville, August 1920. Thirty-five states have approved the Nineteenth Amendment, granting women the right to vote; one last state - Tennessee - is needed for women's voting rights to be the law of the land. Following a handful of remarkable women who led their respective forces into battle, The Woman's Hour is the gripping story of how America's women won their own freedom, and the opening campaign in the great twentieth-century battles for civil rights.
Frederick Douglas: Prophet of Freedom - By David W. Blight --- As a young man Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery in Baltimore, Maryland. He was fortunate to have been taught to read by his slave owner mistress, and he would go on to become one of the major literary figures of his time. In this biography, David Blight has drawn on new information held in a private collection that few other historian have consulted, as well as recently discovered issues of Douglass's newspapers. Blight's biography tells the fascinating story of Douglass's two marriages and his complex extended family.
An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943: By Rick Atkinson --- The liberation of Europe and the destruction of the Third Reich is a story of miscalculation and incomparable courage, of calamity and enduring triumph. In this first volume of the Liberation Trilogy, Rick Atkinson focuses on 1942 and 1943, showing how central the great drama that unfolded in North Africa was to the ultimate victory of the Allied powers and to America's understanding of itself.
Stalin's Englishman: The Lives of Guy Burgess: By Andrew Lownie --- Guy Burgess was the most important, complex and fascinating of 'The Cambridge Spies'. Burgess rose through academia, the BBC, the Foreign Office, MI5 and MI6, gaining access to thousands of highly sensitive secret documents which he passed to his Russian handlers. In this first full biography, Andrew Lownie shows us how even Burgess's chaotic personal life of drunken philandering did nothing to stop his penetration and betrayal of the British Intelligence Service.
1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus - By Charles C. Mann --- Contrary to what so many Americans learn in school, the pre-Columbian Indians were not sparsely settled in a pristine wilderness; rather, there were huge numbers of Indians who actively molded and influenced the land around them. Indeed, Indians were not living lightly on the land but were landscaping and manipulating their world in ways that we are only now beginning to understand. Challenging and surprising, this a transformative new look at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we knew.
Appeasement: By Tim Bouverie --- Appeasement is a groundbreaking history of the disastrous years of indecision, failed diplomacy and parliamentary infighting that enabled Hitler's domination of Europe. Drawing on deep archival research and sources not previously seen by historians, Tim Bouverie has created an unforgettable portrait of the ministers, aristocrats, and amateur diplomats who, through their actions and inaction, shaped their country's policy and determined the fate of Europe.
Behold, America: The Entangled History of "America First" and "the American Dream": By Sarah Churchwell --- Starting as a Republican motto before becoming a hugely influential isolationist slogan during World War I, America First was always closely linked with authoritarianism and white supremacy. The American dream, meanwhile, initially represented a broad vision of equality. Churchwell traces these notions through the 1920s boom, the Depression, and the rise of fascism, laying bare the persistent appeal of demagoguery in America and showing us how it was resisted.
Iran: A Modern History: By Abbas Amanat --- This history of modern Iran is not a survey in the conventional sense but an ambitious exploration of the story of a nation. It offers a revealing look at how events, people, and institutions are shaped by currents that sometimes reach back hundreds of years. The book covers the complex history of the diverse societies and economies of Iran against the background of dynastic changes, revolutions, civil wars, foreign occupation, and the rise of the Islamic Republic.
The Gulf: The Making of an American Sea: By Jack E. Davis --- Illuminating America's political and economic relationship with the environment from the age of the conquistadors to the present, Davis demonstrates how the Gulf's fruitful ecosystems and exceptional beauty empowered a growing nation. Filled with vivid, untold stories from the sportfish that launched Gulfside vacationing and Hollywood's role in the country's first offshore oil wells.
SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome: By Mary Beard --- Mary Beard narrates the history of Rome spanning nearly a thousand years of history and examines not just how we think of ancient Rome but challenges the comfortable historical perspectives that have existed for centuries. With its nuanced attention to class, democratic struggles, and the lives of entire groups of people omitted from the historical narrative for centuries, SPQR will to shape our view of Roman history for decades to come.
Embracing Defeat: By John Dower --- Embracing Defeat is the fullest and most important history of the more than six years of American occupation, which affected every level of Japanese society, often in ways neither side could anticipate. Dower gives us the rich and turbulent interplay between West and East, the victor and the vanquished, in a way never before attempted, from top-level manipulations concerning the fate of Emperor Hirohito to the hopes and fears of men and women in every walk of life.
1776: By by David McCullough --- America's distinguished historian presents, in a book of breathtaking excitement, drama, and narrative force, the stirring story of the year of America's birth, 1776, interweaving, on both sides of the Atlantic, the actions and decisions that led Great Britain to undertake a war against her rebellious colonial subjects and that placed America's survival in the hands of George Washington.
Say Nothing: A True Story of Murder and Memory in Northern Ireland: By Patrick Radden Keefe --- Patrick Radden Keefe's mesmerizing book uses a 1972 murder case as a starting point for the tale of a society wracked by a violent guerrilla war. From radical and impetuous I.R.A. terrorists such as Dolours Price, who, when she was barely out of her teens, was already planting bombs in London and targeting informers for execution, to the ferocious I.R.A. mastermind known as The Dark, to the spy games and dirty schemes of the British Army - Say Nothing conjures a world of passion, betrayal, vengeance, and anguish.
Headstrong: 52 Women Who Changed Science - and the World: By Rachel Swaby --- Covering Nobel Prize winners and major innovators, as well as lesser-known but hugely significant scientists who influence our every day, Rachel Swaby's vibrant profiles span centuries of courageous thinkers and illustrate how each one's ideas developed, from their first moment of scientific engagement through the research and discovery for which they're best known.
Hitler: By Ian Kershaw --- Ian Kershaw's Hitler is the definitive biography of the Nazi leader, tracing the story of how a bitter, failed art student from an obscure corner of Austria rose to unparalleled power, destroying the lives of millions and bringing the world to the brink of Armageddon.
The following books by Christopher Jon Bjerknes seem to be written under a shadow name. Not much information is available about the author in public domain nor the author gave any introduction in the books himself. The books tend to be highly anti-religious and not much references were found. Hence the contents of these books should be dealt with a pinch of salt!
Satanic Secrets of Jesus Christ Volume I War Curses and Cacodaemons By Christopher Jon Bjerknes: Yahweh is an angry, bloodthirsty and jealous god. He issued countless curses against humanity and threatens to destroy us all if we do not fear and obey him. The ancient Israelites made no secret of the fact that they detested Yahweh and only worshiped him out of fear for their lives, so that he would not harm the community, but would instead vent his rage on the enemies of the nation. It was common practice in the ancient world to worship the evil gods together with the good gods. The Greeks and Romans called the malevolent gods like Satan and Yahweh, "Cacodæmons". They worshiped the Cacodæmons Arimanius and Vejovis and offered them blood sacrifices so that these evil demons would refrain from destroying the Greeks and Romans and instead would help them to expand their empires and conquer other nations. Before battle, the ancients would recite "War Curses" against their foes in the form of prayers and sacrifices to the Cacodæmons. They wanted both the good gods and the evil gods on their side. That way, all the gods worked together to favor the people. Yom Kippur is one of these War Curses uttered to the Cacodæmons Yahweh and Samael. The Christian gospels are a War Curse against the Christians written in coded language which conceals the authors' true intentions. By following the tenets and commandments of the Christian faith, Christians curse themselves and draw the wrath of Yahweh and Samael. The legend of Jesus Christ is based on the ritual sacrifice of scapegoats which the second temple Israelites made to Samael on the Day of Atonement. Jesus' blood was a ransom paid to Satan, that was then compounded with the blood of every Christian who bears his cross. The Old Testament testifies to the fact that the ancient Israelites wanted nothing more than to rid themselves of the hated Cacodæmon Yahweh in favor of tender, loving and benevolent gods like the Golden Calf and Asherah. Whenever given the chance, they rejected Yahweh and worshiped gods of love, laughter and life, which made Yahweh so angry that he nearly slaughtered them all.
Satanic Secrets of Jesus Christ Volume II Jesus Is Satan By Christopher Jon Bjerknes: According to the Gospels, Jesus was repeatedly confronted with accusations that he was Satan. The Gnostic Christians believed that Jesus was the Serpent from the Garden of Eden. St. John likened Christ to the brazen serpent Nehushtan. Jesus played Satan's many roles in Judaism of tempter, accuser, prosecutor and punisher. The Judeans shunned Jesus as the devil that they knew him to be. Jesus was both a False Prophet and the Deceiving Spirit. The ancient texts Apocalypse of Abraham and Gospel of Judas reveal the fact that Jesus intended to lead Christians astray and completely exterminate them. Jesus was the Messiah Son of Joseph, who is also known as the "Messiah Anointed for War". In this guise, Jesus became the Avenging Sword, the Smiting Stone, the Foundation Stone and the Stumbling Stone. He treads the winepress of blood and is an analogous god to the Egyptian demon Shezmu who slays the other gods together with their worshipers. Jesus fulfilled a plan that was thoroughly worked out in the Septuagint hundreds of years before the authors of Gnosticism and St. Paul brought him to life in their manuscripts. The authors of the Gospels conceded that they based their claims of the divinity of Christ on this preexistent plan. They did not openly reveal their true intentions. Christopher Jon Bjerknes has thoroughly decoded the Bible's dark secret that Jesus is Satan and unites its cryptic passages in unique and revealing ways which unmask Jesus Christ and serve as a warning to the world about what devilish Jesus plans to do to us next.
Beware the World to Come By Christopher Jon Bjerknes
Rise Above the Gods Who Hate Us By Christopher Jon Bjerknes
The manufacture and sale of St Einstein - II By Christopher Jon Bjerknes
The manufacture and sale of St Einstein - III By Christopher Jon Bjerknes
Albert Einstein: The Incorrigible Plagiarist By Christopher Jon Bjerknes: The name "Einstein" evokes images of genius, but was Albert Einstein, in fact, a plagiarist, who copied the theories of Lorentz, Poincare, Gerber, and Hilbert? A scholarly documentation of Albert Einstein's plagiarism of the theory of relativity, "Albert Einstein: The Incorrigible Plagiarist" discloses Einstein's method for manipulating credit for the work of his contemporaries, reprints the prior works he parroted, and demonstrates through formal logical argument that Albert Einstein could not have drawn the conclusions he drew without prior knowledge of the works he copied, but failed to reference. Numerous republished quotations from Einstein's contemporaries prove that they were aware of his plagiarism.

Books on Islam, Muslims, Muhammad, Afghanistan, Persia or Iran, Pakistan, Arabs...

Pakistan under the military: eleven years of Zia ul-Haq by Shahid Javed Burki and Craig Baxter with contributions by Robert LaPorte, Jr. and Kamal Azfar

Contents: Zia's 11 years - Shahid Javed Burki, Restructuring the Pakistan political system - Craig Baxter, Constitutional dilemmas in Pakistan - Kamal Azfar, Pakistan's economy under Zia - S.J. Burki, Administrative restructuring during the Zia period - Robert LaPorte Jr, Pakistan becomes prominent in the international arena - C. Bacter, Zia's 11 years - a chronology of important personalities during the Zia period - R. LaPorte Jr, The Zia period - a bibliography - C. Baxter.

The military regime of Zia ul-Haq began as an ostensible emergency response to allegations of election-rigging by the Bhutto government in 1977. It was meant to last 90 days - instead it endured for over 11 years. As Pakistan emerged from its relative isolation to become an increasingly major international actor in the wake of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Zia retained his grip on the reins of power and continued to restructure the nation to his vision as an Islamic state. This book analyzes the political, economic, legal and administrative structures of Pakistan as they were formed and transformed by Zia during his controversial career.

Marching towards democracy: a collection of articles, statements and speeches by Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 1928-1979

Pakistan: the continuing search for nationhood by Shahid Javed Burki

Contents: Birth: August 14 1947, Political development: continuing search for stability, Economic development: an emerging middle-income country, Cocial development: missed opportunities, The nation's foreign relations, The future.

Pakistan came into being as the result of a movement that sought to establish a separate national identity for the Muslims of British India. This introduction to Pakistan's political, economic and social develpment includes an analysis of Benazir Bhutto and her downfall, as well as an examination of the general status of women in this predominantly Moslem culture. The author assesses the implications of the October 1990 elections - in which Bhutto was resoundingly defeated - and weighs the problems facing the new leadership as the search for stability continues.

The last days of united Pakistan by Golam W. Choudhury, Another book by same author: Pakistan, transition from military to civilian rule

The birth pangs of Pakistan by Clarence Burton Day

Breaking the curfew : a political journey through Pakistan by Emma Duncan.

This is a study of Pakistan, currently ruled by an autocratic, semi-military dictatorship, with a superpower on one border and the unstable fundamentalist regime of Iran, which plays unwilling host to 3 million Afghan refugees, on another.

From crisis to crisis: Pakistan 1962-1969 London, Oxford University Press, 1972

Jesus in the Quran by Geoffrey Parrinder. Table of Contents: 1 Introduction 2 Jesus (Isa) 3 Son of Mary (Ibn Maryam) 4 Names of Jesus: Messiah, Servant, Prophet, Messenger, Word, Spirit. Other titles 5 Zachariah and John 6 Mary (Maryam) 7 The Annunciation 8 The Birth of Jesus 9 Works of Jesus 10 Words of Jesus: Sayings; ahmadu; Similarities 11 The Death of Jesus 12 Jesus and the Future 13 Son of God 14 Trinity 15 Gospel (Injil) 16 Christians (Nasara) 17 Conclusion


The chief Authorities mentioned are: Ibn Ishaq (d. A.D. 768; A.H. 151) whose Sira, the Life of the Apostle, is the standard biography of Muhammad as preserved by Ibn Hisham (d. 834); the collection of Hadith or Traditions by Bukhari (d. 870); the history and commentary of Tabari (d. 923), and the commentaries of Zamakhshari (d. 1144), Razi (d. 1209), and Baidawi (d. 1282). Baidawi's commentary, summarizing earlier work, was regarded by orthodox Sunni Muslims almost as a holy book, it received more careful study than other commentaries.

The proper name of Jesus in the Qur'an is 'Isa, which is used in the personal sense without explanation. The form of the name has given rise to considerable comment though there is general agreement that 'Isa came from the Syriac Yeshu' which derived it from the Hebrew Yeshua. Some western scholars have thought that the final vowel change was influenced by the analogy of Musa in Arabic for Moses (Mosheh), but only in five places is 'Isa mentioned along with Musa in the Qur'an.

The book gives further references to the origin of words Isa and Christ. Page-21: In the Gospels the name Jesus occurs hundreds of times, and only occasionally with the addition of 'the Nazarene' or 'of Nazareth'. The Qur'an does not mention the town of Nazareth, though Christians are regularly termed Nasara. The double name 'Jesus Christ' is very rare in the Gospel; there are some four certain examples. 'Christ Jesus' and 'Lord Jesus' never occur here. This shows the primitive and narrative usage of the Gospel. Page-23: The Qur'an does not mention Joseph who, according to two Gospels, was the father or foster-father of Jesus. In Christianity the title 'Son of Mary' has been exceedingly rare and it is worth considering this at some length. The only instance in the whole of the New Testament is in Mark 6.3

On page 24: the book gives reference to History and Interpretation of the Gospels by R. H. Lightfoot, 1935, p. 187 where it is stated: "No man in the East, whether his father were living or not, would be known familiarly by reference to his mother except presumably with purpose to insult". On page-27, the book mentions about the miracales of babay Jesus mentioned in Arabic Infancy Bible.

On page-31: Firozabadi in his Arabic dictionary said that there were over fifty explanations of Masih. Zamakhshari and Baidawi admitted that it was a foreign word, and the latter commented that Masih was the surname of Jesus, a title of honour like al-Siddiq, the 'truthful', a surname of Abu Bakr the first caliph. Page-35: The Arabic 'abd is related to the Hebrew 'ebed. The figure of the Servant of God ('ebed Yahweh) is of great importance in the book of Isaiah, especially in Isaiah 42-1.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN *.pdf Muslims and Crusaders* Niall Christie 2014English 0269
Table of Contents
Introduction: Previous works on the Muslim side of the Crusades, The limitations of this work, The Muslim sources for the crusading period
Chapter-02: THE MUSLIM WORLD BEFORE THE CRUSADES: A brief history, Core beliefs and practices, Sunnis and Shi‘ites, The Franks through Muslim eyes before 1096, The Muslim Levant on the eve of the Crusades, Further reading
Chapter-03: THE FIRST CRUSADE AND THE MUSLIM RESPONSE, 1095–1146: Chronological overview, The problem of the sources, Muslim views of the crusaders’ motives, The first signs of the counter-crusade, Zangi: the first great counter-crusader? Conclusion
Chapter-04: NUR AL-DIN AND SALADIN, 1146–74: Chronological overview, The Second Crusade through Muslim eyes, Nur al-Din: ‘la plaque tournante’? Saladin and Nur al-Din, Conclusion, Further reading
Chapter-05: VICTORY AND STALEMATE, 1174–93: Chronological overview, The problem of the sources, The articulation of power, The victorious mujahid, The Third Crusade, Conclusion, Further reading
Chapter-06: WAR AND PEACE IN THE TWELFTH-CENTURY LEVANT: The problem of the sources, The ‘Franks’, The conduct of war, Muslims under Frankish rule, Truces and trade, Muslim views on Frankish culture, Conclusion Further reading
Chapter-07: THE SUCCESSORS OF SALADIN, 1193–1249: Chronological overview, Family politics, The Ayyubids and the jihad, Relations with the Franks, Critics of the Ayyubids, Conclusion, Further reading
Chapter-08: THE MAMLUKS, 1249–1382: Chronological overview, The Mamluk experience, The Mamluk state, Legitimizing rule, The Mamluk jihad, Conclusion, Further reading
Chapter-09: CONCLUSION: The impact of the Crusades on the medieval Middle East, The impact of the Crusades on the modern-day Muslim consciousness, Final words, Further reading
*Christianity’s Wars in the Middle East, 1095–1382, from the Islamic Sources

Keywords: Crusades, War, Peace, Muslims, Mamluks

Review: As far as religions are concerned, they inevitably lead to wars and destruction. The gods of religion is ho helpless that He/She needs mortal humans to spread His/Her message. This is usually the theme of any scripture and this book is no exception.

The Crescent and French Crusaders by Ditson, G. L. (George Leighton), 1812-1895


LETTER I. Algiers orologically — Courses of the Atlas — Little Atlas — Great Atlas — Plains — The Sersous — The Tell — Great Sahara — Little Sahara — Herodotus' division of Northwestern Africa — The three Plains of Algeria — Occupations of the People - Lakes — Attack on the Kabyls — Rivers — Boundaries — Climate — Products — Exhibition In Paris — Zoology, LETTER II. Algerian Steamers — Commercial Disadvantages — The ancient Port — The new Port — Algiers without — Algiers within — A Street Scene — Public Buildings - Experimental Garden — Roman Remains — A Marabout — Colonel Mareago- Modern Improvements — Population — Officers — Churches and Schools, LETTER III. The Kabyls — Transient Conquerors — Suggestions on the Removal of the Kabyls — Expedition against the Kabyls — Grain-mart at Medea — Arab Agriculture — The Olive — Oil Manufactories — Cultivation of Cotton — Silk and the Silk-worm — Orphan Girls preparing Silk — Tobacco

LETTER IV. Horse Racing — The Government Stud — The ffaloitf — The Arab Courts — The Arab Winner — General Yusuf — Fantasias — A Sham-fight — Native Costumes — Plan for Improving the Breed of Horses — The Barbary Horse — Algerian Sheep — An Arab Trick — Coirs and Oxen — Wild Animals, LETTER V. A Cotton Crop — Kohl — Henna — Civet Pomade — Native Jewelry — Moorish Embroidery — Saddle Manufacturers — Kabyl Weaving — Negro Work — Coral Fishery — The French as Coral Fishers — The Fisheries sold to the English Annual Coral Product — Coral Marts — Soap — Honey — Wax — Palm Juice, LETTER VI. A Change in the Letters and Seasons — A Storm — Disasters — Suburbs of Algiers — French Bridges — Roman Roads — Objects seen in my Rambles — Valley of the Consuls — Moorish Country Seats — Ceremonies at a Sacred Fountain — Sacrificers — Cures — A Jew Slaughter-house — The Casbah

LETTER VII. Progress of the Colony — Difficulties to be overcome — Government Organization — Civil and Military Divisions- The Governor-General — Council of Government — The Prefect — Council of Prefecture — Sub-Prefects — Commissions — Commissariats -The Bench — Courts of Appeal — Imperial Court — Procureurs — Chamber of Com-merce-Bureau Arabe, LETTER VIII. Winter Weather — Population of Algeria — Origin of the Name Moor — Mauritania - Origin of the Moors — Moor and Arab compared — Moorish Morals — Costumes - Religious Sects — A native Court of Justice — The Muftis — The Cadi's Power curtailed — Education — A School — Courtship and Marriage, LETTER IX. Commercial Statistics — Animosity between Moor and Arab — Arab Pride - Arab Insouciance — Arab Faith — Native Distaste for French Rule — Arbitrary Government — Native Auxiliaries — The Spahis — A Razzia — The Natives- Love of War — Native Crusaders — Arab Courtesies — An affecting Incident

LETTER X. Distribution of the Tribes — The KoulougUs — The Jews — The Kabyls — Origin of the Word Kabyl — Berber Tongue — Kabyl Customs, Dress, and Morals — Kabyl and Arab compared — Kabyl Women — Circassian and Kabyl Laws compared — The Kabyl a Manufacturer — Kabyl Government — Koubas — Zaouias — Sidi-Embarak's Tomb, LETTER XI. A Stroll about Algiers — A Moorish House — Seraglio of the Deys — Terrace of the Harem — Views — The Harem within — Mustapha Pasha's Palaces — Other Palaces - Tile Ornaments — Moorish Furniture — Turkish and Moorish Architecture compared — Koubras — Moorish Aqueduct — Country Seats — Woman, LETTER XII. A Trip into the Country — Duke Rovigo's Road Tiews from the Boujareah or Massif — Boufarick — Hostility of the People — Blida — Markets — Shops — Negresses — Dress — Red-headed Children — Amusements — Wady-el-Kebir and its Mills — A Surprise — A sad Mistake — Combats in the Cniffa — Medea

LETTER XIII. In Route for Tunis — Island of Galata — Tab area — Environs of Tunis — Ancient Bites — Tunis in the Distance — Tunis within — Disembarking — Ooleta — The Bey and his Navy — Lake Bahelra — Custom-House — Market Scenes — The consular Dwellings — A domestic Scene — Country Palaces, LETTER XIV. Discoveries at Carthage — Colossal Mosaic Heads — Priestesses — A Figure of Victory — Are they Roman or Punic? — Dress of the Priestesses — Roman and Pnnio Costume compared — Punic Inscriptions — Historical Names — Reflections on the Fall of Carthage — Reverend N. Davis and Family, LETTER XV. A Translation of Punic Inscriptions — Historical Characters — Views from the Terrace — Mecca Pilgrims — Bedouin Women — More Terrace Revelations — Maltese and Jews — Basars — Carthaginian Coin — Amusements — A Vulgar Pantomime — French Missionary Labors — What we owe to the Semitic Race

LETTER XVI. Fete of the Bey of the Camp — Arrival of the Troops — Fantasias — The Bardo Palace — The Bey's Court — An Artesian Well — Tomb of St. Louis — Death of St. Louis — Philharmonic Society — Tunisian Amusements — The French Consul — Abuse of the Arabs — Money Changers — An Honest Jew, LETTER XVII. Leaving Tunis — Voyage to Stora — Philippevllle — Ruins of Ruslcada — A handsome Italian — Leave Phillppeville for Constantine — El Arrouch — El Kan tour — Arabs en route — First View of Constantine — Drawbacks' to Society — Place de la Breche — People — River Rummel — Natural Bridges, LETTER XVIII. Appearance of Constantine — My second day's Ramble — A Roman Bridge — An Arab's Cupidity — The fatal three Stones of the Casbah — My third Ramble — Natural Bridges — A Work of Art — Tomb of Prsscilius — Roman Remains — Christian Martyrs — Celebrated Characters who flourished at Cirta

LETTER XIX. Preparations for the Capture of Constantino — Hardship! encountered by the Army — Attack on Constantino — Retreat of the Troops — Changarnier and Ciausel — Second Attack and Capture of Constantino — The Officers killed — A Monument to the Brave — Palace of the late Bey — The Palace repeopled, LETTER XX. Depart for Batna — Analogy between Roman and French Conquests and Posses - sions — Scenery and Incidents — French Settlements — French Colonists — Arabic Names — An Arab Council — Salt Lakes — Caravansary — Sisters of Charity and the Natives — Mistress of the Caravansary — Tomb of Syphax — Roman Ruins - Laborers LETTER XXI. Arriving at Batna — My first Day at Batna — Arab Unsociability — Arab Parsimony - Settlement of Batna — Lambesa — The Praetorium — A Temple, probably of Fame — Temple of Esculapius and other Roman Remains — An Oriental Scene — A tame Lioness — Gerard saved by a Lion

LETTER XXII. Departure for the Desert — Caravansary of Ouksou — A Smala — Tribes migrating — Scenery — Wady-el-Kantara — Change of Scenery — Another Caravansary — Dividing Line between the Tell and Sahara — More Smalas — Supposable Tete-a-Tete — The New Wife — A Caravan when moving and halting, LETTER XXIII. Appearance of the Caravans — A Salt Mountain — Confusion in a Smala — Arab Coolness — A Frenchman Outfranked — M. Germain — Can Cotton be grown in Constantino? — Bedouin Manners — Outaiya — Outalyan Homes — A Belle — Coiffure-Dress — Natives compared — Improvements anticipated, LETTER XXIV. Wearing, and a Native Loom — More Homes — Scarcity of Water — A Sheik's Tent and Wives — Arab Indolence — A New Process of Spinning — Roman Progress in Africa — Renewal of the Journey — Women at Work — Biskra and its Inhabitants — Sheik-el-Arib — Population and Palm-trees

LETTER XXV. Returning to Algiers — A Government Steamer — M. and Mme. Bertrand — Djigelli — A Traveller's Discomforts — An unfortunate Hunter — Bougie and its Background - Hostile Kabyls — Ascent of Mt. Gouraya — View — A Gourble — Descending the Gouraya — Duke d'Ayen — Leila Gouraya, LETTER XXVI. Friends in Algiers — Set out for Morocco — Kouba-Romeah — A Swiss Colony — Scherchell — Prom, Scherchell to Tenes — The Caravansary — Tenes — Mostaganem — Oran — From Oran to Tlemcen — Tlemcen — A Dangerous Route — Lala-Marnia — Colonel de Montfort — Nemours — Embark for Morocco — Tangiers

History of the Islamic peoples by Brockelmann, Carl, 1868-1956

I. THE ARABS AND THE ARAB EMPIRE -- 1. Arabia before Islam -- 2. The Prophet Muhammad -- 3. Muhammad and His Teachings -- 4. The First Four Caliphs -- 5. The Umayyads -- II. THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE AND ITS DISSOLUTION -- 1. The First 'Abbasids -- 2. The Decay of the Caliphate and the Rise of Minor Dynasties -- 3. Persians and Turks -- 4. Islam in Spain and in North Africa-- 5. The Near East in the Age of the Crusades and the Rise of the Mamluks in Egypt -- 6. Turks and Mongols: The End of the Caliphate -- III. THE OTTOMAN TURKS AS THE LEADING POWER IN ISLAM -- 1. The Origins of the Ottoman Empire and its Expansion down to the time of Suleyman I -- 2. The Civilization of the Osmanlins at the Zenith of the Empire -- 3. The Rise of the New Persian Empire and the Turkish-Persian Conflict -- 4. The Decline of the Ottoman Power down to the End of the Eighteenth Century -- IV. ISLAM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY -- 1. The Ottoman Empire and Egypt -- 2. Intellectual Life in the Ottoman Empire and in Egypt in the Nineteenth Century -- 3. North Africa -- 4. The Sudan -- 5. Persia and Afghanistan -- V. THE ISLAMIC STATES AFTER THE WORLD WAR -- 1. Turkey -- 2. Egypt -- 3. Arabia -- 4. Syria, Palenstine, Transjordan, and 'Iraq -- 5. Persia and Afghanistan -- REVIEW OF EVENTS: 1939-1947 -- CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN 88_A-Lantern-for-Lent.pdf A Lantern for Lent* S. E. Cottam, M.A. 1914English 0198
Chapter-01: Temptafton OF CHRIST - 40 days, OF JOB, OF ABRAHAM, OF GOD
Chapter-04: Investigation OF SPIES — 40 days, of god, OF MAN, OF NATURE, OF SCRIPTURE, OF HISTORY, OF HEART
* Brief Instructions on Biblical Subjects for the Forty Days of Lent

Excerpts of Review: This is a book about Christism and its apologetics and superstitions. The claim starts from introduction itself where the author writes: "The Church having written the Bible, and preserved it, has alone the right of interpretation." Pg-5: "though Job was an upright and almost a perfect man, one who feared God and eschewed evil, he had a bad and foolish wife; which should warn us that a great many people are not intended to marry...". The book also talks about "doctrine of immortality of the soul" without defining the word soul. Pg-8: The author's comfort with the concept of human sacrifice is clearly demonstrated from the statement "...supreme moment of his life..." about Abraham's sacrifice of his son Isaac at age 12. "Abraham sacrificed his son; therefore the Catholic Church superseded the Jewish Church; therefore we are called on to leave everything, even our husbands and wives, for the sake of Christ (Mattew. xix. 29)."

Pg-16: "The animals took part in the penance. Jonah was a type of Christ, and in particular of the Resurrection." The book further gives comparison of Jonah and Jesus. Pg-18: This chapter tells the story of Jacob and Esau and justifies how a liar, trickter can be virtuous by showing respect for his parents and the God. Pg-23 has a mention of Jewish legend where God interacts with Moses in his dream. On pg-25, the book describes the ugly story of David's adultery with Bathsheba, and his subsequent murder of Uriah, the husband, to hide his crime. Remember - Mary and hence Jesus were descendants of David. Pn pg-40, the author shares his views about marriage and divorce: Men must not be allowed to marry their deceased wife's sister, nor must divorced persons, whether innocent or guilty, be allowed to re-marry.

Pg-41: After the grand scene of the sacrifice and slaughter of the false prophets on Mount Carmel, Elijah fled for his life to Beersheba, in the Kingdom of Judah ; and there, retiring into the wilderness, he was miraculously fed with bread and water, and sent on to Mount Horeb, where he remained in the strength of that meat forty days and forty nights, meditating upon the problems of life. Pg-47: It was time for Isaac to marry; he had lost his mother, and required a wife. He lived a long way from his own country, yet wished for a woman of his own tribe.

Pg-63: The Ark rested on Mount Ararat. Moses was buried by God on Mount Nebo.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN Evolution of Adam Evolution of Adam Peter Enns 2012English 0193
Table of Contents
Part-01: Part One: Genesis: An Ancient Story of Israelite Self-Definition
Chapter-01: Genesis and the Challenges of the Nineteenth Century: Science, Biblical Criticism, and Biblical Archaeology: 3
Chapter-02: When Was Genesis Written? The Problem of the Pentateuch, Two Early Examples, God Has Two Names, Wellhausen and a Postexilic Pentateuch, The Old Testament, the Exile, and Israel’s Self-Definition
Chapter-03: Stories of Origins from Israel’s Neighbors: Genre Calibration, Genesis 1 and Enuma Elish, Genesis 1 and Monolatry, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and Atrahasis, Israel’s Second Creation Story, Adam and Atrahasis, Reorienting Expectations of Genesis and Human Origins
Chapter-04: Israel and Primordial Time: Israel and the Cosmic Battle, Adam and Israel, Creation and Sanctuary, The Gospel and Primordial Time
Part-2: Understanding Paul’s Adam
Chapter-05: Paul’s Adam and the Old Testament: Doesn’t Paul Settle the Matter? Not Paul’s Adam, Adam and Wisdom
Chapter-06: Paul as an Ancient Interpreter of the Old Testament: Paul as an Ancient Man, Interpreting the Bible after the Exile, Various Adams of Jewish Interpreters, Paul and His Bible, Paul and His Interpreted Bible
Chapter-07: Paul’s Adam: The Historical First Man, Responsible for Universal Sin and Death, Sin and Death without Adam? The One People of God, The Solution Reveals the Plight
--- Conclusion: Adam Today: Nine Theses, Notes, Bibliography

Keywords: Adam, Christianity, Evolution, Bible, Scriptures, Theologico-Political Treatise, Spinoza

Review: "My goal is to focus solely on how the Bible fits into all of this." that is 'Evolution'. If you read the intruduction, this book may seem to be written by a Christian Apologist. "My Christian faith is summed up in the Apostles’ Introduction and Nicene Creeds, which are expressions of broad Christian orthodoxy."

"The biblical writers assumed that the earth is flat, was made by God in relatively recent history (about 4,000 years before Jesus) just as it looks now, and that it is the fixed point in the cosmos over which the sun actually rises and sets." There are many references to the claims made by Bible such as stationary earth, Paul calling Jesus as second Adam and necessity for Christian faith to accepts Adam as not just historical figure. This book tries to describe the intense struggle going on between Christian faith and evolution theory in situation where geology and archeology do not support Genesis narratives.

Pg-18 "One issue in particular came to the forefront: why does God have two names in Genesis, Elohim (God) and Yahweh (typically translated Lord)?" Pg-20: "Today many of the details of Wellhausen’s arguments no longer dominate the academic conversation, but two general insights remain as a virtually unquestioned foundation for subsequent work: (1)that parts of the Pentateuch were composed over several centuries, and (2)that the Pentateuch as a whole was not completed until after the Israelites returned from exile."

Ancient Egypt and the Near East: An Illustrated History by Marshall Cavendish: This is a book published in 2011 that contains large number of images and depiction of rules, Gods and Goddesses in Egyptian civilization. Timeline of differnt rules have been provided with names. The book does not contain any bibliography or reference to statues, models, toms, pictures and wall paintinings. However, the information provided in a book of 142 pages cover-to-cover is an excellent summary of information which can lead you to explore each topic in detail though other published sources.

Reference: PhD Thesis "Antichrist in English Literation 1380-1680" by JEAN ELIZABETH MACFARLANE: The Acts and Monuments of John Foxe: The books present an account of Christianity besieged by various enemies from 64 A.D. to about 1550. Its twelve books are arranged generally in chronological order with more space given to events closer in time to the author: the first four books cover thirteen centuries, the fifth book deals with the fourteenth century when Wyclif's influence prevailed, and the last eight books look in depth at the remaining 150 years. He believed the pope to be that one by claiming that "Anti-christ reign[ed] in the church of God by violence and tyranny" through the popes from Gregory VII (1073-1086) to those ruling in the time of Wyclif. From that time on, the term papist is synonymous for Foxe with "follower of Antichrist." Each account of martyrdom in Acts and Monuments reveals the contrast between the cruelty of the executioners and the joyful and ungrudging deaths of the martyrs.

He also records orders from the king prohibiting Bible reading at certain times and by certain groups such as common laborers and women. If Foxe is to be believed, most of the blame for the application of these laws belongs on the religious leaders who invoked them even sometimes when the civil ruler was not inclined to do so. Despite the length, the work is intended to be read as a narrative, rather than used occasionally as a reference, and the fact of its repeated printings gives evidence of its popularity.

Anne Askew, a thirty-five-year-old woman was put on the rack and burned at Smithfield in 1546 for her Lollard beliefs. When the time arrived for her execution, clergymen seated to get a good view of the proceedings learned that Anne and the three who were to be executed with her had tied explosives to their bodies to shorten their misery, whereupon the men hurriedly moved their observation post to a safer distance. Foxe points ironically to their fear of few sparks while the ones they condemned were burning to death. Although Acts and Monuments was written primarily as the history o£ English martyrs who died because of their opposition to Antichrist in the Catholic Church, later generations used parts of it as a warning for the future.

"The Biography of 'Uthman ibn 'Affin" (Dhun-Noorayn): By: Dr. Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi, Translated by: Nasir Khattab, Edited by: Hoda Khattab. Few Exerpts: Why was 'Uthman called Dhun-Noorayn? He said: Because we did not know anyone who married two daughters of a Prophet except him. Uthman married eight wives in all, all of them after Islam. They were: Ruqayyah the daughter of the Messenger of Allah who bore him 'Abd-Allah ibn 'Uthman. Then he married Umm Kulthoom the daughter of the Messenger of Allah after Ruqayyah died. Among the most famous of 'Uthman's students in learning Quran were Abu 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami, al-Mugheerah ibn Abi Shihab, Abu'l-Aswad and Zurr ibn Hubaysh.

DESTINY DISRUPTED - A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes by TAMIM ANSARY

1. The Middle World 2. The Hijra 3. Birth of the Khalifate 4. Schism 5. Empire of the Umayyads 6. The Abassid Age 7. Scholars, Philosophers, and Sufis 8. Enter the Turks 9. Havoc 10. Rebirth 11. Meanwhile in Europe 12. West Comes East 13. The Reform Movements 14. Industry, Constitutions, and Nationalism 15. Rise of the Secular Modernists 16. The Crisis of Modernity 17. The Tide Turns Afterword Appendix: The Structure of Islamic Doctrine

Pg-18: Although Mohammed was a member of the Quraysh, the most powerful tribe in Mecca, he got no status out of it because he belonged to one of the tribe's poorer dans, the Banu ("dan" or "house of") Hashim. Pg-19: Mohammed came down from the mountain sick with fear, thinking he might have been possessed by a jinn, an evil spirit. Outside, he felt a presence filling the world to every horizon. Pg-20: Among the many temples in Mecca was a cube-shaped structure with a much-revered cornerstone, a polished black stone that had fallen out of the sky a long time ago-a meteor, perhaps. This temple was called the Ka'ba, and tribal tales said that Abraham himself had built it, with the help of his son Ishmael. Pg-21: According to most Muslims, Abu Talib never converted to Islam himself, but he stood up for his nephew out of personal loyalty and love, and his word had weight.

These are few excerpts from the book. Even though the book contains 72 entries under Bibliography, the references are mentioned within the paragraphs of the chapters. Overall the book is full of stories and eulogy about Muhammad such as Pact of Medina. However, there is no documentary evidence given for it. Though the author claimed that Islamic society began to collect, memorize, recite, and preserve their history as soon as it happened - no documentary evidence has beens provided in the book. The book does mention that Muhammad got his daughter married to his cousin. As mentioned on page-54, Othman (aristocratic Umayyads clan) was the financiar for Muhammad. "Once, when abuse of Muslims was peaking in Mecca, Mohammed decided that a group of his followers should emigrate to Abyssinia, and Othman helped finance that." On pg-55: "He spent lavishly for the public good; for example, he expanded the mosque in Medina for Mohammed, and when the Muslims needed water, he bought a valuable well from one of the Jewish tribes and donated it to the public."

Islam did not abolish the slavery. On page-55, the book mentions: "To earn forgiveness, he made a practice of buying slaves and liberating one each Friday." This was after the Battle of the Moat. About the compilation of Quran: "One great project Othman saw to fruition during the first half of his khalifate was the preparation of a definitive edition of the Qur'an. He set scholars to work combing out redundancies among the copies that existed, resolving discrepancies, and evaluating passages whose authenticity was subject to doubt."

Pg-58: "Toward the end of Othman's twelve-year reign, grumbling began to sound throughout the empire. In Egypt, his foster brother was squeezing people so hard for money that riots broke out. Egyptian notables wrote to the khalifa, begging him to recall the governor." Pg-59: "Outside his palace, the rioters worked themselves into a frenzy, broke down palace doors, and burst in with a roar. They found the khalifa in his study, and there in the flickering twilight of the old man's lamp, in year of the Muslim era, they beat their own leader to death. Suddenly, the succession conundrum had turned into a horrifying crisis that threatened the very soul of Islam."

Pg-61: The Prophet's youngest wife Ayesha happened to be in Mecca when Othman was assassinated. "Capitalizing on the passion she aroused, she assembled an army, convened a war council, and mapped out a campaign. The ousted governor of Yemen pledged all his stolen treasure to her cause. Flush with funds, Ayesha led her troops north and stormed Basra, a key city in southern Iraq. She dispatched Ali's loyalists quickly and took over." Pg-70: about Hussein's muder - "The severed head arrived just as Yazid was entertaining a Byzantine envoy, and it spoiled the whole dinner party. The Byzantine envoy said, "Is this how you Muslims behave? We Christians would never treat a descendant ofJesus in this manner." The criticism angered Yazid, and he had the "Roman" thrown into prison."

Pg-160: "For Timur, bloodshed was not just a canny battle strategy. He seemed to relish it for its own sake. It was he (not Chengez) who took pleasure in piling up pyramids of severed heads outside the gates of cities he had plundered. It was he, too, who executed captives by dropping them, still living, into tall, windowless towers until he had filled the towers to the brim. Timur banged and slaughtered his way to Asia Minor and then banged and slaughtered his way back again to India, where he left so many corpses rotting on the roads to Delhi that he made the whole region uninhabitable for months."

Pg-174: In 1402, near the city of Ankara, these two civilized patrons of the arts set niceties aside and went at each other blade to axe, and may the worst man win. Timur-i-lang proved himself the more brutal of the two. He crushed the Ottoman army, took Emperor Bayazid himself prisoner, clapped him in a cage like some zoo animal, and hauled him back to his jewel-encrusted lair in Central Asia, the city of Samarqand. Despair and humiliation so overwhelmed Bayazid that he committed suicide. Out west, Bayazid's sons began to war with each other over the truncated remains of his one-time empire.

Pg-254:"In 1766, Ibn Saud was assassinated but his son Abdul Aziz took over and continued his father's campaign to unite Arabia under the banner of Abdul Wahhab's theology. Then in 1792, Wahhab himself died, leaving behind twenty widows and countless children." In 1804, Aziz ibn Saud conquered Medina, where he had his army promptly destroy the tombs of Mohammed's companions. From Medina, the Saudi-Wahhabi armies went on to Mecca, where they wrecked a shrine that supposedly marked Prophet Mohammed's birthplace {so that no one would fall into idolatrous worship of Mohammed).

Tabaqat-i Nasiri is an elaborate history of the Islamic world written in Persian by Minhaj-i-Siraj Juzjani for Sultan Nasir-ud-Din and completed in 1260. Consisting of 23 volumes and written in a blunt straightforward style, Juzjani devoted many years to the creation of this book even providing references for his information. Although a large portion of the book is devoted to the Ghurids, it also contains a history of the predecessors in Ghazna before the Ghaznavid Sebuktigin took power. In compiling his Tabaqat i Nasiri, Juzjani used other books now lost; part of Baihaqi's reign of Sebuktigin, Abu'l-Qasim Imadi's Ta'rikh-i mujadwal and most likely Ibn Haisam's Qisas-i thani. The purpose of the Tabaqat-i Nasiri was to account for the Muslim dynasties that originated in Iran and Central Asia. It starts with the prophets and explains their piety and morality. This continues up to Abdullah, father of the prophet Muhammad, at which point a history of the prophet's life is told. Within his Tabaqat-i Nasiri, Juzjani tells of his religious views and his historiographical approach to Islam and Muslim rulers. The Tabaqat-i Nasiri is the only source for the Khaljis rebellion in Bengal against the sultan of Delhi from 1229-1230.

Le Strange, G, “The Story of the Death of the Last Abbasid Caliph, from the Vatican MS. of Ibn-al-Furāt.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 32, no. 2 (April 1900): 293-300.

Gilli-Elewy, Hend. 2011. “Al-Ḥawādiț Al-Gāmi’a: Contemporary Account of the Mongol Conquest of Baghdad, 656/1258”, Arabica, 58, (2011): 353-371.

De Somogyi, Joseph, “A Qasida on the destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, 1933, pp. 41-48.

Rashid-wu, Painan. 1997. Soqūt-e Baġdād va ḥokmravā’ei-e Moġolān dar ‘Arāq ("The fall of Baghdad and Mongol rule in Iraq"), Persian translation by Asad-allāh Āzād, Mašhad, Āstān-e Qods Razavi.

Bacon, Elizabeth E. (1951b), "The Inquiry into the History of the Hazara Mongolsof Afghanistan", Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 7: 230-247. --- Durand, Henry M. (1879), The First Afghan War and Its Causes. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. --- Eyre, Vincent (1879), The Kabul Insurrection of 1841-42 - edited by G. B. Malleson. London: W. H. Allen & Co, Ferrier, J. P. (1858) --- History of the Afghans. London: John Murray --- Dupree, Louis (1976), "The First Anglo-Afghan War and the British Retreat of 1842: the Functions of History and Folklore", East and West (IsMEO), New Series, 26 (3 - 4) : 503-529 --- Havelock, Henry (1840), Narrative of the War in Afghanistan. 2 vols. London: Henry Colburn --- Holdich, T. Hungerford (1909) The Indian Borderland, 1880-1900. 2nd ed. London: Methuen and Co. --- Kaye, John William (1857), History of the War in Afghanistan. 3 vols., 2nd ed.London: Richard Bentley. --- Kennedy, Richard Hartley (1840), Narrative of the Campaign of the Indus, in Sind and Kaubool, 1838-9. 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley. --- Khanikoff (1845), Bokhara: Its Amir and Its People. London: James Madden. ---Jarring, Gunnar (1939a), "An Uzbek's View of his Native-Town and its Circumstances", Ethnos No. 2: 73-80. --- Jarring Gunnar (1939b), On the Distribution of Turk Tribes in Afghanistan, Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz. --- Khalfin, N. A. (1958), "The Rising of Ishaq Khan in Southern Turkestan (1888)", Central Asian Review 6: 253-263a. --- Malleson, G. B. (1879), History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. London: W. H. Allen & Co. --- Martin, Frank A. (1907), Under the Absolute Amir. London and New York: Harper and Brothers. --- Nizim, Muhammad (1971), The Life and Times of Sultan Mahmad of Ghazna , 2nd ed. New Delhi: Mushiram Manoharlal. --- Neamet Ullah (1976), History of the Afghans, translated by Bernhard Dorn, 2 vols, reprint (first ed. 1829-1836). Karachi: Indus Publications. --- Raymond, Xavier (1848), Afghanistan. Paris: Firmin Didot Freres. --- Sultan Muhammad Khan (1900), The Constitution and Laws of Afghanistan. London: John Murray. --- Yavorski, I. L (1885), Journey of the Russian Embassy through Afghanistan and the Khanate of Bukhara in 1878-1879. 2 vols. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing.

Gupta, Hari Ram (1941), 'Timur Shah's Army in 1793', Journal of Indian History 20: 100-104. Gupta, Hari Ram (1944), Studies in Later Mughal History of the Panjab 1707-1793, Lahore: Minerva.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN *.pdf State and Tribe in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan (1826-1863) Christine Noelle 1997English 0461
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: DOST MUHAMMAD KHAN'S FIRST REIGN AND THE FIRST ANGLO-AFGHAN WAR The Political Setting in the Early Nineteenth Century, The Alikozais, The Popalzais, The Barakzais, Dost Muhammad Khan's Assumption of Power, The Power Struggle among the Muhamrnadzais 1818-1826, The Beginnings of Muhammadzai Rule, Dost Muhammad Khan's Person, Dost Muhammad Khan's Sphere of Influence 1826-1839, Kabul in the Early Nineteenth Century, The Qizilbash, Sunni-Shi'a Frictions, Kohistan, Bamiyan and Bihsud, Dost Muhammad Khan's Consolidation of Power, The First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-1842) and Amir Dost, Muhammad Khan's Resumption of Power, The Events Leading up to the British Invasion, Amir Dost Muhammad Khan's Perspective, The British Occupation of Afghanistan, The Principal Participants in the Uprising of 1841-1842, Administrative Measures Taken by Dost Muhammad Khan after his Resumption of Power
Chapter-02:AMIR DOST MUHAMMAD KHAN'S POLICIES IN TURKISTAN Afghan Turkistan - The Geographical and Ethnographical Setting, Physical Features, The Inhabitants, Historical Overview, The Origin of the Uzbeks, The Chingizid System of Government, The Rise of Amirid States, Afghan Turkistan under the Sadozais, The Uzbek Principalities of the Early Nineteenth Century, Maimana Qilich 'Ali of Tashqurghan, Mazar-i Sharif and Balkh, Mir Murad Beg of Qunduz, Mir Wali of Tashqurghan, Dost Muhammad Khan's Intervention in Turkistan, The Beginnings of Afghan Administration, The Extension of Afghan Authority in Western Turkistan, The Conquest of Qunduz, The Effects of the Afghan Administration, Administrative Measures Taken by the Afghan Government, The Sociopolitical Setting in Qataghan and Badakhshan, The Organization of the Afghan Administration
Chapter-03: THE POSITION OF THE PASHTUN TRIBES IN THE MUHAMMADZAI STATE Pashtun Organization in the Light of Modern Anthropology, The Concept of 'Tribe', The Pashtuns, The Yusufzais of Swat, The Mohmand Agency, The Pashtun Tribes of Khost, The Ghilzais, The Pashtuns in History, The Border Tribes, The Tribes of the Khyber Region, Kurram, Khost and Zurmat, Bajaur, The Mohmands of Laclpura, The Western Reaches of the Kabul River, Kunar, The Jabbar Khel Ghilzais, The Babakr Khel Ghilzais, The Hotak and Tokhi Ghilzais, The Historical Origins of the Leading Families, The Position of the Leadership in the Early Nineteenth Century, Dost Muhammad Khan's Policies towards the Hotaks and Tokhis, Revenues Raised among the Ghilzais
Chapter-04: DOST MUHAMMAD KHAN'S OCCUPATION OF QANDAHAR AND HIS ADMINISTRATION The Durranis, Durrani History and Organization, The Policies of the Qandahar Sardars, Dost Muhammad Khan's Occupation of Qandahar, Dost Muhammad Khan's Administration, The Structure of Dost Muhammad Khan's Government, The Army, The Amir's Revenues, The Role of the Ulama, Trade
Chapter-05: CONCLUSION Notes, Glossary, Appendix-A: Maps, Appendix-B: Genealogical Tables, Appendix-C: Currencies, Appendix-D: The Service Grants Made by Ahmad Shah in the Qandahar Region, Appendix E: The Urban Population of Afghan Turkistan

Keywords: Muhammadzai lineage, Amir al-Mumenin, Sadozai empire, Tribal Groups, Turkic origin, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Lesser Turkistan, First and Second Anglo-Afghan Wars of 1839-1842 and 1878-1880, Siraj al-Tawarikh, Tarikh-i Sultani, Tarikh-i padshahan-i muta'akhir, Gulshan-i imarat, Ain al-waqayi, Taj al-tawarikh, Tarikh-i Husain Shahi, Hayat-i afghani,

Review: Some excerpts are mentioned below. This book is about the power struggle among the tribal factions long after the area was completely islamized. The content is filled with far too many names of tribes, individuals and families. This is a demonstration of how segmented a society can be based on lineage and family-based controls. The author has classified the information based on the tribes and families that controlled now what is known as Afghanistan. However, one may easily get lost in the maze of rulers and dates presented. While the author claims this country to be graveyard of empires, there was a cycle of conflicts, betrayal, shifting allegiances and takeover of the region by local and foreign invaders such as Persians, Uzbeks and Turkmens. There was hardly any period of long stability and rule with development in art, culture and science. The significantly large number of names contain the surname 'Khan' which points to presence of large number of Mongols too. Based on the data and information presented in this book, one can easly conclude that Islam promotes division than uniting the people of various ethnicities.

'Afghanistan' a historical entity, which can be traced to antiquity by a variety of other names: Ariana, subjugated by the Achaemenids; Bactria, the glorious empire of the Kushans; Khurasan, oppressed by the Sasanians, The foundation of Afghanistan by Ahmad Shah Durrani in the mid-eighteenth century.

Ch-1: Shah Mahmud, the last sovereign Sadozai ruler of Kabul, was deposed in 1818, but the crumbling of Sadozai power had already begun in the final decade of the eighteenth century at a time when the Sadozai empire was barely fifty years old. Its founder, Ahmad Shah Sadozai had gainded ascendancy in Afghanistan in 1747, at a period when the equilibrium of power which had previously existed between the Safawids of Iran, the Mughals of India and the Uzbek khanate of Transoxania had dissolved.

Pg-2: In 1762, at the height of Ahmad Shah's power, the Afghan empire included Kashmir, Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan, and part of Khurasan. To begin with, the Sadozai empire had been built on Ahmad Shah's ability to garner tribal support by offering the prospect of profitable military campaigns to India.

Pg-24: Kabul in the Early Nineteenth Century: The total population of Kabul and its immediate environs was estimated at 9,000 families or 50,000 to 60,000 souls. Among these, approximately 4500 families were furnished by the Qizilbash, who, along with the Hazaras, were set apart from the other Kabulis by their Shi'i beliefs. While the majority of the Sunnis and approximately 2,000 Hindus dwelled in the city of Kabul.


Opening Paragraph of Chapter-1: "Embedded in one of the walls of the nave of St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna is a Turkish cannonball. A relic from the Siege of 1683, it marks the flood tide of the last great surge of the Ottoman Empire into Europe, the farthest point of the Turkish assault on Christendom. The Austrian-Polish Army, led by the Polish warrior-king Jan Sobieski, reached Vienna, with only days to spare before the beleaguered city fell, and immediately attacked the Turks. From September 11 to September 13 the two armies fought, a struggle marked by merciless ferocity and astonishing courage on both sides, before the Turks, already nearly exhausted by the siege, withdrew from Vienna, never to return."

Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, Leader and Statesman - Edited by Ziauddin Ahmad - Quaid-e-Millat/leader of the nation and Shaheed-e-Millat/Martyr of the nation.

Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan's role in the Muslim Freedom Movement, which later became the Pakistan Movement, was second only to Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. It was this unassuming son of a feudal lord turned proletarian who convinced the Quaid-i-Azam in London in 1934 to return to the Sub-continent and take up the Muslim leadership which at that time promised no rosy future but a back-breaking strenuous struggle to regather the lost flock. it is over 19 years since his assassination but no biography of this statesman has yet been written. Professor Ziauddin Ahmad, a learned scholar and author of several books has brought for the first time Liaquat’s great and unusual achievements as a builder of Pakistan in a book form, from which emerges a full picture of his dynamic personality.
The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind by H. G. Wells.


INTROUCTION. The Story and Aim of the Outline of History: 1. How it came to be written, 2. The method of writing the Outline, 3. Of certain omissions and additions, 4. Of two other Outlines that have arisen out of the Outline of History to complete the general Exposition of the Contemporary World


Chapter 1. The Earth in Space and Time: 1. The Great Expansion of Men's Idea of space and time, 2. The earth in space, 3. How long lias the earth endured? Chapter 2. The Recors of the Rooks: 1. The first living things, 2. Natural selectlon and the changes of species CHAPTER 3. Life and Climates: 1. Life and water: water plants, 2. The Earliest land animals, 3. Why life must change continually, CHAPTER 4. The Age of Reptiles: 1.The age of lowland life, 2. Dragons, 3. The first birds, 4. An age of hardship and death, 6. The first appearance of fur and feathers CHAPTER 5. The Age of Mammal: 1. A new ago of life, 2. Tradition comes into the world, 3. An age of brain growth, 4. The world grows hard again

BOOK II: THE MAKING OF MAN - CHAPTER 6. Apes and Sub-Men and MEN: 1. The origin of man, 2. First traces of man-like creature, 3. The Heidelberg sub-man, 4. The Piltdown sub-man CHAPTER 7. The Neanderthal Men, an Extinct Race (The Early Palaeoiithic Age): 1. The world. 60,000 years ago 2. The dully life of the Neanderthal men 3. The last Palaeolithic men, 4. The Rhodesian skull CHAPTER 8. The Later Post-Glacial Palaeolithic Men, the First True Men (Later Palaeolithic Age): 1. The coming of men like ourselves 2. The geography of the Palaelithic world 3. The close of the Palaelithic Age 4. No sub-men in America CHAPTER 9. Neolithic Man in Europe: 1. The age of cultivation begins, 2. Where did the Neolithic culture arise, 3. Everyday Neolithic life, 4. Primitive trade, 5. The flooding of the Mediterranean valley CHAPTER 10. Early Thought: 1. Primitive philosophy, 2. The Old Man in religion, 3. Fear and hope in religion, 4. Stars and seasons, 6. Story-telling and myth-making, 6. Complex origins of religion CHAPTER 11. The Races of Mankind: 1. Is mankind still differentiating, 2. The main races of mankind, 3. The Brunet peoples, 4. The so-called "Heliolithic" culture, 6. The American Indians CHAPTER 12. The Languages of Mankind: 1. No one primitive language, 2. The Aryan languages, 3. The Semitic languages, 4. The Hamitic languages, 6. The Ural-Altaic languages, 6. The Chinese languages, 7. Other language groups, 8. A possible primitive language group, 9. Some isolated languages

BOOK III: THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS - CHAPTER 13. The Early Empires: 1. Early cultivatora and early nomads, 2a. The Sumerians, 2b. The empire of Sargon the First, 2c. The empire of Hammurabi, 2d. The Assyrians and their empire, 2e. The Chaldean empire, 3. The early history of Egypt, 4. The early civilization of India, 5. The early history of China, 6. While the civilizations were growing, 7. The legend of Atlantis CHAPTER 14. Sea Peoples and Trading Peoples: 1. The earliest ships and sailors, 2. The Aegean cities before history, 3. The first voyages of exploration, 4. Early traders, 5. Early travellers CHAPTER 15. Writinq - 1. Picture writing, 2. Syllable writing, 3. Alphabet writing, 4. The place of writing in human life CHAPTER 16: Gods and Stars, Priests and Kings - 1. The priest comes into history, 2. Priests and the stars, 3. Priests and the dawn of learning, 4. King against priest, 5. How Bel-Marduk struggled against the kings, 6. The god-kings of Egypt, 7. Shi Hwang-ti destroys the books, CHAPTER 17. Serfs, Slaves, Social Classes, and Free Individuals: 1. The common man in ancient times, 2. The earliest slaves, 3. The first “independent” persons, 4. Social classes three thousand years ago, 5. Classes hardening into castes, 6. Caste in India, 7. The system of the "Mandarins 8. A summary of ten thousand years, 9. Plastic and pictorial art in the ancient world, 10. Literature, drama and music in the ancient world

BOOK IV: JUDEA, GREECE, AND INDIA - CHAPTER 18. The Hebbew Scritptures amd the Phophets, 1. The place of the Israelites in History, 2. Saul, David, and Solomon, 3. The Jews a people of mixed origin, 4. The importance of the Hebrew prophets CHAPTER 19. The Aryan-speaking Peoples in Phehistoric Times 1. The spreading of the Aryan-speakers, 2. About the original life of tho Aryans, 3. The Aryan family CHAPTER 20. The Greeks and the Persians: 1. The Hellenic peoples, 2. Distinctive features of Hellenic civilization, 3. Monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in Greece, 4. The kingdom of Lydia, 5. The rise of the Persians in the East, 6. The story of Croesus 7. Darius invades Russia, 8. The battle of Marathon, 9. Thermopylae and Salamis, 10. Platae and Mycale CHAPTER 21. Greek THought, Literature and Art: 1. The Athens of Perieles 2. Socrates 3. Plato and the Academy 4. Aristotle and the Lyceum 5. Philosophy becomes unworldly 6. The quality and limitations of Greek thought 7. The first great imaginative literature 8. Greek art CHAPTER 22. The Career of Alexander the Great: 1. Pliilip of Macedonia, 2. The murder of King Philip 3. Alexander’s first conquests, 4. The wanderings of Alexander, 5. Was Alexander indeed great 6 The successors of Alexander, 7. Pergamum a refuge of culture, 8 Alexander as a portent of world unity CHAPTER 23 SCIENCE AND RELIGION AT ALEXANDRIA: 1. The science of Alexandria, 2. Philosotihy of Alexandria, 3. Alexandria as a factory of religions, 4. Alexandria and India CHAPTER 24 The Rise and Spread of Buddhism: 1. The story of Gautama, 2. Teaching and legend in conflict, 3. The gospel of Gautama Buddha, 4.Buddhism and Asoka, 5. Two great Chinese teachers, 6. The corruptions of Buddhism, 7. The present range of Buddhism

BOOK V: RISE AND COLLAPSE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE - CHAPTER 26 The Iwo Westerun Republic: 1. The beginninsi of the Latins, 2. A new soil of state, 3. The Carthaginian republic of rich men, 4. The First Punic War, 5. Cato the Elder and the spirit ot Cato, 6. The Second Punic War, 7. The Third Punic War, 8. How the Punic Wars undermined Roman liberty, 9. Comparison of the Roman republic with a modern state CHAPTER 26 From Tiberius Grachhus to the God Emperor in Rome: 1. The science of thwarting the common man, 2. Finance in the Roman state, 3. The last years of Republican politics, 4. The era of the adventurer generals, 6. The end of the Republic, 6. The coming of the Princeps, 7. Why the Roman Republic failed, CHAPTER 27 The Caesars between the Sea and the Great Plains: 1. A short catalogue of emperors, 2. Roman civilization at its zenith, 3. Characteristics of art under the Roman Empire, 4. A certain dullness of the Roman imagination, 6. The stir of the great plains, 6. The Western (true Roman) Empire crumples up, 7. The Eastern (revived Hellenic) Empire

BOOK VI - CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM: CHAPTER 28. The Rise of Christianity and the Fall of Western Empire - 1. Judea at the Christian era, 2. The teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, 3. The new universal religions, 4. The crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, 5. Doctrines added to the teachings of Jesus, 6. The struggles and persecutions of Christianity, 7. Constantine the Great, 8. The establishment of official Christianity, 9. The map of Europe, A.D. 600, 10. The salvation of learning by Christianity, 11. Byzantine art CHAPTER 29. The History of Asia during the Decay of Western and Byzantine Empires 1. Justinian the Great, 2. The Sassanid empire in Persia, 3. The decay of Syria under the Sassanids, 4. The first message from Islam, 5. Zoroaster and Mani, 6. Hunnish peoples in central Asia and India, 7. The dynasties of Han and Tang in China, 8. Intellectual letters of China, 9 . Early Chinese art, 10. The travels of Yuan Chwang CHAPTER 30 Muhammad and Islam: 1. Arabia before Muhammad, 2. Life of Muhammad to the Hegira, 3. Muhammad becomes a fighting prophet, 4. The teachings of Islam, 5. The caliphs Abu Bekr and Omar, 6. The great days of the Omayyada, 7. The decay of Islam under the Abbasids, 8. Arabic Culture, 9. Arabic Art CHAPTER 31. Christendom and the Crusades: 1. The Western world at its lowest ebb, 2. The feudal system, 3. The Frankish Kingdom of the Merovingians, 4. The Christianization of the Western barbarians, 5. Charlemagne becomes emperor of the West, 6. The personality of Charlemagne, 7. Romanesque Architecture and Art, 8. The French and the Germans become distinct, 9. The Normans, the Saracens, the Hungarians, and the Seijuk Turks, 10. How Constantinople appealed to Rome, 11. The Crusades, 12. The Crusades a test of Christianity, 13. The Emperor Frederick II, 14. Defects and limitations of the Papacy, 16. A list of leading Popes, 16. Gothic Architecture and Art, 17. Mediaeval Music

BOOK VII - THE MONGOL EMPIRES OF THE LAND WAYS AND THE NEW EMPIRES OF THE SEA WAYS: CHAPTER 32. The Great Empire of Jengis Khan and his Sdooessors. (The Age of the Land Ways) - 1. Asia at the end of the Twelfth Century, 2. The rise and victories of the Mongols, 3. The travels of Marco Polo, 4. The Ottoman Turks and Constantinople, 5. Why the Mongols were not Christianized, 6. The yuan and Ming dynasties in China, 7. The Mongols reverts to tribalism, 8. The Kipohak empire and the Tsar of Muscovy, 9. Timurlane, 10. The Mogul empire of India, 11. The Gipsies CHAPTER 33. The Renascence of Western Civilization. (Land Ways Give Place to Sea Ways): 1. Christianity and popular education, 2. Europe begins to think for itself, 3. The Great Plague and the dawn of communism, 4. How paper liberated the human mind, 6. Protestantism of the princes and Protestantism of the people, 6. The reawakening of science, 7. The new growth of European towns, 8. The Literary Renaissance, 9. The Artistic Renaissance 10. America comes into liistory, 11. What Machiavelli thought of the world, 12. The Republic of Switzerland, 13. The life of the Emperor Charles V, 13. Protestants if the prince wills it, 13. The intellectual under-tow

BOOK VIII - THE AGE OF THE GREAT POWERS - CHAPTER 34 Princes, Parliaments and Powers: 1. Princes and foreign policy, 2. The Dutch republic, 3. The English republic, 4. The break-up and disorder of Germany, 5. The splendours of Grand Monarchy in Europe, 6. Music in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, 7. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Paintings, 8. The growth of the idea of Great Powers, 9. The crowned republic of Poland and its fate, 10. The first scramble for empire overseas, 11. Britain dominates India, 12. Russia's ride to the Pacific, 13. What Gibbon thought of the world: in 1780, 14. The social truce draws to an end

CHAPTER 35. The New Democratic Republics of America and France: 1. Inconveniences of the Great Power system, 2. The thirteen colonies before their revolt, 3. Civil war is forced upon the colonies, 4. The War of Independence, 5. The Constitution of the United States, 6. Primitive features of the United States Constitution, 7. Revolutionary ideas in France, 8. The Revolution of the year 1789, 9. The French "Crowned Republic" of ’89-’91, 10. The Revolution of the Jacobins, 11. The Jacobin revolution, 1792-'94 12. The Directory, 13. The pause of reconstruction and the dawn of modern Socialism CHAPTER 36. The Career of Napoleon Bonaparte 1. The Bonaparte family in Corsica, 2. Bonaparte as a republican general, 3. Napoleon First Consul, 1799-1804, 4. Napoleon 1, Emperor, 1804-14, 5. The Hundred Days, 6. The map of Europe in 1815, 7. Empire Style CHAPTER 37. The Realities and Imaginations of the Nineteenth Century: 1. The mechanioal revolution, 2. Relation of the mechanical to the industrial revolution, 3. The fermentation of ideas, 1848, 4. The development of the idea of Socialism, 6. Shortcomings of Socialism as a scheme of human society, 6. How Darwinism affected religious and political ideas, 7. The idea of Nationalism, 8. The Great Exhibition of 1851, 10. Lincoln and the Civil War in America, 11. The Russo-Turkish War and the Treaty of Berim, 12. The (second) scramble for overseas empire, 14. The history of Japan, 15. Close of the period of overseas expansion, 16. The British Empire in 1014, 17. Painting, Sculpture and Arcliiteoture, 18. Music in the Nineteenth Century, 19. The Rise of the Novel to Predominance in Literature, CHAPTER 38. The Catastrophe or Modern Imperialimsm: 1. The armed peace before the Great War, 2. Imperial Germany, 3. The spirit of Imperialism in Britain and Ireland, 4. Imperialism in France, Italy, and the Balkans, 6. Russia a Grand Monarchy, 6. The United States and the Imperial idea, 7. The immediate causes of the Great War, 8. A Summary of the Great War up to 1917, 9. The Great War from the Russian collapse to the Armistice CHAPTER 39. Twenty Years of Indecision and its Outcome: 1. A phase of moral exhaustion, 2. President Wilson at Versailles, 3. Constitution of the League of Nations, 4. The Treaties of 1910-20, 5. Bolshevism in Russia, 6. The Irish Free State, 7. The Far and Near East, 8. Debts, Money, Stabilization, 9. Tlie Great Crash of 1929, 10. The Spanish Tragedy 19. The Rise of Nazism, 12. The World slides to War, CHAPTER 40. The Second World War: 1. The Course of the War, 2. Outlook for Mankind - Chronological Table

Book VI "CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM" Chapter 30, Pg-385: "To the copious literature of the subject we must refer the reader who wishes to learn how Hasan, the son of Ali, was poisoned by his wife, and how Husein, his brother, was killed. We do but name them here, because they still afford a large section of mankind scope for sentimental partisanship and mutual annoyance. They are the two chief Shiite martyrs. Amidst the coming and going of their conflicts the old Kaaba at Mecca was burnt down, and naturally there began endless disputation whether it should be rebuilt in exactly like ancient form or on a much larger scale."

castle Captured By Mohammad

Books on History of Egypt
The ancient history of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Grecians and Macedonians --- by Charles Rollin, 1661-1741
Books on History of Jews and Israel

Books on History of Chivalry, Serfdom and Feudalism, England, Europe

A genealogical history of the kings of England, and monarchs of Great Britain: from the Conquest, Anno 1066, to the year 1677: in seven parts or books containing a Discourse of their Several Lives, Marriages, and Issues, Times of Birth, Death, Places of Burial, and Monumental Inscriptions with their Effigies, Seals, Tombs Cenotaphs, Devices, Arms, Quarterings, Crefts, and Supporters all engraven in copper plates. Furnished with several remarques and annotations --- By FRANCIS SANDFORD Esq; Lancaster Herald of Arms. In the SAVOY: Printed by Tho. Newcomb, for the Author, 1677.

Book-01: The Norman Dynasty CONTAINING A Genealogical History OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND, &c. From WILLIAM the CONQUEROR to Henry II. From the Year 1066. to the Year 1154.
Book-01-C-01: WILLIAM I. King of England, and Duke of Normandy, called the Conquerour
Book-01-C-02: ROBERT Duke of NORMANDY, named COURTOIS
Book-01-C-03: William II: King of ENGLAND and Duke of NORMANDY, surnamed RUFUS
Book-01-C-04: HENRY I, King of ENGLAND, and Duke of NORMANDY, surnamed BEAU-CLERKE
Book-01-C-05: MAUD: The Empress, daughter of King Henry the First, and Lady of the English
Book-01-C-06: STEPHEN, King of England
Book-01-C-07: ROBERT, Consul, or Earl of GLOCESTER, Surnamed of CAINE
Book-01-C-08: WILLIAM, Consul, or Earl of GLOCESTER, and Lord of GLAMORGAN
Book-01-C-09: REGINALD, the Earl of Cornwall, surnamed de Dunstanvile
Book-02: Plantagenets Undivided. Containing A Genealogical History OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND From Henry II. to EDWARD I. From the Year 1154. to the Year 1272.
Book-02-C-01: HENRY II, King of ENGLAND, Duke of Normandy, and Earl of Aquitaine Surnamed FITZS-EPMERESS.
Book-02-C-02: RICHARD I, King of ENGLAND, Duke of Normandy, and Aquitaine and Earl of Antov Surnamed Coeur de Lion
Book-02-C-03: John, King of England, Lord of IRELAND, Duke of Normandy, and Aquitaine and Earl of Antov Surnamed San Terre
Book-02-C-04: Henry III, King of England, Lord of IRELAND, Duke of Normandy, and Aquitaine and Earl of Antov Surnamed of Winchester
Book-02-C-05: RICHARD, King of Romans, and of ALMAINE, and Earl of POICTIERS and CORNWAL
Book-02-C-06: EDMOND of ALMAINE, and Earl of CORNWAL
Book-02-C-07: EDMOND, Earl of LANCASTER, LIECESTER, DERBY, and CAMPAIGNE, Lord of Monmouth and Steward of England surnamed CROUCH-BACK
Book-02-C-08: THOMAS, Earl of LANCASTER, LIECESTER, DERBY, and LINCOLN, and Steward of England
Book-02-C-09: HENRY, Earl of LANCASTER, LIECESTER, DERBY, and PROVENCE, Lord of Monmouth and Steward of England
Book-02-C-10: HENRY, Duke of LANCASTER, Earl of LIECESTER, DERBY, and LINCOLNE; Steward of England, and Lord of BRUGGIRACK and BEAUFORT, surnamed GRISMOND or TOTR-COL
Book-02-C-11: WILLIAM, Earl of SALISBURY and ROSMAR (a Natural son of king Henry the Second), surnamed LONGESPEE
Book-02-C-12: WILLIAM, LONGESPEE, Second of the Name, Earl of SALISBURY
Book-02-C-13: WILLIAM, LONGESPEE, Third of the Name
Book-03: Plantagenets Undivided. Containing A Genealogical History OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND &c From EDWARD I. to Henry IV. to From the Year 1272. to the Year 1400.
Book-03-C-01: EDWARD I, King of England, Lord of IRELAND, and Duke of Aquitaine Surnamed LONGSHANKS
Book-03-C-02: EDWARD II, King of England, Lord of IRELAND, and Duke of Aquitaine Surnamed of CAERNARVON

Keywords: Knight Templars, Mercy of the Church, See of Rome, Subduing of Wales, Crown of Scotland

Review: The book describes in minute detail of the dynastic succession of kings (Dukes, Earls, Nobleman, Barons, Countess...) and how the Christian kings used to have multiple wives and concubines. This book contains all the information to proove the deeply established caste system, familiy feud among sibling... in the Christian ruling classes of middle age Europe. There are details of King's coronation by priests and other noble class and how Church shall solemnize kings to perform his duties towards the causes of Chuch (pg 74-76). There are examples of envy, treachery and splits prevalent in rulers and kings to gain more power. It was common among Christian rulers of France, Austria, Sicily, Normandy... The book mentions the adjectives "natural son, natural daughter, base son" very frequently highlighting the extra-marital affairs in the ruling classes. Pg-19: RICHARD and WILLIAM, Bastard Sons of Robert Duke of Normandy, whom he begat of the young and beautiful Concubine of a certain old Priest living on the borders of France. These Children were by their Mother for a long time carefully educated, and being grown up, by her presented to the Duke in Normandy, who by several tokens made herself known to him; but he doubting of the Children, she in his presence purged them by Fire-Ordeal. Pg-32: JULIAN, another of the Natural Daughters of King Henry the Firft, was married to Euftace de Pacie, the Illegitimate Son of William, Lord of Bretvile, Pacie, and Ivory, Son and Heir of William Fitz-Osborne, and Elder Brother of Roger, both Earls of Hereford in England.

Child marriage and Dowry in Ruling Classes - Pg-34: After the death of Her Brother, William Duke of Normandy, drowned at Sea in his passage for England. This Maud came to be sole Heir to Her Father, King Henry the First; in the Fourth year of whose Reign she was born, and had not passed the Sixth year of Her age, when She was affianced at Utrecht, for the Eleventh, when She was married to the Emperor Henry the Fourth, with a Portion of 10000 Marks. The solemnity both of their nuptials and Coronation being celebrated at Menfz, in Germany. Pg-73: In his Infancy he was contracted to a Daughter of Raymond; Count of Barcelona and being grown up, was affianced to Adela or Alice, Daughter of Lewis the Seventh, King of France, but took to Wife neither. Alice his affianced Wife, being put into his Fathers hands, till she sould be of age fit for marriage, was then demanded by Richard, but by King Henry detained; its believed, because the King loved her Himself, and had made her unfit for his Son; Pg-81: ... and was not above seven years old, when to supply this want, the King assured Him certain Lands in England and Normandy and in the year 1173. and Month of February, a Marriage was agreed upon for Him at Montserrant in Averne, with Alice the Elder of the two Daughters and Coheirs of Humbert the Second, Earl of Maurienne... Pg-88: Things being now in pretty good order, He bestowes His Sister Issabel upon the Emperour Frederick II with a Dowry of 30000, ... Pg-93: King of Scots, youth of nine years old, being married to him at the City of York upon St. Stephens day Anno 36. of his Reign, and year of our Lord 1251. Their Nuptials were celebrated with all splendor and magnificence imaginable ... for besides other provisions, the Archbishop contributed 600 with his Oxen towards this grand Entertainment.

Polygamy - Pg-45: Among the Natural Children of King Henry the First, this Robert (surnamed (de Cadomo) of Cane) the place of his Birth) held the prime place, not onely in respect of being the first of that number, but also because his Mother was the most Noble of all his Fathers Concubines. Hereditary Wars - Pg-60: She (Eleanor of Aquitaine or Guyen) was the prime cause of those Bloody Wars, which long after continued as Hereditary betwixt England and France, and the fomenter of that unnatural discord betwixt Her Husband, and His Sons. Pg-114: "...it will not be impertinent to mention something of his Mother, Rosamond the Beautiful Daughter of Walter Lord Clifford, and the most Beloved-Concubine of King Henry the Second. Her the King kept at Woodstock in Lodgings so cunningly contrived, that no stranger could find the way in, yet Queen Eleanor did, being guided by a Thred."

Family Feuds: Pg-109 - "The Queen finding Earl Henry no fit Instrument for the execution of Her wicked intentions, took the King Her Husband out of his hands, under pretence that he gave him too much Liberty, and by the advice of the wicked Bishop of Hereford caused him to be murdered".

Tribal Wars within England: Pg 132 - "In the mean time King Edward sets upon Baliol, wins Barwick with the death of 1000 Scot". The King of France having notice of our Alliance with Flanders, invites that Earl to Paris, and there makes him and his Daughter Prisoners. Pf 133: the Earles of Hereford, Norfolk and Lincolne, (notwithstanding their former contempt) lead His Vauntguard, and won the famous Battel of Fonkirke, wherein were slain 30000 Scots, 260 Knights.

Volume 1: The History Of Chivalry Or Knighthood And Its Times by Charles Mills, 1788-1826


CHAP. I. THE ORIGIN AND FIRST APPEARANCES OF CHIVALRY IN EUROPE. General nature of chivalry..Military and moral chivalry ... Origin of chivalry ... Usages of the Germans ... Election of soldiers ... Fraternity..Dignity of obedience ... Gallantry ... The age of Charlemagne ... Chivalry modified by religion ... Ceremonies of AngloSaxon inauguration ... Chivalry sanctioned by councils, and regarded as a form of Christianity ... Nature of chivalric nobility ... Its degrees ... Knight banneret ... His qualifications ... By whom created ... His privileges ... His relation to the bar on ... And incidentally of the war-cry and the escutcheon..The knight ... Qualifications for knighthood..By whom created ... The squirehood ... General view of the other chapters on the institution of chivalry

CHAP. II. THE EDUCATION OF A KNIGHT. THE CEREMONIES OF INAUGURATION AND OF DEGRADATION. Description in romances of knightly education ... Hawking and hunting ... Education commenced at the age of seven ... Duties of the page ... Personal service ... Love and religion ... Martial exercises ... The squire ... His duties of personal service ... Curious story of a bold young squire ... Various titles of squires ... Duties of the squire in battle ... Gallantry ... Martial exercises ... Horsemanship ... Importance of squires in the battlefield ... Particularly at the battle of Bovines ... Preparations for knighthood ... The anxiety of the squire regarding the character of the knight from whom he was to receive the accolade ... Knights made in the battle-fields ... Inconveniences of this ... Knights of Mines ... General ceremonies of degradation ... Ceremonies in England

CHAP. III. THE EQUIPMENT. Beauty of the chivalric equipment ... The lance ... The pennon ... The axe, maule, and martel ... The sword ... Fondness of the knight for it ... Swords in romances ... The shield ... Various sorts of mail ... Mail ... Mail and plate ... Plate harness ... The scarf ... Surcoats ... Armorial bearings ... Surcoats of the military order ... The dagger of mercy — Story of its use ... Value of enquiries into ancient armour ... A precise knowledge unattainable ... Its general features interesting ... The broad lines of the subject ... Excellence of Italian armour ... Armour of the squire, &c ... Allegories made on armour ... The horse of the knight

CHAP. IV. THE CHIVALRIC CHARACTER. General array of knights ... Companions in arms ... The nature of a cavalier's valiancy ... Singular bravery of Sir Robert Knowles ... Bravery incited by vows ... Fantastic circumstances ... The humanities of chivalries war..Ransoming..Reason of courtesies in battles ... Curious pride of knighthood ... Prisoners..Instance of knightly honour ... Independence of knights, and knight-errantry ... Knight ... fought the battles of other countries ... English knights dislike wars in Spain ... Their disgust at Spanish wines ... Princi] their active conduct ... Knightly independence consistent with discipline ... Religion of the knight ... his devotion ... His intolerance ... General nature of his virtue ... Fidelity to obligations ... Generousness ... Singular instance of it ... Romantic excess of it ... Liberality ... Humility ... Courtesy ... every-day life of the KNiGHT ... Falconry ... Chess playing ... Story of a knight's love of chess ... Minstrelsy ... Romances Conversation ... Nature and form of chivalric entertainments ... Festival and vow of the pheasant

CHAP. V. DAMES AND DAMSELS, AND LADY-LOVE. Courtesy ... Education ... Music ... Grayer sciences ... Dress ... Knowledge of medicine ... Every-day life of the maiden ... Chivalric love ... The idolatry of the knight's passion ... Bravery inspired by love ... Character of woman in the eyes of a knight ... Peculiar nature of his love ... Qualities of knights admired by women ... A tale of chivalric love ... Constancy ... Absence of jealousy ... Knights asserted by arms their mistress' beauty ... Penitent of love ... Other peculiarities of chivalric love ... The passion universal ... Story of Aristotle ... Chivalric love the foe to feudal distinctions ... But preserved religion ... When attachments were formed..Societies of knights for the defence of ladies ... Knights of the lady in the green field..Customs in England ... Un chivalric to take wo- men prisoners ... Morals of chivalric times ... Heroines of chivalry ... Queen Philippa ... The Countess of March ... Tales of Jane of Mountfort and of Marzia degl' Ubaldini ... Nobleness of the chivalric female character

CHAP. VI. TOURNAMENTS AND JOUSTS. Beauty of chivalric sports ... Their superiority to those of Greece and Rome..Origin of tournaments ... Reasons for holding them..Practice in arms ... Courtesy ... By whom they were held..Qualifications for tourneying..Ceremonies the tournament. Arrival of the knights ... Publication of their names ... Reasons for it ... Disguised knights ... The lists ... Ladies the judges of the tournament ... Delicate courtesy at tournaments ... Morning of the sports ... Knights led by ladies, who imitated the dress of knights ... Nature of tourneying weapons ... Knights wore ladies' favours..The preparation ... The encounter ... What lance-strokes won the prize ... Conclusion of the sports ... The festival ... Delivery of the prize ... Knights thanked by ladies,.The ball ... Liberality ... Tournaments opposed by the popes ... The opposition unjust..The joust..Description of the joust to the utterance..Joust between a Scotch and an English knight ... Jousting for love of the ladies ... A singular instance of it..Joust between a French and an English squire ... Admirable skill of jousters ... Singular questions regarding jousts ... An Earl of Warwick ... Celebrated joust at St. Inglebertes ... Joust between Lord Scales and the Bastard of Burgundy ... The romance of jousts ... The passage of arms ... Use of tournaments and jousts

CHAP. VII. THE RELIGIOUS AND MILITARY ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. General principles of the religious orders..Qualifications for them..Use of these orders to Palestine ... Modern history of the Knights Templars ... Their present existence and state ... Religious orders in Spain ... That of St. James ... Its objects..Change of its ob- jects ... Order of Calatrava ... Fine chivalry of a monk ... Fame of this order ... Order of Alcantara ... Knights of the Lady of Mercy ... Knights of St. Michael ... Military orders ... Imitations of the religious orders ... Instanced in the order of the Garter ... Few of the present orders are of chivalric origin ... Order of the Bath ... Dormant orders ... Order of the Band ... Its singular rules ... Its noble enforcement of chivalric duties towards woman ... Order of Bourbon ... Strange titles of orders ... Fabulous orders ... The Round Table ... Sir Launcelot ... Sir Gawain ... Order of the Stocking ... Origin of the phrase Blue Stocking

CHAP. VIII. PROGRESS OF CHIVALRY IN ENGLAND, FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST TO THE CLOSE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD II. Chivalry connected with feudalism ... Stipendiary knights ... Knighthood a compulsory honour ... Fine instance of chivalry in the reign of Edward I ... Effect of chivalry in Stephen's reign ... Troubadours and romance writers in the reign of Henry II ... Chivalric manners of the time ... Coeur de Lion the first chivalric king ... His knightly bearing ... John and Henry III ... Edward I ... His gallantry at a tournament ... His unchivalric cruelties ... He possessed no knightly courtesy ... Picture of ancient manners ... Edward II ... Chivalric circumstance in the battle of Bannockburn ... Singular effect of chivalry in the reign of Edward II 382

The orders of chivalry by Lawrence-Archer, J. H. (James Henry), 1823-1889

Introductory Observations on Knighthood and The Orders of Chivali, The Orders of Europe, The Orders of Asia and Africa, The Orders of America and Poeynesia, A Chronological Roll of all Orders, General Notes, List of Authors and Authorities consulted, Index to the Extant Orders.
THE AGE OF CHIVALRY. PART I. KING ARTHUR AND HIS KNIGHTS. PART II. THE MABINOGEON; OR, WELSH POPULAR TALES. BY THOMAS BULFINCH, Part-I: 1. Introduction, 2. The Mythical History of England, 3. Merlin, 4. Arthur, 5. Arthur, continued , 6. Sir Gawain, 7. Caradoc Briefbras or Caradoc with the Shrunken Arm, 8. Launcelot ofthe Lake, 9. The Adventure ofthe Cart, 10. The Lady of Shalott, 11. Queen Guenever’s Peril, 12. Tristram and Isoude, 13. Tristram and Isoude, 14. Sir Tristram’s Battle with Sir Launcelot, 15. The Round Table, 16. Sir Palamedes, 17. Sir Tristram, 18. Perceval, 19. The Sangreal, or Holy Graal, 20. The Sangreal, continued, 21. The Sangreal,continued, 22. Sir Agrivain’s Treason, 23. Morte D’Arthur

Part-II: 1. The Britons, 2. The Lady of the Fountain, 3. The Lady of the Fountain, continued, 4. The Lady of the Fountain, continued, 5. Geraint, the Son of Erbin, 6. Geraint, the Son of Erbin, continued, 7. Geraint, the Son of Erbin, continued, 8. Pwyll, Prince of Dyved, 9. Branwen, the Daughter of Llyr, 10. Manawyddan, 11. Kilwich and Olwen, 12. Kilwich and Olwen, continued, 13. Taliesin

Pg-16: "At seven years of age the noble children were usually removed from their father’s house to the court or castle of their future patron." Pg-18: "He then clothed himself in snow-white garments, and repaired to the church, or the hall, where the ceremony was to take place, bearing a knightly sword suspended from his neck, which the officiating priest took and blessed, and then returned to him. FREEMEN, VILLAINS, SERFS, AND CLERKS: The other classes of which society was composed were, first, freemen, owners of small portions of land, independent, though they sometimes voluntarily became the vassals of their more opulent neighbors, whose power was necessary for their protection. Pg-19: The other two classes, which were much the most numerous, were either serfs or villains, both of which were slaves.

Pg-19: The serfs were in the lowest state of slavery. All the fruits of their labor belonged to the master whose land they tilled, and by whom they were fed and clothed.

pg-19: The villains were less degraded. Like the serfs, they were attached to the soil, and were transferred with it by purchase; but they paid only a fixed rent to the landlord, and had a right to dispose of any surplus that might arise from their industry. Pg-23: In ages when there were no books, when noblemen and princes themselves could not read, history or tradition was monopolized by the story-tellers. Pg-26: The Anglo-Saxon was at that time used only by a conquered and enslaved nation. The Spanish and Italian languages were not yet formed.


CHAP. I. Introduction. —Origin and Early History of Chivalry, CHAP. II. Early History of Chivalry in France—Spain—England. —Its relation to Feudalism. —Its degeneracy CHAP. III. The Initiatory Ceremonies of Knighthood. —Its Sacred Character CHAP. IV. The Uses and Abuses of Knighthood —Its outward Pageants CHAP. V. The Moral Influence of Chivalry. -The Truth, Honour, and Gallantry of Knighthood CHAP. VI. Introductory Remarks on the Origin of the Crusades — Establishment of Mahometanism CHAP. VII. Pilgrimages CHAP. VIII. Peter the Hermit—The success which attended his exertions CHAP. IX. The First Crusade—Siege and Conquest of Nice CHAP. X. Disasters of the Crusaders —Siege and Conquest of Antioch CHAP. XI. Defeat of the Saracens before Antioch —The Crusaders approach Jerusalem CHAP. XII. Siege and Capture of Jerusalem, and consequent Slaughter of the Saracens. — Godfrey elected Prince —Gains the Battle of Ascalon —Promulgates his celebrated Code of Laws.

Pg-19: "How little effect their new religion had in softening the habits of the Northmen when they first embraced it".

ENGLAND UNDER THE TUDORS AND STEWARTS 1485-1688 by MARION FLAVELL Foemerly Head Mistress of Windsor Street Girls' School, Birmingham and S E MATTS Head Master of Gower Street Secondary Modern School, Birmingham

First Period. Passing of the Middle Ages, The Tudor Peace — Henry VII, 1485-1509 —How Henry ruled the Nobles —How Henry Strengthened the Tudor Dynasty — How Home and Abroad — Rise of Henry Fostered Trade at Home and Abroad —Rise of the Woollen Industry —A New Foreign Policy — The Age of Discovery — The Renaissance or Rebirth of Learning — Headings and hints for notes — Exercises Maps and Plans — Extracts — Exercises on Extracts — Books for reference and additional reading

Second Period Henry VIII and the Church -Wolsey’s Fall, The Birth of the Reformation, — Breach with Rome -Dissolution of the Monasteries — Last Years of Henry VIII — Time chart, 1485-1547, — Headings and hints for notes, &c as in First Period

Third Period Edtuard VI, 1547-1553 -Protectorate of Somerset, -Triumph of Reformers -Distress in the Country -Northumberland as Protector -Mary, 1553-1558 Catholic Reaction — Persecution of Protestants, —The Queen of Tragedy —Headings and hints for notes, &c, as in former periods

Fourth Period - England Undei Elizabeth, 1558-1603 The Religious Settlement —Scottish Affairs —England and Spain —Hawkins and Drake —The Spanish Armada —Headings and hints for notes, &c, as in former periods

Fifth Period After the Storm — Great Elizabethans —Sir Walter Raleigh —Elizabethan Literature —Last Years of Elizabeth —The Poor Law of 1601 —Time chart, &c as in former periods

Sixth Period Life Tudor Times The Manor House —Dress —Sports and Pastimes —Roads and Travel —A Tudor Town —Headings and hints for notes, &c as in former periods

Seventh Period The House of Stewart I — Authorized James Version of the Bible —The Pilgrims Fathers —The Gun-powder Plot — Divine Right of Kings —The King and Parliament — The Spanish Policy — Charles I and Parliament — The Petition of Right — Eleven Years’ Tyranny -Headings and hints for notes, &c

Eighth Period The Civil War and the Commonwealth -The Great Civil War -1642-1649 — Oliver Cromwell -The Commonwealth, 1649-1660— Robert Blake - The Soldier Admiral— Cromwell as Protector -Headings and hints for notes, &c, as in former periods

Ninth Period Life in Stewart Times -Dress in the Seventeenth Century— Stewart Children— The Newspaper— Travel— Literature— John Milton— John Bunyan—The Land— Headings and hints for notes, &c, as in former periods

Tenth Period Restoration to Revolution, 1660-1689, The King Restored — Character of Charles II — Progress of Science — Religious Difficulties — The Second Dutch War— The Great Plague — The Great Fire, 1666 —London Rebuilt — The Cabal -Wild Rumours — James II 1685-1688 — Declaration of the of Indulgence — The Trial of the Seven Bishops — The Glorious Revolution, 1688 —Time chart, &c, as in former periods

Twelve Memorable Dates

Books on History of Mayans, Aztecs, Red Indians

Books on Secrete Societies
SECRET SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES by Thomas Keightley. THE ASSASSINS. CHAPTER I. State of the World in the Seventh Century —Western Empire —Eastern Empire —Persia—Arabia — Mohammed —His probable Motives —Character of his Religion —The Koran

CHAPTER II. Origin of the Khalifat —The first Khalifs —Extent of the Arabian Empire —Schism among the Mohammedans —Soonees and Sheahs —Sects of the latter —The Keissanee —The Zeidites —The Ghoollat —The Imamee —Sects of the Imamee —Their political Character —The Carmathites —Origin of the Fatimite Khalifs —Secret Society at Cairo —Doctrines taught in it —Its Decline

CHAPTER III. Ali of Rei —His son Hassan Sabah —Hassan sent to study at Nishaboor —Meets there Omar Khiam and Nizam-al-Mvolk —Agreement made by them —Hassan introduced by Nizam to Sultan Malek Shah —Obliged to leave the Court —Anecdote of him —His own account of his Conversion —Goes to Egypt —Returns to Persia —Makes himself Master of Alamoot. CHAPTER IV. Description of Alamoot —Fruitless attempts to recover it —Extension of the Ismailite Power —The Ismailites in Syria —Attempt on the Life of Aboo-Hard Issa —Treaty made with Sultan Sanjar —Death of Hassan —His Character

CHAPTER V. Organization of the Society —Names given to the Ismailites —Origin of the name Assassin —Marco Polo's description of the Paradise of the Old Man of the Mountain —Description of it given by Arabian writers -Instances of the obedience of the Fedavee CHAPTER VI. Keih Buzoorg Oomeid —A flairs of the Society in Persia —They acquire the Castle of Banias in Syria —Attempt to betray Damascus to the Crusaders —Murders committed during the reign of Keth Buzoorg CHAPTER VII. Keaih Mohammed —Murder of the Khalif —Castles gained in Syria —Ismailite Confession of Faith —Mohammed’s Son Hassan gives himself out for the promised Imam —His followers punished —Succession of Hassan —He abolishes the Law —Pretends to be descended from the Prophet —Is murdered CHAPTER VIII. Mohammed II. —Anecdote of the Imam Fakhr-ed-deen —Noor-ed-deen —Conquest of Egypt —Attempt on the Life of Saladin CHAPTER IX. Sinan the Dai-al Kebir of Syria —Offers to become a Christian —His Ambassador murdered by the Templars -Cardinal de Vitry’s Account of the Assassins;—Murder of the Marquis of Montferrat—Defence of King ; Richard.

CHAPTER X. Death of Jellal-ed-deen —Character of Aia-ed-deen, his successor —The Sheikh Jemal-ed-deen —The Astronomer Nasir-ed-deen —The Vizir Sheref-al-Moolk —Death of Ala-ed-deen —Succession of Rukn-ed-deen, the last Sheikh-al-Jebal CHAPTER XI. The Mongols —Hoolagoo sent against the Ismailites —Rukn-ed-deen submits —Capture of Alamoot —Destruction of the Library —Fate of Rukn-ed-deen —Massacre of the Ismailites —St. Louis and the Assassins —Mission for the Conversion of the People of Kuhistao —Conclusion

THE TEMPLARS. CHAPTER I. Introduction —The Crusades —Wrong Ideas respecting their Origin —True Causes of them —Pilgrimage —Pilgrimage of Frotmond —Of the Count of Anjou —Striking Difference between the Christianity of the East and that of the West —Causes of their different Characters —Feudalism —The Extent and Force of this Principle. CHAPTER II. First Hospital at Jerusalem —Church of Santa Maria de Latina —Hospital of St. John —The Hospitallers —Origin of the Templars —Their original Poverty —They acquire Consideration —St. Bernard —His Character of the Templars —The Order approved of and confirmed by the Council of Troyes —Proofs of the Esteem in which they were held CHAPTER III. Return of the Templars to the East —Exoneration and Refutation of the Charge of a Connection with the Ismailites —Actions of the Templars —Crusade of Louis VII. —Siege of Ascalon —Sale of Nassir-ed-deen —Corruption of the Hospitallers —The Bull, Ommne Datum Optimum —Refusal of the Templars to march against Egypt —Murder of the Ismailite Envoy

CHAPTER IV. Heroism of the Templars and Hospitallers —Battle of Hittin —Crusade of Richard of England and Philip of France —Corruption of the Order —Pope Innocent III. writes a Letter of Censure —Frederic I1. —Great Slaughter of the Templars —Henry III. of England and the Templars —Power of the Templars in Moravia —Slaughter of them by the Hospitallers —Falluf Acre CHAPTER V. Classes of the Templars —The Knights— Their Qualifications —Mode of Reception —Dress and Arms of the Knight —Mode of Burial —The Chaplains —Mode of Reception —Dress —Duties and Privileges —The Serving-Brethren —Mode of Reception —Their Duties —The Affiliated —Causes and Advantages of Affiliation —The Donates and Oblates CHAPTER VI. Provinces of the Order —Eastern Provinces —Jerusalem —Houses of this Province —Tripolis —Antioch —Cyprus —Western Provinces —Portugal —Castile and Leon —Aragon —France and Auvergne —Normandy —Aquitaine —Provence —England —Germany — Upper and Central Italy —Apulia and Sicily CHAPTER VII. Officers of the Order—The Master —Mode of Election —His Rights and Privileges —Restraints on him —The Seneschal —The Marshal —The Treasurer —The Draper —The Turcopilar —Great-Priors —Commanders —Visitors —Sub-Marshal —Standard-bearer

CHAPTER VIII. Chapters—Mode of holding them—Templars’ Mode of Living—Amusements—Conduct in War CHAPTER IX. Molay elected Master—Last attempt of the Christians in Syria—Conduct of the Three Military Orders —Philip the Fair and Pope Boniface VIII. —Seizure of the Pope —Election of Clement V. —The Papal See removed to France —Causes of Philip's enmity to the Templars —Arrival of Molay in France —His interviews with the Pope —Charges made against the Templars —Seizure of the Knights —Proceedings in England —Nature of the Charges against the Order CHAPTER X. Examination of the captive Knights —Different kinds of Torture —Causes of Confession —What Confessions were made —Templars brought before the Pope —Their Declarations —Papal Commission —Molay brought before it—Ponsard de Gisi—Defenders of the Order —Act of Accusation —Heads of Defence —Witnesses against the Order —Fifty-four Templars committed to the Flames at Paris —Remarkable words of Aymeric de Villars-le-Duc —Templars burnt in other places —Further Examinations —The Head worshipped by the Templars —John de Pollincourt —Peter de la Palu CHAPTER XI. Examinations in England —Germany —Spain —Italy —Naples and Provence —Sicily —Cyprus —Meeting of the ouncil of Vienne —Suppression of the Order —Fate of its Members—Death of Molay

THE SECRET TRIBUNALS OF WESTPHALIA. CHAPTER I. Introduction —The Original Westphalia —Conquest of the Saxons by Charlemagne —His Regulations —Dukes of Saxony —State of Germany —Henry the Lion —His Qutlawry —Consequences ot it —Origin of German Towns —Origin of the Fehmgerichte, or Secret Tribunals —Theories of their Origin —Origin of their Name —Synonymous Terms CHAPTER II. The Tribunal-Lord —The Count —The Schéppen —The Messengers —The Public Court —The Secret Tribunal —Extent of its Jurisdiction —Places of holding the Courts —Time of holding them —Proceedings in them —Process where the Criminal was caught in the fact —Inquisitorial Process CHAPTER III. Accusatorial Process —Persons liable to it —Mode of Citation —Mode of Procedure —Right of Appeal CHAPTER IV. The General Chapter —Rights of the Emperor —Of his Lieutenant —Of the Stuhlherrn, or Tribunal-Lords CHAPTER V. Fehm-courts at Celle —At Brnnswick —Tribunal of the Knowing in the Tyrol—The Castle of Baden —African Purrahs CHAPTER VI. The Emperor Lewis the Bavarian —Charles 1V. —Wenceslaus —Rupertian Reformation —Encroachments of the Fehm-courts —Case of Nickel Weller and the Town of Gérlitz —Of the City of Dantzig —Of Hans David and the Teutonic Knights —Other instances of the presumption of the Free-counts —Citation of the Emperor Frederic 11I1. —Case of the Count of Teckenburg CHAPTER VII. Cause of the degeneracy of the Fehm-courts —Attempts at reformation —Causes of their high reputation —Case of the Duke of Wirtemberg —Of Kerstian Kerkerink —Causes of the Decline of the Fehm-jurisdiction

Books on Battles, Wars and Military Operations

Books on Dogmas, Eschatology, Social Disorders



Table of Contents

01. Beginnings of the Inquisition 9, 02. The Inquisition of Toulouse 23, 03. Laws And Customs 43, 04. Laws And Customs (Continued) 56, 05. Laws And Customs (Concluded) 66, 06. France 78, 07. Spain The Modern Inquisition Established 83, 08. Spain Triumphs Of The Inquisitors 95, 09. Spain Granada Expulsion Of The Jews 105, 10. Spain Moors And Moriscoes 116, 11. Spain Deza And Ximenez De Cisneros, Inquisitors 129, 12. Spain The Inquisition Under Charles I. And Philip II 142, 13. Spain Preparations For An Auto De Fe 154, 14. Spain Autos De Fe 164, 15. Spain More Autos De Fe 179, 16. Spain The Case Of Carranza, Archbishop Of Toledo 194, 17. Spain Progress And Decline Of The Inquisition 211, 18. Spain Inquisition Abolished Tribunals Of The Faith 228, 19. Portugal 243, 20. Ndia 260, 21. India (Concluded) 281, 22. South America 288, 23. Italy The Old Inquisition 303, 24. Italy The Old Inquisition (Concluded) 325, 25. Italy Inquisition Of The Cardinals 338, 26. Inquisition Of The Cardinals (Concluded) 355, 27. Italy The Inquisition As It Is 367

Keywords: Inquisition, heresy, heretics, capital punishment

This book covers detailed account of inquisitions and role of church. There are references to heretics being sentenced capital punishment. The purpose of inquisition was not to just address the heretics but ensure people comply to Catholic faith and attend Sunday mass in addition to other traditions.

Excerpts and Review: "The king of England has kissed the Pope's foot; and, not presuming to occupy a chair in his presence, has sat down, with his barons, on the floor, in the abbey of Bourg-Dieu. Thus abject are Englishmen in the twelfth century."

Pg-11: "Wherefore we command the bishops, and all the priests of the Lord, dwelling in those parts, to keep watch, and under peril of anathema to prohibit that, where followers of that heresy are known, any one in the country shall dare to afford them refuge, or to lend them help. Neither shall there be any dealings with such persons in buying or selling; that, all solace of humanity being utterly lost, they may be compelled to forsake the error of their life. And whoever shall attempt to contravene this order, shall be smitten with anathema as a partaker of their iniquity. But they, if they be taken, shall be thrown into prison by Catholic princes, and be deprived of all their goods."

Pg-11: "The next General Council was holden at Rome, (A. D. 1179,) in the church of the Lateran, the mother church, as it is called." Pg-14: The Church employs excommunication and other censures: the emperor, the lords, and the magistrates, are to inflict temporal penalties. And after the Church has spent her spiritual weapons, she leaves the subjects of her displeasure to be smitten by the secular arm. This is the theory of the Inquisition. Pg-15: we may therefore say, that in the period of twenty-one years, from the Council of Tours to that of Verona, the general plan was formed. Hitherto the bishops had been acknowledged as guardians of the faith, and intrusted with the duty of making inquisition. It was not enough that each episcopal court should take cognizance of heresy, and that every magistrate should be at the command of his diocesan to burn the culprits he condemned.

Pg-21: "An exact list of all the inhabitants was to be kept in every parish; and all males above fourteen years, and females above twelve, should swear to the bishop, or his delegate, that they utterly renounced heresy, held the Catholic faith, and would persecute and denounce heretics. Negligent bailiffs were to be chastised, and houses wherein the guilty had found shelter were to be pulled down." Pg-24: L. SENTENCIARUM, "Book of Sentences" that is to say, of sentences passed on culprits in the Inquisition of Toulouse. Pg-33: "Even the partial defection of a priest could not escape the vigilance of the inquisitors."

Pg-54: "Heresy is a sin of the soul, and therefore confession may be the only evidence possible.", "But the prisoner must not communicate with his advocate except in the presence of the inquisitor." Pg-55: "If he appeal to the Pope, observe that all the laws agree that a heretic has no right to appeal."

Torture for Heretics: Pg-56: "When you subject a prisoner to torture, in order to compel him to confess, observe the rules following: Torture is inflicted on one who confesses the principal fact, but varies as to circumstances. Also on one who is reputed to be a heretic, but against whom there is only one witness of the fact. In this case common rumour is one indication of guilt, and the direct evidence is another, making altogether but semi-plenar proof. The torture may bring out full proof. Also, when there is no witness, but vehement suspicion. Also, when there is no common report of heresy, but only one witness who has heard or seen something in him contrary to the faith. Any two indications of heresy will justify the use of torture." Read this chapter for a detailed explaination of torture enforeced to get the confession.

The other Tudors: Henry VIII's Mistresses and Bastards by Jones, Pip.

Everybody thinks they know the tale of King Henry VIII's wives: divorced, beheaded died; divorced, beheaded, survived. But behind this familiar story, lies a far more complex truth. This book brings together for the first time the 'other women' of King Henry VIII. When he first came to the throne, Henry VIII's mistresses were dalliances, the playthings of a powerful and handsome man. However, when Anne Boleyn disrupted that pattern, ousting Katherine of Aragon to become Henry's wife, a new status quo was established. Suddenly noble families fought to entangle the king with their sisters and daughters; if wives were to be beheaded or divorced so easily, the mistress of the king was in an enviable position. While Henry VIII has frequently been portrayed as a womanizer, author Philippa Jones reveals a new side to his character. Although he was never faithful, Jones sees him as a serial monogamist: he spent his life in search of a perfect woman, a search that continued even as he lay dying when he was considering divorcing Catherine Parr thus leaving him free to marry Katherine d'Eresby. Yet he loved each of his wives and mistresses, he was a romantic who loved being in love, but none of these loves ever fully satisfied him; all were ultimately replaced. "The Other Tudors" examines the extraordinary untold tales of the women who Henry loved but never married, the mistresses who became queens and of his many children, both acknowledged and unacknowledged. Philippa Jones takes us deep into the web of secrets and deception at the Tudor Court and explores another, often unmentioned, side to the King's character.

The hidden lives of Tudor women: a social history by Norton, Elizabeth

The first age -- Of babies and bellies: Elizabeth of York and the first Elizabeth Tudor -- Of nurses and nurseries: Cecily Burbage, Elizabeth of York and the infant Elizabeth Tudor -- Of toys and terminations: Elizabeth Tudor's brief life -- The second age -- Of young ladies and learning: the Countess of Surrey's girls, Jane Dormer, Lady Bryan and Margaret Beaufort -- Of servants and masters: Elizabeth Barton, maidservant -- The third age -- Of love and marriage: Cecily Burbage and Elizabeth Boleyn -- Of apprentices and aspirations: Katherine Fenkyll, wife and business partner -- The fourth age -- Of city trade and London life: Katherine Fenkyll, independent businesswoman -- Of visions and revelations: Elizabeth Barton, the Holy Maid of Kent -- Of mistresses and mystics: Catherine of Aragon, the Boleyns and Elizabeth Barton -- Of politics and prophecies: Elizabeth Barton and Anne Boleyn -- Of inquisitions and treasons: Elizabeth Barton and Anne Boleyn -- The fifth age -- Of pilgrimages and punishments -- Margaret Cheyne, Lady Bulmer -- Of bibles and burnings: Joan Bocher, Princess Mary and Jane Grey -- Of Protestants and pyres: Margaret Clitherow and the new Queen Elizabeth -- The sixth age -- Of settlements and proposals: Queen Elizabeth and Rose Hickman -- The seventh age -- Of wigs and witchcraft: Queen Elizabeth in her sixties, and the witches of England -- Of frailties and finalities: Jane Dormer, "Gloriana" and the poor women of England -- Epilogue: Stuart women

Papal Bulls:

Inter Caetera: Pope Alexander VI - Demarcation Bull Granting Spain Possession of Lands Discovered by Columbus Rome, May 4, 1493. The Charter Given by Henry VII to John Cabot (1496): Shortly after Inter Caetera, the King of England granted Letters Patent to Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot), giving him authority to conquer for England any lands he may discover as long as these were not known to any Christians.

Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious sovereigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, and Granada, health and apostolic benediction. Among other works well pleasing to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself. Wherefore inasmuch as by the favor of divine clemency, we, though of insufficient merits, have been called to this Holy See of Peter, recognizing that as true Catholic kings and princes, such as we have known you always to be, and as your illustrious deeds already known to almost the whole world declare, you not only eagerly desire but with every effort, zeal, and diligence, without regard to hardships, expenses, dangers, with the shedding even of your blood, are laboring to that end; recognizing also that you have long since dedicated to this purpose your whole soul and all your endeavors - as witnessed in these times with so much glory to the Divine Name in your recovery of the kingdom of Granada from the yoke of the Saracens - we therefore are rightly led, and hold it as our duty, to grant you even of our own accord and in your favor those things whereby with effort each day more hearty you may be enabled for the honor of God himself and the spread of the Christian rule to carry forward your holy and praiseworthy purpose so pleasing to immortal God.

We have indeed learned that you, who for a long time had intended to seek out and discover certain islands and mainlands remote and unknown and not hitherto discovered by others, to the end that you might bring to the worship of our Redeemer and the profession of the Catholic faith their residents and inhabitants, having been up to the present time greatly engaged in the siege and recovery of the kingdom itself of Granada were unable to accomplish this holy and praiseworthy purpose; but the said kingdom having at length been regained, as was pleasing to the Lord, you, with the wish to fulfill your desire, chose our beloved son, Christopher Columbus, a man assuredly worthy and of the highest recommendations and fitted for so great an undertaking, whom you furnished with ships and men equipped for like designs, not without the greatest hardships, dangers, and expenses, to make diligent quest for these remote and unknown mainlands and islands through the sea, where hitherto no one had sailed; and they at length, with divine aid and with the utmost diligence sailing in the ocean sea, discovered certain very remote islands and even mainlands that hitherto had not been discovered by others; wherein dwell very many peoples living in peace, and, as reported, going unclothed, and not eating flesh. Moreover, as your aforesaid envoys are of opinion, these very peoples living in the said islands and countries believe in one God, the Creator in heaven, and seem sufficiently disposed to embrace the Catholic faith and be trained in good morals.

And it is hoped that, were they instructed, the name of the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, would easily be introduced into the said countries and islands. Also, on one of the chief of these aforesaid islands the said Christopher has already caused to be put together and built a fortress fairly equipped, wherein he has stationed as garrison certain Christians, companions of his, who are to make search for other remote and unknown islands and mainlands. In the islands and countries already discovered are found gold, spices, and very many other precious things of divers kinds and qualities. Wherefore, as becomes Catholic kings and princes, after earnest consideration of all matters, especially of the rise and spread of the Catholic faith, as was the fashion of your ancestors, kings of renowned memory, you have purposed with the favor of divine clemency to bring under your sway the said mainlands and islands with their residents and inhabitants and to bring them to the Catholic faith. Hence, heartily commending in the Lord this your holy and praiseworthy purpose, and desirous that it be duly accomplished, and that the name of our Savior be carried into those regions, we exhort you very earnestly in the Lord and by your reception of holy baptism, whereby you are bound to our apostolic commands, and by the bowels of the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, enjoy strictly, that inasmuch as with eager zeal for the true faith you design to equip and despatch this expedition, you purpose also, as is your duty, to lead the peoples dwelling in those islands and countries to embrace the Christian religion; nor at any time let dangers or hardships deter you therefrom, with the stout hope and trust in your hearts that Almighty God will further your undertakings. And, in order that you may enter upon so great an undertaking with greater readiness and heartiness endowed with benefit of our apostolic favor, we, of our own accord, not at your instance nor the request of anyone else in your regard, but out of our own sole largess and certain knowledge and out of the fullness of our apostolic power, by the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ, which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents, should any of said islands have been found by your envoys and captains, give, grant, and assign to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, forever, together with all their dominions, cities, camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, all islands and mainlands found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole, namely the north, to the Antarctic pole, namely the south, no matter whether the said mainlands and islands are found and to be found in the direction of India or towards any other quarter, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde.

With this proviso however that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince up to the birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ just past from which the present year one thousand four hundred ninety-three begins. And we make, appoint, and depute you and your said heirs and successors lords of them with full and free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind; with this proviso however, that by this our gift, grant, and assignment no right acquired by any Christian prince, who may be in actual possesssion of said islands and mainlands prior to the said birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ, is hereby to be understood to be withdrawn or taking away. Moreover we command you in virtue of holy obedience that, employing all due diligence in the promises, as you also promise - nor do we doubt your compliance therein in accordance with your loyalty and royal greatness of spirit - you should appoint to the aforesaid mainlands and islands worthy, God-fearing, learned, skilled, and expeienced men, in order to instruct the aforesaid inhabitants and residents in the Catholic faith and train them in good morals. Furthermore, under penalty of excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should anyone thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of whatsoever rank, even imperial and royal, or of whatsoever estate, degree, order, or condition, to dare without your special permit or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the purpose of trade or any other reason to the islands or mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole to the Antarctic pole, no matter whether the mainlands and islands, found and to be found, lie in the direction of India or toward any other quarter whatsoever, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south, as is aforesaid, from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde; apostolic constitutions and ordinances and other decrees whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. We trust in Him from whom empires and governments and all good things proceed, that, should you, with the Lord's guidance, pursue this holy and praiseworthy undertaking, in a short while your hardships and endeavors will attain the most felicitious result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom. But inasmuch as it would be difficult to have these present letters sent to all places where desirable, we wish, and with similar accord and knowledge do decree, that to copies of them, signed by the hand of a public notary commissioned therefor, and sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or ecclesiastical court, the same respect is to be shown in court and outside as well as anywhere else as would be given to these presents should they thus be exhibited or shown. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness contravene, this our recommendation, exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, constitution, deputation, decree, mandate, prohibition, and will. Should anyone presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and ninety-three, the fourth of May, and the first year of our pontificate.

Inter Caetera: Pope Alexander VI ends.


Bull of the Pope Pius V. Concerning the Damnation, Excommunication, and Deposition Q. ELIZABETH as also the Absolution of her Subjects of their Oath of Allegiance with a Peremptory Injunction, upon Pain of an Anathema, never to Obey any of her Laws or Commands. With some Observations and Animadversions upon it: By THOMAS Lord Bishop of Lincoln. Whereunto is Annexed the Bull of Pope Paul the Third, Containing the Damnation, Excommunication, &c. of King Henry the Eighth

The Damnation and Excommunication of Elizabeth Queen of England and her Adherents, with an Addition of other punishments. Damnatio & Excommunicatio Elijabethae Regime Angliae, eique Adhaerentium, cum aliarum paenarum Adjectione.
Pius Bishop, Servant to God’s Servants, for a perpetual memorial of the matter, Pius Episcopus, Servus Servorum Dei ad perpetuam Rei memoriam,
He that, to reigneth whom is given all Power in Heaven & in Earth, committed one Holy, Catholick and Apostolick Church (out of which there is no Salvation) to one alone upon Earth, namely, to Peter the Prince of the Apostles, and to Peter's Successor the Bishop of Rome, to be governed in fulness of Power. Him alone he made Prince over all People, and all Kingdoms, to pluck up, destroy, scatter, consume, plant and build, that he may contain the faithful that are knit together with the band of Charity, in the Unity of Spirit, and present them spotless, and unblameable to their Saviour. Regnans in Excelsis, cue data est Omnis in Coelo & in Terra Potestas, unam Sanblam, Catholicam & Apofiolicam Ecclefiam (extra qnam nulla est salus) soli in terris, videlicet Apostolornm Principi Petro Petrique Successori Romano Pontifici, in Poteftatis plenitudine tradidit Gubernandam Hunc unum fuper omnes Gentes & omnia Regna Principem conftituity qui evellat, deftrnat, dissipet, disperdat, plantet y & aedificet, ut fidelem populum, mutae Charitatis, nexu constrictum, in unitate Spiritus contineat, salvuque & incolumem suo exhibeat salvatori.
§. I. In discharge of which Function, we which are by goodness called to the Government of the aforesaid Church, do spare no pains, labouring with all earnestness, that Unity, and the Catholica Religion (which the Author thereof hath for the trial of his Children’s Faith, and for our amendment, suffered with so great Afflictions) might be preserved uncorrupt: But the number of the ungodly hath gotten such power, there is now no place in the whole World, which they have not assayed to corrupt with their most wicked Doctrines: Amongst others, Elizabeth, the pretended Queen of England, a Slave of Wickedness, lending thereunto her helping hand, with whom, as in a Sanctuary, the most pernicious of all men have found a Refuge. This very Woman having seized on the Kingdom, and monstrously usurping the place of Supream Head of the Church in all England, and the chief Authority and Jurisdiction thereof, hath again brought back the said Kingdom into miserable destruction, which was then newly reduced to the Catholick Faith and good Fruits. §. I. Quo quidem in munere ebeundo, Nos as predictae Ecclestiae gubenacula Dei Benignitate vocati, nullum laborem intermittimus, omni opera contendentes, ut ipsa Unitas, & (Catholick Religio (quam illius Auctor ad probandam suorum sidem, & correctionem nostram, tantis procellis conflitlari permisit) integra conservetur. Sed Impiorum numerus tantum potentia invaluit, ut nulls jam in Orbe locus sit relictus, quem illi pessimis doctrinis corrumpere non tentarint, adnitente inter Ceteros flagitiorum serva Elizabeth, pretensia Angliae Regina; ad quam, veluti ad asylum, omnium insestissimi profugium invenerunt. Haec eadem Regno occupato, supremi Ecclesie capitis locum, in omni Anglia, ejusque praecipuam Authoritatem atque Jurisdictionem monstruose sibi usurpans, regnum ipsum jam tum ad sidem Catholicam & bonam frugem reductum, rufus in exitium miserum revocavit.
§. 2. For having by strong hand inhibited the exercise of the true Religion, which Mary lawful Queen of famous memory had by the help of this See restored, after it had been formerly overthrown by Henry the Eighth, a Revolter there from and following and embracing the Errors of Hereticks, me hath removed the Royal Council consisting of the English Nobility, and filled it with obscure men, being Hereticks, oppressed the Emperors of the Catholick Faith, placed impious Preachers, Ministers of Iniquity, abolished the Sacrifice of the Mass, Prayers, Fastings, Choice of Meats, Unmarried Life, and the Catholick Rites and Ceremonies. Commanded Books to be read in the whole Realm containing manifest Heresie; and impious Mysteries and Institutions, by her self enertained and observed according to the Prescript of Calvin, to be likewise observed by her Subjects presumed to throw Bishops, Parsons of Churches, and other Catholick Priests, out of their Churches and Benefices; and to bestow them and other Church Livings, upon Hereticks, and to determine of Church Causes prohibited the Prelates Clergy, and People to acknowledge the Church of Rome, or obey the Precepts and Canonical Sanctions thereof, compelled most of them to condescend to her wicket Laws, and abjure the Authority and Obedience of the Bishop of Rome and to acknowledge her to be sole Lady in Termporal and Spiritual matters, and this by Oath imposed Penalties and Punishments upon those which obeyed not, and exacted them of those which persevered in the unity of the Faith and their Obedience aforesaid, cast the Catholick Prelates and Rectors of Churches in Prison, where many of them, being spent with long languishing and sorrow, miserably ended their lives. All which things, seeing they are manifest and notorious to all Nations, and by the gravest Testimony of very many so substantially proved, that there is no place at all left for Excuse, Defence, or Evasion. §. 2. Vsit namque verae Religionis, quam ab illim desertore Henrico VIII. Olim eversam, Clare M m. Maria regina legitima, hujum Sedis Presidio reparaverat, potenti mami inhibito, secutifque e apiplexis Htreticorum erroribm, Regiun Confiliumex Anglica Nobilitate confectum diremit illudque obscuris hominibus Hereticis complevit, Catholicae Fidei cultores oppressit, improbos Concionatores, at que Impietatum Administros reposuit, Missae Sacrificium Preces, Jejunia Ciborum dilectum, Ritosque Catholicos abolevit. Libros manifestani Haeresim continentes, toto Regin proponi, impia Mysteria, & instituta ad Calvini Praescriptum a fe sussepta, & observata, etiam a subsitis observari mandavit. Episcopos, Ecclesiarum, Rectores, & alios Sacerdotes Catholicos, suis Ecclesiis Beneficiis ejicere ac de illis & aliis Ecclesiasticis rebus in hereticos homines disponere deq; Ecclesiae causis decenere ausa, Praelatis clero, & Populo, ne Romanam Ecclesiam agnoscerent, neve ejus Praeceptis, Sanctionibusque Canonicis obtemperarent, Interdixit; plerosque in nefarias leges suas venire, & Romani Fontificis Antloritatem at que obedientiam abjurare seque solam, in Temporalibus Spiritualibus Dominam agnoscere jure jurando coegit; paenas & supplicia in cos qui dicto non essent Audientes, Imposuit easdemque ab iis, qui in unitate fidei & predicta Obedientia perseverarunt, Exergit. Catholicos Antistites & Ecclesiarum Rectores in vincula conjecit, ubi multi diurturno Languore & Tristitia Confetti, Extremum vita diem misere finiverunt. Qua omnia cum opud Omnes Nationes perspicua & notoria sunt, & gravissimo quam plurimorum Testimonio ita comprobata, ut nullus omnino locus Excusationis, Defensionis, aut, Tergiversationis relinquatur.
§.3. We seing that impieties and wicked actions are multiplied one upon another; and moreover, that the persecution of the faithful, and affliction for Religion, groweth every day heavier and heavier, through the Instigation and Means of the said Elizabeth, because we understand her mind to be so hardned and indurate, that she hath not only condemned the godly Requests and Admonitions of Catholick Princes, concerning her healing and conversion, but also hath not so much as permitted the Nuncios of this See, to cross the Seas into England, are strained of necessity to betake our selves to the Weapons of Justice against her, not being able to mitigate our sorrow, that we are drawn to rake punishment upon one, to whose Ancestors the whole State of Christendom hath been so much bounden. Being therefore supported with his Authority, whose pleasure it was to place Us (though, unable for so great a burthen) in this Supream Throne of Justice, we do out of the fulness of our Apostolick Power, declare the aforefaid Elizabeth being an Heretick, and a favourer of Hereticks, and her Adherents in the matters aforefaid, to have incurred the sentence of Anathema, and to be cut off from the Unity of the Body of Christ. §. 3. Nos multiplicantibus aliis atque aliis super alias Impietatibus, & facinoribus, & preterea fidelium perfecutione, Religionisque afflictione, impulsu & Opera, d. Elizabeth quotidie magis Ingravescente, quoniam illius animum ita obfirmatum atque indutratum Intelligimus, ut non modo pias Catholicoram Principum de fanitate & conversione, preces, monitionesque contempserit, sed ne hujue quidem fedis ad ipsam hac de causa Nuncios in Angliam trajicere permiserit; ad Arma Justitiae contra cam de necessitate conversi, dolorem lenire non possumus, quod Adducamur in unam animadvertere, Cujus majores de Republica Christiana tantopere merucre; Illius itaque Authoritate suffulti, Qui Nos in hoc Supremo Justitiae Throno, licet tanto Oneri Impares, voluit Collocare, de Apostolicae potestatis plenitudine declaramus praedictam Elizabeth Hereticam, hereticorumque fautricem, eique adherentes in praedictis, Anathematis sententiam incurrisse, esseque a Christi Corporis unitate praecifos.
§. 4. And moreover, we do declare Her to be deprived of her pretended Title to the Kingdom aforesaid, and of all Dominion, Dignity, and Priviledge whatsoever. §. 4. quin etiam ipsam praetenso Regni praedicti jure, necnon omni & quocunque Deminio, Dignitate, Privilegioque privatam.
§.5. And also the Nobility, Subjects, and People of the Said Kingdom, and all others, which have in any sort sworn unto her, to be for ever absolved from any such Oath, and all manner of Duty of Dominion, Allegiance, and Obedience As we also do by Authority of these Presents absolve them, and do her pretended Title to the Kingdom, & all other things abovesaid. And we do Command and Interdict all and every the Noblemen, Subjects People, and others aforesaid, that they presume not to obey her, or her Monitions, Mandates, and Laws: And those which shall do the contrary, We do innodate with the like Sentence of Anathema. §. 5. Et etiam Proceres, subditos, & populos dicti Regni, ac caeteros omnes qui illi quomodocunque juraverunt. A Juramento hujusmodi, ac omni prorsus Dominii, Fidelitatis, & obsequii debito, perpetuo absolutos, prout Nos illos Praesentium Auctoritate absolvimus, & privamus eandem Elizabeth pratenso Jure Regni, aliisque Omnibus supradictis. Praecipimufque & Interdecimus Univerfis & singulis proceribus, subditis, populis, & aliis praeditis, ne illi ejusve monitis, Mandatis, & Legibus audeant obedire. Qui secus egerint, eos simili Anathematis Sententia innodamus.
§.6. And because it were a matter of too much difficulty, to convey these Presents to all places wheresoever it shall be needful, our will is, that the Copies thereof, under a publick Notaries hand, and sealed with the Seal of an Ecclesiastical Prelate, or of his Court, shall carry altogether the same Credit with all People, Judicial and Extrajudicial, as these Presents should do, if they were exhibited or shewed. Given at the Incarnation of our Lord, 1570. the Fifth of the Calends of May and of our Popedom the Fifth year. §.6. Quia vero difficile mimis effet, Praesentes quocunque illis Opus erit perferre, volumus, ut eorum exempla, Netarij publici manu, & Praelati Ecclesiastici, ejusve Curiae Sigillo Obsignata eandem illam prorfus fidem in Judicio, & extra illud, ubique Gentium faciant, quam ipsae Praesentes facerent, sieffent exhibitae vel oftense. Dat' Romae, apud Sanctum Petriim, Anno Incarnationis Dominicae 1570. 5. Cal. Maij Pontificat nostri Anno 5.


The Bull Romanus Pontifex (Nicholas V), January 8, 1455

Nicholas, bishop, servant of the servants of God, for a perpetual remembrance. The Roman pontiff, successor of the key-bearer of the heavenly kingdom and vicar of Jesus Christ, contemplating with a father's mind all the several climes of the world and the characteristics of all the nations dwelling in them and seeking and desiring the salvation of all, wholesomely ordains and disposes upon careful deliberation those things which he sees will be agreeable to the Divine Majesty and by which he may bring the sheep entrusted to him by God into the single divine fold, and may acquire for them the reward of eternal felicity, and obtain pardon for their souls. This we believe will more certainly come to pass, through the aid of the Lord, if we bestow suitable favors and special graces on those Catholic kings and princes, who, like athletes and intrepid champions of the Christian faith, as we know by the evidence of facts, not only restrain the savage excesses of the Saracens and of other infidels, enemies of the Christian name, but also for the defense and increase of the faith vanquish them and their kingdoms and habitations, though situated in the remotest parts unknown to us, and subject them to their own temporal dominion, sparing no labor and expense, in order that those kings and princes, relieved of all obstacles, may be the more animated to the prosecution of so salutary and laudable a work.

We have lately heard, not without great joy and gratification, how our beloved son, the noble personage Henry, infante of Portugal, uncle of our most dear son in Christ, the illustrious Alfonso, king of the kingdoms of Portugal and Algarve, treading in the footsteps of John, of famous memory, king of the said kingdoms, his father, and greatly inflamed with zeal for the salvation of souls and with fervor of faith, as a Catholic and true soldier of Christ, the Creator of all things, and a most active and courageous defender and intrepid champion of the faith in Him, has aspired from his early youth with his utmost might to cause the most glorious name of the said Creator to be published, extolled, and revered throughout the whole world, even in the most remote and undiscovered places, and also to bring into the bosom of his faith the perfidious enemies of him and of the life-giving Cross by which we have been redeemed, namely the Saracens and all other infidels whatsoever, [and how] after the city of Ceuta, situated in Africa, had been subdued by the said King John to his dominion, and after many wars had been waged, sometimes in person, by the said infante, although in the name of the said King John, against the enemies and infidels aforesaid, not without the greatest labors and expense, and with dangers and loss of life and property, and the slaughter of very many of their natural subjects, the said infante being neither enfeebled nor terrified by so many and great labors, dangers, and losses, but growing daily more and more zealous in prosecuting this his so laudable and pious purpose, has peopled with orthodox Christians certain solitary islands in the ocean sea, and has caused churches and other pious places to be there founded and built, in which divine service is celebrated. Also by the laudable endeavor and industry of the said infante, very many inhabitants or dwellers in divers islands situated in the said sea, coming to the knowledge of the true God, have received holy baptism, to the praise and glory of God, the salvation of the souls of many, the propagation also of the orthodox faith, and the increase of divine worship.

Moreover, since, some time ago, it had come to the knowledge of the said infante that never, or at least not within the memory of men, had it been customary to sail on this ocean sea toward the southern and eastern shores, and that it was so unknown to us westerners that we had no certain knowledge of the peoples of those parts, believing that he would best perform his duty to God in this matter, if by his effort and industry that sea might become navigable as far as to the Indians who are said to worship the name of Christ, and that thus he might be able to enter into relation with them, and to incite them to aid the Christians against the Saracens and other such enemies of the faith, and might also be able forthwith to subdue certain gentile or pagan peoples, living between, who are entirely free from infection by the sect of the most impious Mahomet, and to preach and cause to be preached to them the unknown but most sacred name of Christ, strengthened, however, always by the royal authority, he has not ceased for twenty-five years past to send almost yearly an army of the peoples of the said kingdoms with the greatest labor, danger, and expense, in very swift ships called caravels, to explore the sea and coast lands toward the south and the Antarctic pole. And so it came to pass that when a number of ships of this kind had explored and taken possession of very many harbors, islands, and seas, they at length came to the province of Guinea, and having taken possession of some islands and harbors and the sea adjacent to that province, sailing farther they came to the mouth of a certain great river commonly supposed to be the Nile, and war was waged for some years against the peoples of those parts in the name of the said King Alfonso and of the infante, and in it very many islands in that neighborhood were subdued and peacefully possessed, as they are still possessed together with the adjacent sea.

Thence also many Guineamen and other negroes, taken by force, and some by barter of unprohibited articles, or by other lawful contract of purchase, have been sent to the said kingdoms. A large number of these have been converted to the Catholic faith, and it is hoped, by the help of divine mercy, that if such progress be continued with them, either those peoples will be converted to the faith or at least the souls of many of them will be gained for Christ. But since, as we are informed, although the king and infante aforesaid (who with so many and so great dangers, labors, and expenses, and also with loss of so many natives of their said kingdoms, very many of whom have perished in those expeditions, depending only upon the aid of those natives, have caused those provinces to be explored and have acquired and possessed such harbors, islands, and seas, as aforesaid, as the true lords of them), fearing lest strangers induced by covetousness should sail to those parts, and desiring to usurp to themselves the perfection, fruit, and praise of this work, or at least to hinder it, should therefore, either for the sake of gain or through malice, carry or transmit iron, arms, wood used for construction, and other things and goods prohibited to be carried to infidels or should teach those infidels the art of navigation, whereby they would become more powerful and obstinate enemies to the king and infante, and the prosecution of this enterprise would either be hindered, or would perhaps entirely fail, not without great offense to God and great reproach to all Christianity, to prevent this and to conserve their right and possession, [the said king and infante] under certain most severe penalties then expressed, have prohibited and in general have ordained that none, unless with their sailors and ships and on payment of a certain tribute and with an express license previously obtained from the said king or infante, should presume to sail to the said provinces or to trade in their ports or to fish in the sea, [although the king and infante have taken this action, yet in time it might happen that persons of other kingdoms or nations, led by envy, malice, or covetousness, might presume, contrary to the prohibition aforesaid, without license and payment of such tribute, to go to the said provinces, and in the provinces, harbors, islands, and sea, so acquired, to sail, trade, and fish; and thereupon between King Alfonso and the infante, who would by no means suffer themselves to be so trifled with in these things, and the presumptuous persons aforesaid, very many hatreds, rancors, dissensions, wars, and scandals, to the highest offense of God and danger of souls, probably might and would ensue -

We [therefore] weighing all and singular the premises with due meditation, and noting that since we had formerly by other letters of ours granted among other things free and ample faculty to the aforesaid King Alfonso - to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens and pagans whatsoever, and other enemies of Christ wheresoever placed, and the kingdoms, dukedoms, principalities, dominions, possessions, and all movable and immovable goods whatsoever held and possessed by them and to reduce their persons to perpetual slavery, and to apply and appropriate to himself and his successors the kingdoms, dukedoms, counties, principalities, dominions, possessions, and goods, and to convert them to his and their use and profit - by having secured the said faculty, the said King Alfonso, or, by his authority, the aforesaid infante, justly and lawfully has acquired and possessed, and doth possess, these islands, lands, harbors, and seas, and they do of right belong and pertain to the said King Alfonso and his successors, nor without special license from King Alfonso and his successors themselves has any other even of the faithful of Christ been entitled hitherto, nor is he by any means now entitled lawfully to meddle therewith -- in order that King Alfonso himself and his successors and the infante may be able the more zealously to pursue and may pursue this most pious and noble work, and most worthy of perpetual remembrance (which, since the salvation of souls, increase of the faith, and overthrow of its enemies may be procured thereby, we regard as a work wherein the glory of God, and faith in Him, and His commonwealth, the Universal Church, are concerned) in proportion as they, having been relieved of all the greater obstacles, shall find themselves supported by us and by the Apostolic See with favors and graces -

We, being very fully informed of all and singular the premises, do, motu proprio, not at the instance of King Alfonso or the infante, or on the petition of any other offered to us on their behalf in respect to this matter, and after mature deliberation, by apostolic authority, and from certain knowledge, in the fullness of apostolic power, by the tenor of these presents decree and declare that the aforesaid letters of faculty (the tenor whereof we wish to be considered as inserted word for word in these presents, with all and singular the clauses therein contained) are extended to Ceuta and to the aforesaid and all other acquisitions whatsoever, even those acquired before the date of the said letters of faculty, and to all those provinces, islands, harbors, and seas whatsoever, which hereafter, in the name of the said King Alfonso and of his successors and of the infante, in those parts and the adjoining, and in the more distant and remote parts, can be acquired from the hands of infidels or pagans, and that they are comprehended under the said letters of faculty. And by force of those and of the present letters of faculty the acquisitions already made, and what hereafter shall happen to be acquired, after they shall have been acquired, we do by the tenor of these presents decree and declare have pertained, and forever of right do belong and pertain, to the aforesaid king and to his successors and to the infante, and that the right of conquest which in the course of these letters we declare to be extended from the capes of Bojador and of Não, as far as through all Guinea, and beyond toward that southern shore, has belonged and pertained, and forever of right belongs and pertains, to the said King Alfonso, his successors, and the infante, and not to any others.

We also by the tenor of these presents decree and declare that King Alfonso and his successors and the infante aforesaid might and may, now and henceforth, freely and lawfully, in these [acquisitions] and concerning them make any prohibitions, statutes, and decrees whatsoever, even penal ones, and with imposition of any tribute, and dispose and ordain concerning them as concerning their own property and their other dominions. And in order to confer a more effectual right and assurance we do by these presents forever give, grant, and appropriate to the aforesaid King Alfonso and his successors, kings of the said kingdoms, and to the infante, the provinces, islands, harbors, places, and seas whatsoever, how many soever, and of what sort soever they shall be, that have already been acquired and that shall hereafter come to be acquired, and the right of conquest also from the capes of Bojador and of Não aforesaid.

Moreover, since this is fitting in many ways for the perfecting of a work of this kind, we allow that the aforesaid King Alfonso and [his] successors and the infante, as also the persons to whom they, or any one of them, shall think that this work ought to be committed, may (according to the grant made to the said King John by Martin V, of happy memory, and another grant made also to King Edward of illustrious memory, king of the same kingdoms, father of the said King Alfonso, by Eugenius IV, of pious memory, Roman pontiffs, our predecessors) make purchases and sales of any things and goods and victuals whatsoever, as it shall seem fit, with any Saracens and infidels, in the said regions; and also may enter into any contracts, transact business, bargain, buy and negotiate, and carry any commodities whatsoever to the places of those Saracens and infidels, provided they be not iron instruments, wood to be used for construction, cordage, ships, or any kinds of armor, and may sell them to the said Saracens and infidels; and also may do, perform, or prosecute all other and singular things [mentioned] in the premises, and things suitable or necessary in relation to these; and that the same King Alfonso, his successors, and the infante, in the provinces, islands, and places already acquired, and to be acquired by him, may found and [cause to be] founded and built any churches, monasteries, or other pious places whatsoever; and also may send over to them any ecclesiastical persons whatsoever, as volunteers, both seculars, and regulars of any of the mendicant orders (with license, however, from their superiors), and that those persons may abide there as long as they shall live, and hear confessions of all who live in the said parts or who come thither, and after the confessions have been heard they may give due absolution in all cases, except those reserved to the aforesaid see, and enjoin salutary penance, and also administer the ecclesiastical sacraments freely and lawfully, and this we allow and grant to Alfonso himself, and his successors, the kings of Portugal, who shall come afterwards, and to the aforesaid infante.

Moreover, we entreat in the Lord, and by the sprinkling of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, whom, as has been said, it concerneth, we exhort, and as they hope for the remission of their sins enjoin, and also by this perpetual edict of prohibition we more strictly inhibit, all and singular the faithful of Christ, ecclesiastics, seculars, and regulars of whatsoever orders, in whatsoever part of the world they live, and of whatsoever state, degree, order, condition, or pre-eminence they shall be, although endued with archiepiscopal, episcopal, imperial, royal, queenly, ducal, or any other greater ecclesiastical or worldly dignity, that they do not by any means presume to carry arms, iron, wood for construction, and other things prohibited by law from being in any way carried to the Saracens, to any of the provinces, islands, harbors, seas, and places whatsoever, acquired or possessed in the name of King Alfonso, or situated in this conquest or elsewhere, to the Saracens, infidels, or pagans; or even without special license from the said King Alfonso and his successors and the infante, to carry or cause to be carried merchandise and other things permitted by law, or to navigate or cause to be navigated those seas, or to fish in them, or to meddle with the provinces, islands, harbors, seas, and places, or any of them, or with this conquest, or to do anything by themselves or another or others, directly or indirectly, by deed or counsel, or to offer any obstruction whereby the aforesaid King Alfonso and his successors and the infante may be hindered from quietly enjoying their acquisitions and possessions, and prosecuting and carrying out this conquest.

And we decree that whosoever shall infringe these orders [shall incur the following penalties], besides the punishments pronounced by law against those who carry arms and other prohibited things to any of the Saracens, which we wish them to incur by so doing; if they be single persons, they shall incur the sentence of excommunication; if a community or corporation of a city, castle, village, or place, that city, castle, village, or place shall be thereby subject to the interdict; and we decree further that transgressors, collectively or individually, shall not be absolved from the sentence of excommunication, nor be able to obtain the relaxation of this interdict, by apostolic or any other authority, unless they shall first have made due satisfaction for their transgressions to Alfonso himself and his successors and to the infante, or shall have amicably agreed with them thereupon. By [these] apostolic writings we enjoin our venerable brothers, the archbishop of Lisbon, and the bishops of Silves and Ceuta, that they, or two or one of them, by himself, or another or others, as often as they or any of them shall be required on the part of the aforesaid King Alfonso and his successors and the infante or any one of them, on Sundays, and other festival days, in the churches, while a large multitude of people shall assemble there for divine worship, do declare and denounce by apostolic authority that those persons who have been proved to have incurred such sentences of excommunication and interdict, are excommunicated and interdicted, and have been and are involved in the other punishments aforesaid.

And we decree that they shall also cause them to be denounced by others, and to be strictly avoided by all, till they shall have made satisfaction for or compromised their transgressions as aforesaid. Offenders are to be held in check by ecclesiastical censure, without regard to appeal, the apostolic constitutions and ordinances and all other things whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. But in order that the present letters, which have been issued by us of our certain knowledge and after mature deliberation thereupon, as is aforesaid, may not hereafter be impugned by anyone as fraudulent, secret, or void, we will, and by the authority, knowledge, and power aforementioned, we do likewise by these letters, decree and declare that the said letters and what is contained therein cannot in any wise be impugned, or the effect thereof hindered or obstructed, on account of any defect of fraudulency, secrecy, or nullity, not even from a defect of the ordinary or of any other authority, or from any other defect, but that they shall be valid forever and shall obtain full authority.

And if anyone, by whatever authority, shall, wittingly or unwittingly, attempt anything inconsistent with these orders we decree that his act shall be null and void. Moreover, because it would be difficult to carry our present letters to all places whatsoever, we will, and by the said authority we decree by these letters, that faith shall be given as fully and permanently to copies of them, certified under the hand of a notary public and the seal of the episcopal or any superior ecclesiastical court, as if the said original letters were exhibited or shown; and we decree that within two months from the day when these present letters, or the paper or parchment containing the tenor of the same, shall be affixed to the doors of the church at Lisbon, the sentences of excommunication and the other sentences contained therein shall bind all and singular offenders as fully as if these present letters had been made known and presented to them in person and lawfully. Therefore let no one infringe or with rash boldness contravene this our declaration, constitution, gift, grant, appropriation, decree, supplication, exhortation, injunction, inhibition, mandate, and will. But if anyone should presume to do so, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Given at Rome, at Saint Peter's, on the eighth day of January, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and fifty-four, and in the eighth year of our pontificate.

P. de Noxeto

The Bull Romanus Pontifex (Nicholas V), January 8, 1455 ends.


The true faith compels us to believe that there is one holy Catholic Apostolic Church, and this we firmly believe and plainly confess. And outside of her there is no salvation or remission of sins, as the Bridegroom says in the Song of Solomon: “My dove, my undefiled, is but one; she is the only one of her mother, she is the choice one of her that bare her” [Song of Sol. vi. 9]; which represents the one mystical body, whose head is Christ, but the head of Christ is God [1 Cor. xi. 3]. In this Church there is “one Lord, one faith, one baptism” [Eph. iv. 5]. For in the time of the flood there was only one ark, that of Noah, prefiguring the one Church, and it was “finished above in one cubit” [Gen. vi. 16], and had but one helmsman and master, namely, Noah. And we read that all things on the earth outside of this ark were destroyed. This Church we venerate as the only one, since the Lord said by the prophet: “Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog” [Ps. xxii. 20]. He prayed for his soul, that is, for himself, the head; and at the same time for the body, and he named his body, that is, the one Church, because there is but one Bridegroom [John, iii. 29], and because of the unity of the faith, of the sacraments, and of his love for the Church. This is the seamless robe of the Lord which was not rent but parted by lot [John, xix. 23].

Therefore there is one body of the one and only Church, and one head, not two heads, as if the Church were a monster. And this head is Christ, and his vicar, Peter and his successor; for the Lord himself said to Peter: “Feed my sheep” [John, xxi. 16]. And he said “my sheep,” in general, not these or those sheep in particular; from which it is clear that all were committed to him. If, therefore, Greeks [i.e., the Greek Church] or any one else say that they are not subject to Peter and his successor, they thereby necessarily confess that they are not of the sheep of Christ. For the Lord says, in the Gospel of John, that there is one fold and only one shepherd [John, x. 16]. By the words of the gospel we are taught that the two swords, namely, the spiritual authority and the temporal, are in the power of the Church. For when the apostles said “Here are two swords” [Luke, xxii. 38]—that is, in the Church, since it was the apostles who were speaking—the Lord did not answer, “It is too much,” but “It is enough.” Whoever denies that the temporal sword is in the power of Peter does not properly understand the word of the Lord when He said: “Put up thy sword into the sheath” [John, xviii. 11]. Both swords, therefore, the spiritual and the temporal, are in the power of the Church. The former is to be used by the Church, the latter for the Church; the one by the hand of the priest, the other by the hand of kings and knights, but at the command and permission of the priest. Moreover, it is necessary for one sword to be under the other, and the temporal authority to be subjected to the spiritual; for the apostle says, “For there is no power but of God: and the powers that be are ordained of God” [Rom. xiii. 1]; but they would not be ordained unless one were subjected to the other, and, as it were, the lower made the higher by the other.

For, according to St. Dionysius, it is a law of divinity that the lowest is made the highest through the intermediate. According to the law of the universe all things are not equally and directly reduced to order, but the lowest are fitted into their order through the intermediate, and the lower through the higher. And we must necessarily admit that the spiritual power surpasses any earthly power in dignity and honor, because spiritual things surpass temporal things. We clearly see that this is true from the paying of tithes, from the benediction, from the sanctification, from the receiving of the power, and from the governing of these things. For the truth itself declares that the spiritual power must establish the temporal power and pass judgment on it if it is not good. Thus the prophecy of Jeremiah concerning the Church and the ecclesiastical power is fulfilled: “See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms, to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down, to build, and to plant” [Jer. i. 10].

Therefore if the temporal power errs, it will be judged by the spiritual power, and if the lower spiritual power errs, it will be judged by its superior. But if the highest spiritual power errs, it cannot be judged by men, but by God alone. For the apostle says: “But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man” [1 Cor. ii. 15]. Now this authority, although it is given to man and exercised through man, is not human, but divine. For it was given by the word of the Lord to Peter, and the rock was made firm to him and his successors, in Christ himself, whom he had confessed. For the Lord said to Peter: “Whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven” [Matt. xvi. 19]. Therefore, whosoever resisteth this power thus ordained of God resisteth the ordinance of God [Rom. xiii. 2], unless there are two principles [beginnings], as Manichaeus pretends there are. But this we judge to be false and heretical. For Moses says that, not in the beginnings, but in the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth [Gen. i. 1]. We therefore declare, say, and affirm that submission on the part of every man to the bishop of Rome is altogether necessary for his salvation.

Source - Text based upon the papal register published by P. Mury in Revue des Questions Historiques, Vol. XLVI. (1889), pp. 255-256. Translated in Oliver J. Thatcher & Edgar H. McNeal, Source Book for Medieval History, 1905, pp. 314-317. This source is mantioned in the book: A Source Book of Mediæval History: documents illustrative of European life and institutions from the German invasion to the renaissance by Frederic Austin Ogg.


Terra nullius: "no one’s land" is a term that attempts to explain how Europeans often justified their seizure of Indigenous lands. In effect, Europeans treated the territories of Indigenous Peoples in what was New World for them (particularly in North America and Australia) as if they were unoccupied and belonging to no one, and therefore free to be taken by whoever discovered them.

Bull Sublimis Deus (1537) of Paul III: The enemy of the human race inspired his satellites who, to please him, have not hesitated to publish abroad that the Indians of the West and the South, and other people of whom We have recent knowledge should be treated as dumb brutes created for our service, pretending that they are incapable of receiving the Catholic Faith. We consider, however, that the Indians are truly men and that they are not only capable of understanding the Catholic Faith but, according to our information, they desire exceedingly to receive it. We define and declare that the said Indians and all other people who may later be discovered by Christians, are by no means to be deprived of their liberty or the possession [dominio] of their property, even though they be outside the faith of Jesus Christ; and that they may and should, freely and legitimately, enjoy their liberty and the possession of their property; nor should they be in any way enslaved; should the contrary happen, it shall be null and have no effect.

Bull Dudum uti nobis exponi fecisti, 20 July, 1523, which speaks of the horrible abuse of the Sacrament in sorceries and the charms confuted by witches. Bull Summis Desiderantes Affectibus issued on 9 December, 1484, by Innocent VIII to Fr. Henry Kramer and Fr. James Sprenger.

Pastorale Officium (May 29, 1537)

Bull of Urban VIII - Commissum Nobis (1639)

Bull of Benedict XIV - Immensa Pastorum (1741)

Hostiensis, Lectura quinque Decretalium, 2 vols (Paris, 1512), 3.34.8, fol. 124v: "With the coming of Christ every office and all governmental authority and all lordship and jurisdiction was taken from every infidel lawfully and with just cause and granted to the faithful through Him who has the supreme power and who cannot err."

Bulla Leonis X cum insertis Eugenii in Concilio Florentino: Bull of Leo X with the inserts of Eugenius in the Council of Florence

Bull of Union of the Greek and Latin Churches: In 1439 at the Council of Florence, a papal bull was issued to proclaim the union of Eastern and Western Churches.

Following image was cropped from: Bullarium francisicanum sive romanorum pontificum constitutiones, epistolae, diplomata tribus ordinibus minorum, clarissarum, poenitentium.

Gabriel with Wings

Battles of the World


CHAPTER-I: The Battle of Marathon, Explanatory Remarks on some Battle of of the Circumstances of the Marathon, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Marathon, B.C. 490, and the Defeat of the Athenians at Syracuse, B.C. 413

CHAPTER II: Defeat of the Athenians at Syracuse, B.C. 413. Synopsis of Events between the Defeat of the Athenians Syracuse and the Battle of Arbela CHAPTER III: The Battle of Aebela, B.C. 57, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Arbela and the Battle of the Metaurus

CHAPTER IV: Battle of the Metaurus B.C. 207, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of the Metaurus, B.C. 207, and Arminius's Victory over the Roman Legions under Varus A.D. 9 CHAPTER V: Victory of Abminius over the Roman Legions under Varus, A.D. 9, Arminius, Synopsis of Events between Arminius's Victory over Varus and the Battle of Chalons

CHAPTER VI: The Battle or Chalons, A.D. 451, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Chalons, A.D. 451 and the Battle of Tours, 732. CHAPTER VII. The Battle of Tours, A.D. 732, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Tours, A.D. 732, and the Battle of Hastings, A.D. 1429 CHAPTER VIII. The Battle of Hastings, 1066, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Hastings, A.D. 1066, and Joan of Arc's Victory at Orleans, A.D. 1429. CHAPTER IX. Joan of Arc's Victory over the English at Orleans, A.D. 1429, Synopsis of Events between Joan of Arc's Victory of Orleans, A.D. 1429, and the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, A.D. 1588 CHAPTER X. Te Defeat of the Spanish Armada, A.D. 1588, Synopsis of Events between the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, A.D. 1588, and the Battle of Blenheim, A.D. 1704

CHAPTER XI: The Battle of Blenheim, A.D. 1704, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Blenheim, A.D. 1704, and the Battle of Pultowa, 1709 A.D. CHAPTER XII: The Battle of Pultowa, A.D. 1709, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Pultowa, A.D. 1709, at Saratoga, A.D. 1777 and the Defeat of Burgoyne at Saratoga, A.D. 1777.

CHAPTER XIII. Victory of the Americans over Burgoyne at Saratoga, A.D. 1777, Synopsis of Events between the Defeat of Burgoyne A.D. 1777, and the Battle of Valmy A.D. 1792. CHAPTER XIV. The Battle of Valmy A.D. 1792, Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Valmy A.D. 1792 and the Battle of Waterloo, A.D. 1815 CHAPTER XV. The Battle of Waterloo, A.D. 1815.

Review: Pg-176: 1215 - The barons, the freeholders, the citizens, and the yeomen of England rise against the tyranny of John and his foreign favorites. They compel him to sign Magna Charta. This is the commencement of our nationality: for our history from this time forth is the history of a nationality, then complete and still in being. All English history before this period is a mere history of elements, of their collisions, and of the processes of their fusion.

The army under the Duke Wellington lost nearly 15,000 men in and wounded on this terrible day of battle. The loss of the Prussian army was nearly 7,000 more. At such a fearful price was the deliverance of Europe purchased.


The golden trade of the Moors: Arid nurse of lions -- Carbuncles and gold -- Romans and Garamantes -- The Tuareg -- The Arabs -- The Almoravids -- The gold of Ghana -- Mansa Musa -- Ibn Buttuta -- The Songhai -- The discovery of Guinea -- Leo Africanus -- Mulai Ahmed El-Mansur - -Taghaza -- The desert army -- The invasion of the Sudan -- The fall of Songhai -- El-Dzehebi -- Wangara -- The Niger -- Usuman Dan Fodio -- The last of the caravans

Black African empires: Africa, the birthplace of man -- Continent of contrasts -- The kingdom of Kush -- The land of gold (Ghana, the Soninke people) -- The legend of Wagadou-Bida (the downfall of Ghana) -- The murder of eleven brothers (Mali, the Mandinke people) -- Mansa Musa, the black Moses (the empire of Mali) -- An army cross the Sahara Desert (the Songhai empire) -- An aristocratic army (the empire of Bornu) -- The forest states (the Nol and Yoruba peoples and the empire of Benin) -- The land of Zanj -- The great Zimbabwe

The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide by Gary Jonathan Bass

The Blood Telegram Genocide in Bangaldesh

1. The Tilt, 2. Cyclone Pakistan, 3. Mrs. Gandhi, 4. “Mute and Horrified Witnesses”, 5. The Blood Telegram, 6. The Inferno Next Door, 7. “Don’t Squeeze Yahya”, 8. Exodus, 9. India Alone, 10. The China Channel, 11. The East Is Red, 12. The Mukti Bahini, 13. “The Hell with the Damn Congress”, 14. Soviet Friends, 15. Kennedy, 16. “We Really Slobbered over the Old Witch”, 17. The Guns of November, 18. The Fourteen-Day War, 19. “I Consider This Our Rhineland”


“Pakistan is a country I would like to do everything for,” he enthused when he got back to Washington. He found the Pakistanis to be staunchly anticommunist and pro-American. “The people have less complexes than the Indians,” he said. “The Pakistanis are completely frank, even when it hurts.”

Books on Genocide in East Pakistand especially Genocide of Hindus

  • Murder of History - by K.K. Aziz
  • Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military - by Hussain Haqqani
  • Witness to Surrender - by Siddiq Salik
  • From Jinnah to Zia - by Muhammad Munir
  • Diaries of Justice - by Muhammad Ibrahim
  • Sheikh Mujib's 6 point Formula - by Syed Humayun
  • Conflict Unending - by Sumit Ganguly
  • A Tale of Millions - by Major M. Rafiqul Islam
  • The Great Tragedy - by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
  • Pakistan: Eye of the Storm - by Owen Benett Jones
  • 1971: A People's History - by Anam Zakaria
  • The Pakistan People's Party - by Philip E. Jones
  • Hamood ur Rehman Commission Report and the Supplementary Report

Books on Europe, England, Germany, France, Spain...

A history of England principally in the seventeenth century - by Ranke, Leopold von, 1795-1886

Volume 1-6. The chief crises in the earlier history of England. Attempts to consolidate the kingdom independently in its temporal and spiritual relations. Queen Elizabeth. Close connexion of English and Scottish affairs. Foundation of the kingdom of Great Britain. First disturbances under the Stuarts. Disputes with Parliament during the later years of the reign of James I and the earlier years of the reign of Charles I

Volume 2-6. Governments in England without the parliament. Troubles in Scotland. Connexion between troubles in Scotland and those in England and elsewhere. The long Parliament and the king, down to the outbreak of the Civil War. The English Civil War, 1642 -- 1646. Independents and Presbyterians. Fate of the king

Volume 3-6. The commonwealth in England, 1649 -- 1653. The protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, 1653 -- 1658. Fall of the protectorate and the commonwealth. Restoration of the monarchy, 1658 -- 1660. The first five years under Charles II. The restoration of the Anglican church. The Dutch wars of Charles II. Establishment of the Protestant and Parliamentary character of the Constitution 1664 -- 1674

Volume 4-6. The later years of Charles II, 1674 -- 1685. Whigs and Tories. Reign of James II, February 1685 to September 1688. The fall of James II in its connexion with the European conflicts which marked the close of 1688. Completion of the revolution in the three kingdoms, 1688 -- 1691

Volume 5-6. William III and Parliament during the war with France, 1690 -- 1697. The later years of William III, 1697 -- 1702. Illustration of details from original documents Volume 6-6. Criticism of the historians. History of the war in Ireland. Extracts from the correspondence of William III


Table of Contents

PERIOD I. From the Return from Avignon to the Accession of Nicholas V. (1377-1447).




PERIOD II. From the Accession of the First Humanist Pope to the French Invasion of Italy (1447-1494).


PERIOD III. From the French Invasion to the Sack of Rome (1494-1527).


Review: This book is about the struggle between Papacy and Kings in middle age Europe. The book does not mention any in-line (in respective paragraphs) reference, neither there is a bibliography at the end of the book. The book written in nineteenth century about events in fourteenth and fifteenth century without any reference cannot be deemed authentic during discussions in twenty first century.

The Anthropological History of Europe Being the Rhind Lectures for 1891 BY JOHN BEDDOE M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.


Lecture-1: The Aryan Question and that Variation of Type: History of the Aryan Question, — Latham and The European origin — Ujfalvy's discovery of the Galchas — The Scandinavian and Lithuanian Heresies —The Variation Question — Extreme views —Monogenism and Polygenism —Supposed modifying influences —Cliamate and Environment — Conjugal selection — Dwindling of miliatary and governing castes —Effects of food and drink.

Second Lecture. Variation— Primeval Man— Succession OF Races, Opinions of contemporary anthropologists — Kollman's five per— Deniker on importance of hair as a — Schaaffhausen on inferiority of primitive man and longheaded type — Ancient types the Canstatt the manent European types character of the —Cro-magnon the Eskimo Neolithic period brachykephals abroad none in Britain — Bronze periods Swarming of successive races Phoenicians, Greeks, Gauls, Romans, Teutons, Saracens, Slavs, Turco-mongols.

Third Lecture. Russia and the Balkan Peninsula, — The Scythians — Finns — The Merians — The Spread of the Slavs — Physical characters Mongol invasion— Composition of the modern Russian people -The Lithuanians - Ugrian and Tartar tribes -The ancient occupants of the Balkan peninsula -The Hellenes Modern descendants of the Thracians of the and lUyrians.

Fourth Lecture. Scandinavia, Central Europe, France, — The Borreby and Svelrik skulls — The Rhoxalani — Modern Norwegians and Danes — The Icelanders — Ancient German Graverow type — The four Swiss types of His and Rutimeyer — Von Holder's discoveries at Ratisbon — Ranke on the Bavarians — Bohemia — Hallstadt Oldest Scandinavian Skull-forms —Hungary, Poland, Holland Colour and stature in Central Europe -France, constitution of the Keltic nation there -Results of the Volkswanderung -Clear demarcation of types in Belgium, less clear in France -Investigations of Topinard and Collignon.

Fifth Lecture. Spain, Italy, and the British Spain and Portugal — De A.ranzadi Isles, on the Basques — Italy: The Ancient and Modern Romans -The Sards, purest race in Western Europe -The Jews their original and secondary types -The Gypsies Brief sketch of the Races of Britain Specimen Pembrokeshire - The Isle of Man.

Sixth Lecture. Scotland, with General Conclusions, Considerations of special districts such as Anglian, and Ballachulish, a Gaelic locality — Difficult and doubtful points in British ethnology — Possible effect of urban life — Growth and decline of races and types, and their probable future.

Chronological Account of the principal Events in the Life of NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE.

1769, August 15, born at Ajaccio, in Corsica. —1779, March, placed at the Military School at Brienne. —1793, an officer of artillery at the siege of Tonlon, and appointed General of Brigade. —1794, Oct. 4, commands the Conventional troops, and slaughters the Parisians. —1796, appointed to the command of the Army of Italy. May 11, Battle of Lodi. Aug. 3, Battle of Castiglione. Nov. 16 , Battle of Areola. —1797, Feb. 4, Surrender of Mantua. March 23, Trieste surrenders. April 18, Prelinnnaries with Austria, signed at Leoben. May 16, French take possession of Venice. Oct. 17, Treaty of Campo Formio with Austria —1798, 7 May 20, sails for Egypt. July 21, Battle of the Pyramids. Oct. 24, Insurrection at Cairo. —1799, May 21, Siege of Acre raised. Aug. 23, Sails from Egypt for France. Oct. 7, Lands at Frejus. Nov. 9, Dissolves the Conventional Government. Nov. 10, Declared First Consul._1800, Feb. 12, Peace made with the Chouaus. May 14, Crosses Mount St. Bernard. June 16, Battle of Marengo. July 28, Preliminaries with Austria, signed at Paris. Dec. 3, Battle of Hohenlinden. Dec. 24, Explosion of the Infernal Machine. —1801, Feb. 9, Treaty of Luneville with Austria. Oct. 8, Preliminaries with England. —1802, Jan. 25, Cisalpiue Republic seized. Mar. 27, Deffinitive Treaty with England. May 15, Legion of Honour instituted. Aug. 2, Declared Consul for Life. Aug. 21, Changes the Swiss form of Government. —1803, May 18, English Declaration of War. June 3, Hanover overrun. —1804, Feb. Moreau arrested. March 20, Due d’Enghein shot. April 6, Piehegru murdered in prison. May 18, declared Emperor. Nov. 19, Crowned by the Pope. —1805, Feb, Writes to the King of England. April 11, Treaty of St. Petersburg, between England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden. Mav 26, declared King of Italy. Sep. 24, heads his Army against Austria. Oct. 20, Mack’s Army surrenders at Ulm. Nov. 13, French enters Vienna. Dec. 2, Battle of Austerlitz. Dec. 15, Treaty of Vienna, with Prussia. Dec. 26, Treaty of Presburgh, with Austria. —1806, March 30, Joseph Buonaparte made King of Naples. June 3, Louis made King nt Holland. July 20, Jewish Sanhedrim. July 27, Confederation of the Rhine. Sep. 24, marches against Prussia. Oct. 14, Battle of Auerstadt or Jena. Oct. 27, enters Berlin. Nov. 19, Hamburgh taken; Berlin Decree. -1807, Feb. 3, Battle of Eylau against Russia. June 14. Battle of Friedland. July 7, Treaty of Tilsit with Russia. —1808, July 7, Joseph Buonaparte made King of Spain. July 20, Surrender of Dupont’s Army at Bavlen. July 29, Joseph Buonaparte evacuates Madrid. August 21, Battle of Vimiera. Sep. 27, Conferences of Erfurth. Nov. 5, Buonaparte arrives at Vittoria. Dec. 4 Surrender of Madrid to Buonaparte. —1809, Jan. 16, Bat. ot Corunna. Jan. 22 returns to Paris. April 6, War declared by Austria. April 13; heads his Army against Austria. May 10, French enter Vienna. May 22, Battle of Essling or Asperne. July 6, Battle of Wagram. Oct. 14, Treaty of Vienna with Austria. Dec 13 Lucien Buonaparte arrives in England. Dec. 16, Buonaparte’s marriage with Josephine dissolved. —1810, March 11, marries Maria Louisa, daughter of Francis II, Emp. of Austria. July 9, Holland and the Haase Towns annexed to the French Empire, by Decree of Napoleon. Aug. 21, Bernadotte elected Crown Prince of Sweden. Dec. 21, Decree for restraining the Liberty ot the Press. 1811 Jan 1 Hamburgh annexed to the French Empire. April 20, The Empress delivered of a Son, styled King of Rome. Sep. 2, present at an engagement between a French flotilla and an English cruiser. —1812, Jan. 22, Swedish Pomeramia seized by Buonaparte. May 9, He heads a vast Army against Russia. June 11, Arrives at Konigsberg. June 28, Enters Wilna. Aug. 18, Smolensko taken. Sep. 7 Battle of Moskwa or Borodino. Sep. 14, French, under Napoleon, enter Moscow, which is burnt. Oct. 22, French evacuate Moscow. Nov. 9, arrives at Smolcnsko Dec. 5, Quits the Army in the snows. Dec. 18, Arrives at Paris. —1813, April — Heads the Army on the Elbe. May 1, Battle of Lutzen against Russia and Prussia. May 20, Battle of Bautzen. June 4, Armistice agreed on. June 21, Bat. of Vittoria, in Spain. Aug. 17, Hostilities recommence. Austria declared against Buonaparte. Aug. 28, Battle of Dresden —Moreau killed. Sep. 7, English enter France. Sep. 28, evacuates Dresden. Oct. 18, Battle of Leipsic Buonaparte defeated Nov. 15, Revolution in Holland. Dec. 1, Declaration of the Allies at Frankfort. —1814, Jan. 4, Allies cross the Rhine. March 30, Bat. of Montmatre, before Paris. April 11, Buonaparte abdicated the Throne. May 8, Arrives at Elba. 1815 March 1, Sails from Elba for France. March 20, Arrives at Paris, and re-assumes the Throne. April 25, is declared an Out-law ny the Sovereigns of Europe then assembled at Vienna. April, Calls a New House of Peers, and Chamber of Representatives of the French People —Champ de Mai. June 16, Defeats the Prussians. June 18, Loses his Army at Waterloo, or Mount St. Jean. June 21 Abdicates the Throne a second time. July 22, Surrenders himself to an English ship of war, off Rochefort —Arrives at Torbay. Aug. 7, Sails for St. Helena, where he arrived October 18th, 1815.

Modern history or, the present state of all nations. Describing their respective situations, persons, habits, and buildings, manners, laws and customs ... plants, animals, and minerals: by Mr Salmon; illustrated with cuts and maps ... by Herman Moll. Printed for Messrs. Bettesworth and Hitch; J. Clarke; S. Birt; Tho. Wotton, and J. Shuckburgh; and T. Osborne, Contributors: Salmon, Thomas, 1679-1767. Date: 1744-1746. There are two different sets: in one type of publication, the content is presented in 3 volumes. In another publication, the contents are covered in 29 volumes.
St. Gregory of Tours, original name Georgius Florentius, born in 538/539, Clermont and died in 594, Tours, Neustria. He was a bishop and writer whose Ten Books of Histories is an important sixth-century source for studying the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks.

Books on Partition of India and Pakistan

  • A. Guillaume, trans., The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1967)
  • A.G. Noorani, The Destruction of Hyderabad (New Delhi: Tulika Books, 2014)
  • A.H. Nayyar and Ahmad Salim, The Subtle Subversion: The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan (Islamabad: Sustainable Development Policy Institute, 2004)
  • Abdul Gafoor Noorani, The Trial of Bhagat Singh: Politics of Justice (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011)
  • Abdullah Malik, ed., Selected Speeches and Statements: Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din (Lahore: Nigarishat, 1971)
  • Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Quran (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1982)
  • Abdur Rahman I. Doi, Shariah: The Islamic Law (London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1984)
  • Abu Salman Shahjahanpuri, ed., ‘Maulana Ubaiydullah Sindhi ka Inqalabi Mansuba Ya Pehla Dasturi Khaqa’ (The First Revolutionary
  • Abul Ala Maududi, Jihad in Islam (Beirut: The Holy Koran Publishing House, 2006)
  • Abul Fata Mahomed Ishak and Others, Plaintiffs and Russomoy Dhur Chowdhry and Others, Defendants (1894), Law Rep. 22 Ind. Ap. 76 (P.C.)
  • Abul Kalam Azad, India Wins Freedom (Lahore: Vanguard Books Pvt. Ltd, 1989)
  • Adam C. English, ‘Christian Reconstruction after Y2K: Gary North, the New Millennium, and Religious Freedom, in New Religious Movement and Religious Liberty in America , ed. Derek H. Davis and Barry Hankins (Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 2003)
  • Adhikari, Gangadhar. Pakistan and National Unity. Bombay: People’s Publishing House, 1944.
  • Afifa Zarrin, ‘Jinnah’s Vision of Pakistan as a Modern Islamic State’, Ma’arif Research Journal (July–December 2013)
  • Afzal, M. Rafique, ed. Speeches and Statements of the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, 1911–34 and 1947–48 . Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, University of the Punjab, 1966.
  • Afzal, M. Rafique. A History of the All-India Muslim League, 1906 –1947. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2013.
  • Agha Humayun Amin, The Pakistan Army till 1965 (Arlington, VA: Strategicus and Tacticus, 1999)
  • Agreement between India and Pakistan on Minorities: Jawaharlal Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan, Middle East Journal , Vol. IV, No. 3 (July 1950)
  • Ahmad, Feroz. The Making of Modern Turkey . London/New York: Routledge, 1993
  • Ahmad, Jamiluddin, ed. Speeches and Writings of Mr. Jinnah , Vol. II. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1975
  • Ahmad, Syed Nur. From Martial Law to Martial Law: Politics in the Punjab, 1919 –1958 . Translated from the Urdu by Mahmud Ali. Edited by Craig Baxter. Boulders: Westview Press, 1985
  • Ahmed Israr, Allama Iqbal, Quaid-e-Azam aur Nazariya-e-Pakistan (Lahore: Tanzim-e-Islami, 2007)
  • Ahmed, Akbar S. Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. London: Routledge, 2005
  • Ahmed, Israr. Allama Iqbal, Quaid-e-Azam aur Nazariya-e-Pakistan. Lahore: Tanzim-e-Islami, 2007
  • Ahmed, Viqar and Rashid Amjad. The Management of Pakistan’s Economy, 1947–82. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1984
  • Ajeet Jawed, Jinnah: Secular and Nationalist (New Delhi: Faizbooks, 2005)
  • Ajeet Jawed, Secular and Nationalist Jinnah (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2009)
  • Ajeet Jawed, Secular and Nationalist Jinnah (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2009)
  • Ajoy Kumar Ghosh, ‘Bhagat Singh and his Comrades’, in Ajoy Kumar Ghosh: Articles and Speeches (Moscow: Publishing House for Oriental Literature, 1962)
  • Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin (London: Routledge, 2005)
  • Akhtar Hussain Sandhu, Punjab: An Anatomy of Muslim–Sikh Politics (Lahore: Dogar Publishers, 2014)
  • Alavi, Hamza and John Harriss. Sociology of Developing Societies: South Asia. London: Macmillan, 1989
  • Albert Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples (New York: Warner Books, 1991)
  • Alex von Tunzelmann, Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire (London: Pocket Books, 2007)
  • Alex von Tunzelmann, Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire (London: Simon & Schuster, 2008)
  • Ali Raza, ‘The Illusory Promise of Freedom: Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din and the Movement for Pakistan’, in Muslims against the Muslim League: Critiques of the Idea of Pakistan , ed. Ali Usman Qasmi and Megan Eaton Robb (New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2017).
  • Ali Usman Qasmi, ‘Differentiating between Pakistan and Napak-istan: Maulana Abul Ala Maududi’s Critique of the Muslim League and
  • Ali Usman Qasmi, The Ahmadis and the Politics of Religious Exclusion in Pakistan (London: Anthem Press, 2015)
  • Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. The Holy Quran. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1982
  • Ali, Chaudhri Muhammad. The Emergence of Pakistan. Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, 1973
  • Ali, Imran. The Punjab under Imperialism, 1885 –1947. Karachi: Oxford University, 1989
  • Ali, Syed Ameer. The Spirit of Islam. New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan, 1997
  • All-Parties Conference (India): Nehru Committee and Motilal Nehru, The Nehru Report: An Anti-Separatist Manifesto (New Delhi: Michiko and Panjthan, 1975)
  • Allama Muhammad Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1960)
  • Allen McGrath, The Destruction of Pakistan’s Democracy (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998)
  • Allen, Charles. God’s Terrorists: The Wahhabi Cult and the Hidden Roots of Modern Jihad. London: Little Brown, 2006
  • Ambedkar, B.R. Pakistan or the Partition of India . New Delhi: Dr Ambedkar Foundation, 1990 (published in an edited volume by Vasant Moon under the title Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches , Vol. 8)
  • Amin, Agha Humayun. The Pakistan Army till 1965. Arlington, VA: Strategicus and Tacticus, 1999
  • Amir Rana, A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan, trans. Saba Ansari (Lahore: Mashal Books, 2004)
  • Amitabha Mukherjee, ‘Genesis of the Indian National Congress’, in A Centenary History of the Indian National Congress , Volume I: 1885–1919, ed. B.N. Pande (New Delhi: All-India Congress Committee [I] and Vikas Publishing, 1985)
  • Anand, Som. Lahore: Portrait of a Lost City. Lahore: Vanguard Books Ltd, 1998
  • Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. London: Verso, 1983
  • Andrew Mango, Atatürk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey (New York: The Overlook Press, Peter Mayer Publishers, Inc., 2002)
  • Andrew Roberts, Eminent Churchillians (London: Phoenix, 1995)
  • Anis Nagi, Aik Adhuri Sarguzasht (A Story Without an End) (Lahore: Jamailaat, 1998).
  • Antony Black, The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001)
  • Anwar Ahmad Qadri, Islamic Jurisprudence in the Modern World (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1981)
  • Anwar Iqbal, ‘UK PM Attlee Believed Bengal May Opt to Be a Separate Country’, Dawn, 18 December 2018
  • Arbab, Safoora. ‘Nonviolence, Pukhtunwali and Decolonization: Abdul Ghaffar Khan and the Kuda’i Khidmatgars’. In Muslims against the Muslim League: Critiques of the Idea of Pakistan. Edited by Ali Usman Qasmi and Megan Eaton Robb. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2017
  • Arnaldez, Roger. Averroes: A Rationalist in Islam. Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000
  • Asim Kumar Chaudhuri, Socialist Movement in India: The Congress Socialist Party, 1934 –1947 (Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1980)
  • Athena S. Leoussi and Anthony D. Smith, Encyclopaedia of Nationalism (New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2001)
  • Austin, Granville. The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999
  • Avtar Singh Bhasin, ed., India–Pakistan Relations, 1947–2007: A Documentary Study , Vols. I–X (New Delhi: Geetika Publishers, 2012).
  • Awan, Samina. Political Islam in Colonial Punjab Majlis-e-Ahrar, 1929 –1949. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010
  • Ayesha Jalal, Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam since 1850 (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2007)
  • Ayesha Jalal, The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1992)
  • Azad, Maulana Abul Kalam. India Wins Freedom, Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1989
  • Aziz, K.K, Muslims under Congress Rule, 1937–1939: A Documentary Record. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2007
  • B.R. Ambedkar, ‘Pakistan or the Partition of of India’, in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches , Vol. 8, ed. Vasant Moon (New Delhi: Dr Ambedkar Foundation, 1990)
  • B.R. Nanda, Road to Pakistan: The Life and Times of Mohammad Ali Jinnah (New Delhi: Routledge, 2014)
  • Bakhsh, Ilahi. With the Quaid-i-Azam during His Last Days. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011
  • Baldev Raj Nayar, Minority Politics in the Punjab (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966).
  • Bangash, Yaqoob Khan. A Princely Affair: The Accession and Integration of the Princely States of India, 1947 –1955 . Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2015
  • Bapu, Prabhu. Hindu Mahasabha in Colonial North India, 1915 –1930 : Constructing Nation and History. London: Routledge, 2013
  • Barbara D. Metcalf, ‘Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani and the Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind: Against Pakistan, against the Muslim League’, in Muslims against the Muslim League: Critiques of the Idea of Pakistan, ed. Ali Usman Qasmi and Megan Eaton Robb (New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2017)
  • Becker, Marie Louise. The All-India Muslim League, 1946–1947. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2013
  • Begum Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2006)
  • Bell, Christopher M. Churchill and the Dardanelles. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017
  • Beverley Nichols, Verdict on India (London: Jonathan Cape, 1944)
  • Bhasin, Avtar Singh, ed. India–Pakistan Relations, 1947 –2007: A Documentary Study, Vol. I. New Delhi: Geetika Publishers, 2012.
  • Bhupen Qanungo, ‘The Quit India Movement’, in A Centenary History of the Indian National Congress , Vol. III, ed. B.N. Pande (Bombay and Delhi: All-India Congress Committee [I] and Vikas Publishing, 1985)
  • Bidwai, Praful, Harbans Mukhia and Achin Vanaik, ed. Religion, Religiosity and Communalism. New Delhi: Manohar, 1996
  • Binder, Leonard. Religion and Politics in Pakistan. Los Angeles: University of California, 1963
  • Biswas, Sukumar. Communal Riots in Bangladesh and West Bengal, 1947–1964. Kolkata: Parul, 2012
  • Black, Antony. The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001
  • Bolitho, Hector. Jinnah: Creator of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2006
  • Bourke-White, Margaret. Halfway to Freedom . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1949
  • Brass, Paul. ‘The Partition of India and Retributive Genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: Means, Methods and Purposes’. Journal of Genocide Research , Vol. 5, No. 1 (2003).Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Brian Cloughley, A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2000).
  • Burke, S.M. Jinnah: Speeches and Statements, 1947 –1948 . Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Burke, S.M., Jinnah: Speeches and Statements, 1947–1948 . Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Butalia, Urvashi. The Other Side of Silence. New Delhi: Penguin Books, 1998.
  • Callard, Keith. Pakistan: A Political Study. London: Allen & Unwin, 1957.
  • Carlyle, Thomas. Carlyle on Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History. Memphis: General Books, 2012.
  • Carr, Edward Hallett. What Is History? New York: Penguin Random House, 1990.
  • Census of India, 1941 , Vol. VI, Punjab Tables (New Delhi: Manager of Publications, Government of India Press, 1941)
  • Chagla, M.C. Roses in December: An Autobiography. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 2016.
  • Chandra, Bipan. Communalism in Modern India. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing, 1989.
  • Charles Allen, God’s Terrorists: The Wahhabi Cult and the Hidden Roots of Modern Jihad (London: Little, Brown and Company, 2006).
  • Chatterji, Joya. ‘The Radcliffe Award for Bengal’. In Region and Partition: Bengal, Punjab and the Partition of the Subcontinent. Edited by Ian Talbot and Gurharpal Singh. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Chattopadhyay, Suchetana. An Early Communist: Muzaffar Ahmad in Calcutta, 1913 –1929. New Delhi: Tulika Books, 2012.
  • Chaube, Shibani Kinkar. ‘Reflections on Secularism and Communalism in Constituent Assembly Debates’. In Communalism in Postcolonial India: Changing Contours. Edited by Mujibur Rehman. New Delhi: Routledge, 2016.
  • Chaudhri Muhammad Ali, The Emergence of Pakistan (Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, 1973)
  • Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman, Pathway to Pakistan (Lahore: Brothers Publishers, 2008)
  • Chaudhry, Zahid. Pakistan Kaisey Banaa ? (How Was Pakistan Created?), Vols. I and II. Edited by Hassan Jafar Zaidi. Lahore: Idara Mutalaya-e-Tarikh, 2012.
  • Chaudhuri, Asim Kumar. Socialist Movement in India: The Congress Socialist Party, 1934 –1947. Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1980.
  • Chawla, Muhammad Iqbal. Wavell and the Dying Days of the Raj: Britain’s Penultimate Viceroy in India . Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Chishti, Faiz Ali. Betrayals of Another Kind: Islam, Democracy and the Army in Pakistan. Lahore: Jang Publishers, 1996.
  • Chopra, Pran. ‘The Cycle of Blunders’. In Secular Crown on Fire: The Kashmir Problem. Edited by Asghar Ali Engineer. New Delhi: Ajanta Books, 1991.
  • Choudhary, S. What Is the Kashmir Problem ?. Luton: Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, 1991.
  • Christine E. Dobbin, Basic Documents in the Development of Modern India and Pakistan, 1835 –1947 (London: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1970).
  • Christophe Jaffrelot, The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India (New Delhi: Penguin Books India,1996).
  • Christopher M. Bell, Churchill and the Dardanelles (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).
  • Churchill, Winston Spencer. The River War , Vol. II. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1899.
  • Cloughley, Brian. A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrection .Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Collett, Nigel. The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginal Dyer. London: Hambledon Continuum, 2005.
  • Collins, Larry and Dominique Lapierre. Freedom at Midnight . New York: Avon Books, 1997.
  • Complete Works of Rahmat Ali. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research, 1978
  • Copland, Ian. ‘The Master and the Maharajas: The Sikh Princes and the East Punjab Massacres of 1947’. Modern Asian Studies , Vol. 36, No. 3 (2002).
  • Cragg, Kenneth. Islamic Surveys: Counsels in Contemporary Islam. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 1965.
  • Curtis, Mark. Secret Affairs: Britain’s Collusion with Radical Islam. London: Serpent’s Tail, 2010.
  • D.N. Panigrahi, India’s Partition: The Story of Imperialism in Retreat (London: Routledge, 2004)
  • Daftari, Farhad. The Ismā‘īlīs: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Dalrymple, William. The Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan. London: Bloomsbury, 2013.
  • Dar, Farooq Ahmad. Jinnah’s Pakistan: Formation and Challenges of a State. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Darling, S.M. The Punjab Peasant in Prosperity and Debt. New Delhi: Manohar, 1978.
  • Das, Durga. India from Curzon to Nehru and Afterwards. New Delhi: Rupa Publications, 1981.
  • Das, M.N. ‘India Wins Independence’. In A Centenary History of the Indian National Congress, Vol. III: 1935–1947 . Edited by B.N. Pande. New Delhi: All-India Congress Committee (I) and Vikas Publishing, 1985.
  • Das, Suranjan. Communal Riots in Bengal, 1905 –1947. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • David Gilmartin, Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989)
  • Delhi: All-India Congress Committee (I) and Vikas Publishing, 1985. Qasmi, Ali Usman and Megan Eaton Robb, ed. Muslims against the Muslim
  • Dennis Kux, The United States and Pakistan, 1947–2000: Disenchanted Allies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).
  • Devji, Faisal. The Terrorist in Search of Humanity: Militant Islam and Global Politics. London: Hurst & Company, 2008.
  • Dhulipala, Venkat. Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India . New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Dobbins, Christine E. Basic Documents in the Development of Modern India and Pakistan, 1835 –1947 . London: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1970.
  • Doi, Abdur Rahman I. The Islamic Law. London: Ta Ha Publishers, 1984.
  • Durga Das, India from Curzon to Nehru and After (New Delhi: Rupa Publications, 2012)
  • Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)
  • Edward Hallett Carr, What Is History? (New York: Penguin Random House, 1990)
  • Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood ’. Sociological Quarterly , Vol. 42, No. 4 (2001)
  • English, Adam C. ‘Christian Reconstruction after Y2K: Gary North, the New Millennium, and Religious Freedom’. In New Religious Movement and Religious Liberty in America . Edited by Derek H. Davis and Barry Hankins.
  • Erland Jansson, ‘India, Pakistan or Pakhtunistan: The Nationalist Movements in the North-West Frontier Province, 1937–47’, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Studia Historica Upsaliensia 119 (1981)
  • F. Ahmad, The Making of Modern Turkey (London/New York: Routledge, 1993)
  • Faisal Devji, The Terrorist in Search of Humanity: Militant Islam and Global Politics (London: Hurst & Company, 2008)
  • Faiz Ali Chishti, Betrayals of Another Kind: Islam, Democracy and the Army in Pakistan (Lahore: Jang Publishers, 1996)
  • Falahi, Masood Alam. Hindustan Mein Zaat-Paat aur Musalman (Muslims in India and the Caste System). Mumbai: Ideal Foundation, 2009
  • Farhad Daftary, The Ismā‘īlīs: Their History and Doctrines (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)
  • Farhan Hanif Siddiqi, The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir Ethnic Movements (London: Routledge, 2012)
  • Farooq Ahmad Dar, Jinnah’s Pakistan: Formation and Challenges of a State (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2014)
  • Farquhar, J.N. Modern Religious Movements in India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1967
  • Faruki, Kemal A. The Evolution of Islamic Constitutional Theory and Practice. Karachi: National Publishing House Limited, 1971
  • Fatima Jinnah, My Brother, ed. Sharif Al-Mujahid (Karachi: Quaid-e-Azam Academy, 1987)
  • Fazal, Tanveer. Nation-State and Minority Rights in India : Comparative Perspectives on Muslim and Sikh Identities . London: Routledge, 2015
  • Firoz Khan Noon, From Memory (Lahore: n.p., 1969)
  • Flavius Joseph, Against Apion, trans. William Whiston (Mississippi: Project Gutenburg, 2008)
  • French, Patrick. Liberty or Death: India’s Journey to Independence and Division. London: Penguin Books, 1997
  • G. Allana, ed., Pakistan Movement: Historic Documents (Lahore: Islamic Book Service, 1977)
  • G.D. Khosla, Stern Reckoning: A Survey of the Events Leading Up to and Following the Partition of India (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991)
  • G.M. Syed, The Case of Sindh (Karachi: Naeen Sindh Academy, 1994)
  • Gandhi, M.K. ‘Congress Ministries’. In Harijan , Vol. 5 (7 July 1937)
  • Gangadhar Adhikari, Pakistan and National Unity (Bombay: People’s Publishing House, 1944)
  • Gankovsky, Y.V. and L.R. Gordon-Polonskaya. A History of Pakistan (1947–1958) Lahore: People’s Publishing House, 1972
  • Gauba, K.L. Apney Aur Paraaye (Friends and Foes) . Lahore: Fiction House, 2010.
  • Georgi Plekhanov, The Role of the Individual in History (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1940)
  • Ghosh, Ajoy Kumar. ‘Bhagat Singh and His Comrades’. In Ajoy Kumar Ghosh: Articles and Speeches . Moscow: Publishing House for Oriental Literature, 1962
  • Ghosh, Sankar. Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography . New Delhi: Allied Publishers Limited, 1993
  • Gillmartin, David. Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989
  • Glendevon, John. The Viceroy at Bay. London: Collins, 1971.Hajari, Nisid. Midnight’s Furies: The Deadly Legacy of India’s Partition. Gloucestershire: Amberley Publications, 2017
  • Government of India Act, 1935 (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1935)
  • Gowher Rizvi, Linlithgow and India: A Study of British Policy and the Political Impasse in India, 1936 –43 (London: Royal Historical Society, 1978)
  • Granville Austin, The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999)
  • Gyanendra Pandey, The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998)
  • H. Alavi and J. Harriss, Sociology of Developing Societies: South Asia (London: Macmillan, 1989).
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