Charge and Its Movements

### Electrostatics and Electromagnetism

This page explains concepts at college level in the field of charged particles, storage (capacitors), motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic field, electro-magentic induction and electrical circuits.

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#### Basic Formula and Equations of Electrostatics

Force between charges placed in medium with absolute permittivity ε:

Here,

ε = absolute permittivity of the medium containing the charges particle

ε_{0} = absolute permittivity of vacuum

ε_{r} = relative permittivity of the medium [= 1 for vacuum].
**Electric Field or Intensity of Electric Field**: This is force per unit area defined as **E** = **F** / q. Thus electric field due to a point charge Q at distance x from it is given by:

Here onwards, all the calculations are based on charges place in vacuum. The results are valid for any other medium where ε_{0} is replaced by ε.

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**Electric field due to ring **of radius R with charge Q at distance x from the centre of the ring and perpendicular to the plane of the ring:

**Electric field due to circular disk **of radius R with surface charge density σ at distance x from the centre of the disk and perpendicular to the plane of the ring:

It is assumed that the charge is only on one side of the plate. The results of electrical field due to thin circular ring described above can be used to derive the field as follows:

**Electric field due to hemispherical shell **of radius R with surface charge density σ at distance x from the centre of the sphere and perpendicular to the plane of the base:

It is assumed that the charge is only on one side of the shell. The results of electrical field due to thin circular ring described above can be used to derive the field as follows, by replacing x by x+Rsinθ and r by Rcosθ: