• Recharge Underground Water Reservoir

Reuse - Recycle - Recharge - Reduce

Re-use Water Discharge from RO System

जल प्रबंधन को ध्यान देने की आवश्यकता है: सामान्य नागरिक से लेकर प्रशासन तक। With rising population and uncertainties in weather patterns, water management needs a critical attention from everybody: ordinary citizen to the government. We all need to do our bit to address this concern and make the water available to all. One can get the monthly rainfall data for each state from 1901 to 2017 at data.gov.in/catalog/rainfall-india

Can we imagine the side effects of poor management of rainwater? It leads to destruction of road, inconvenience to travellers besides loss of invaluable life-saving and life-giving water!

Water Clogging Rainwater

शहरी घरों में पानी बर्बाद होने के तरीकों में से एक: हम सभी डिस्चार्ज पानी को एक छोटे टैंक में स्टोर कर सकते हैं और इसका इस्तेमाल बर्तन साफ ​​करने और कच्ची सब्जियों की सफाई करने के लिए भी कर सकते हैं। One of the way water is wasted in urban households is through discharge from RO-based water purifiers. We all can store the discharge water in a small tank and use it for cleaning utensils and even pre-cleaning of raw vegetables.

Water storage from a RO-purifier

Be aware that the water discharged by the RO-system will certainly be purer than that in overhead tank. The water collection might cause some inconvenience but it is worth its value to save our planet! In most of Indian household, we have separate buckets which is used to store water and clean the floors. The buckets can be used to store the water discharged from the RO system.

References from Web

Refer this page for similar information about a Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) system. comprehensive guide on the rainwater collection system.

Change in design on new houses to accomodate for Rainwater Harvesting

There should separate waterlines and overhead tanks for kitchen/baths and toilet flushes. A provision for separate storage and supply of water for toilet flush shall enable the use of 100% recycled water for this purpose. रसोईघर/स्नानघर और टॉयलेट फ्लश के लिए अलग पानी की नली और छत के ऊपर टैंक होना चाहिए। टॉयलेट फ्लश के लिए अलग भंडारण और पानी की आपूर्ति का प्रावधान इस उद्देश्य के लिए 100% पुनर्नवीनीकृत पानी के उपयोग को सक्षम करेगा।
वर्षा जल संचयन शब्दावली - Jargons / Nomenclature in Rainwater Harvesting

Area of Roof - छत का क्षेत्रफल: यह जमीन पर परियोजना क्षेत्र (लंबाई x चौड़ाई) को संदर्भित करता है और वास्तविक सतह के क्षेत्रफल को नहीं। - This refers to the project area (length x width) on the ground and not the actual surface area.

औसत वार्षिक वर्षा या वर्षा राशि (वर्षा की दर) - Mean Annual Rainfall or Precipitation Amount (Rate of Rainfall): यह प्रति यूनिट अनुमानित क्षेत्र में औसत बारिश है। - This is the average rain per unit projected area.

Run-off Factor or Run-off Coefficient:आमतौर पर यह उम्मीद की जाती है कि छतों पर गिरने वाले वर्षा जल का 100% एकत्र नहीं किया जा सकता है। - It is generally expected that 100% of rainwater falling on roofs cannot be collected. यह ड्रेन पाइप सिस्टम या बरसाती में अपरिहार्य छोटे रिसावों के कारण होता है - This is due to unavoidable small leakages in the gutter downpipe system or rainfalls which are too light to produce sufficient runoff or यह अत्यधिक बारिश के समय में अतिप्रवाह के कारण है - possible overflow in the case of an extreme downpour. For this reason, it is assumed that only 80~90% of the rainwater can be collected and referred as Run-Off Factor.

जलग्रह - Catchment: The catchment of a water harvesting system is the surface which directly receives the rainfall and provides water to the system. It can be a paved area like a terrace or courtyard of a building or open areas like a lawn or ground. जलग्रहण क्षेत्र वर्षा के संपर्क का पहला बिंदु है। टैंक-आधारित वर्षा जल संचयन प्रणाली के विशाल बहुमत के लिए, जलग्रहण क्षेत्र छत की सतह है। - The catchment area is the first point of contact for rainfall. For the vast majority of tank-based rainwater harvesting systems, the catchment area is the roof surface.

जलाशय - Reservoir: The final storage of rainwater for long-term use!

टंकी - Cistern: The local or temporary storage of water!

संग्रह गटर - Collection Gutter: पाइप की प्रणाली जो छत से गिरने वाले पानी को सिस्टर्न में स्थानांतरित करने के लिए उपयोग की जाती है। - The system of pipes and bends to transfer water falling from roof to the Cistern.

छत की ऊँचाई - Height of Roof: यह निस्पंदन से पहले छत के सबसे निचले बिंदु और पानी के भंडारण टैंक के बीच की ऊर्ध्वाधर दूरी है। - It is the vertical distance between the lowest point of the roof and the water storage tank before filtration.

Coarse mesh - मोटा /खुरदरा जाली: Installed at the roof to prevent the passage of debris.

Filter - छन्नी: A filter is used to remove suspended pollutants such as debris and dirt (silt and clay) from rainwater collected over roof. A filter unit is a chamber filled with filtering media such as fibre, coarse sand and gravel layers clean water before it enters the storage tank or recharge structure. Charcoal is added for additional filtration.

Reference: wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in

Type of Roofs

जलाशय का आयतन - Volume of Reservoir

नीचे दी गई तालिका जलाशय की व्यास और ऊंचाई को जलाशय की क्षमता को पूरा करने के लिए एक संदर्भ देती है। निर्माण की ऊँचाई को सामान्यतः नाममात्र व्यास से 10 ~ 20% अधिक माना जाता है। - The table below gives a ready reference to chose a diameter and height of the reservoir to meet a capacity (in liters) of the reservoir. Construction height is normally assumed 10~20% higher than the nomial diameter.

व्यास - Diameter भरने की ऊँचाई - Nominal Filling Height [m]
[cm] [in] [ft] 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50
Volume of Tank in Liters
100 39.4 3.28 785 982 1,178 1,374 1,571 1,767 1,963
125 49.2 4.10 1,227 1,534 1,841 2,148 2,454 2,761 3,068
150 59.1 4.92 1,767 2,209 2,651 3,093 3,534 3,976 4,418
175 68.9 5.74 2,405 3,007 3,608 4,209 4,811 5,412 6,013
200 78.7 6.56 3,142 3,927 4,712 5,498 6,283 7,069 7,854
225 88.6 7.38 3,976 4,970 5,964 6,958 7,952 8,946 9,940
250 98.4 8.20 4,909 6,136 7,363 8,590 9,817 11,045 12,272
275 108.3 9.02 5,940 7,424 8,909 10,394 11,879 13,364 14,849
300 118.1 9.84 7,069 8,836 10,603 12,370 14,137 15,904 17,671
325 128.0 10.66 8,296 10,370 12,444 14,518 16,592 18,665 20,739
350 137.8 11.48 9,621 12,026 14,432 16,837 19,242 21,648 24,053
375 147.6 12.30 11,045 13,806 16,567 19,328 22,089 24,850 27,612
400 157.5 13.12 12,566 15,708 18,850 21,991 25,133 28,274 31,416
425 167.3 13.94 14,186 17,733 21,279 24,826 28,373 31,919 35,466
450 177.2 14.76 15,904 19,880 23,856 27,833 31,809 35,785 39,761
475 187.0 15.58 17,721 22,151 26,581 31,011 35,441 39,871 44,301
500 196.9 16.40 19,635 24,544 29,452 34,361 39,270 44,179 49,087

वर्षा जल संचयन के तरीके - Rainwater Harvesting Methods: Schematic
Some of the rainwater harvesting techniques described in the book Making Water Everybody's Business by Centre of Science and Environment are shown below.

Rainwater harvesting method-01

Rainwater harvesting method-02

Rainwater harvesting method-04

Rainwater harvesting method-03

Bill-of-Material: Rain-water Harvesting System

There are many types of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems: such as Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting (RTRWH) system, Ground Tank Rain Water Harvesting (GTRWH) system. Following table summarizes the items (commonly known as Bill-of-Material or BOM) for construction and commissioning of a typical rainwater system. Rainwater harvesting methods are site specific and hence it is difficult to give a generalised cost. As mentioned on webpage "rainwaterharvesting.org/urban/costs.htm" -the residents of Panchsheel Park Colony in Delhi pooled in Rs 4.5 lakh to harvest approx 170 million litres of water annually. Thus, the unit for cost of RWH can be [INR/kilo-Liter/p.a.] which turned out to be INR 3.75 per kilo-liter per annum.

Sample Bill-on-Material: Validation under process.

S. No. Description of the Item UOM: Unit of Measurement Quantity Required Rate [INR/UOM] Item Cost Remark
01 Plastic Tank: 500 L Pieces 4 1,200/- 4,800/- 4 tanks to store water
02 Plastic Pipes: 4" diameter meters 75 130/- 9,750/- Conduits to collect water from roof to tank
03 Bricks Thousands 2 5000/- 10,000/- Filtration Tank
04 Cement Bags 10 500/- 5,000/- Filtration Tank
05 Sand ft3 500 10/- 5,000/- Filtration Tank
06 Sand ft3 200 20/- 4,000/- Water filtration layer - 1
07 Plastic net m2 10 50/- 500/- Water filtration layer - 2
08 Plastic U-Bend Pieces 10 50/- 500/- For water collection system
09 PVC Pipe Bend Pieces 10 50/- 500/- For water collection system
10 Manpower INR/day 30 500 15,000/- Manpower
Total * * * * * Cost

The costs of a RWH system would be comparatively significantly less if the system is incorporated during the construction of the building itself.

temple Wall Inscription RWH

Rainwater Storage Tank

RoofTop Water Harvesting

slow Sand Filter

salinity Control

Dewal Filter RWH

RWH in Japan

RWH in Germany

Water Consumption Data

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