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Vedas are divided in eight Khandas (portions), or Ashtakas (eighths), each of which is, again, subdivided into eight Adhydyas, or lectures. The other plan classes the Suktas under ten Mandalas, or circles, subdivided into rather more than a hundred Anuvakas, or sub-sections. A further subdivision of the Suktas into Vargas, or paragraphs, of about five stanzas each, is common to both classifications.

ऋग्वेद में 1028 सूक्त हैं, जिन्हें दस पुस्तकों में व्यवस्थित किया गया है जिन्हें अष्टका या मंडला के नाम से जाना जाता है। The Rig Veda consists of 1028 hymns, organised into ten books known as mandala. Each mandala has shuktas (hymns) formed by individual strophes called ric from which the name Rig Veda. भाषा-विज्ञान और भाषाई साक्ष्य इंगित करते हैं कि ऋग्वेद किसी भी इंडो-यूरोपीय भाषा में सबसे पुराने मौजूदा ग्रंथों में से एक है। The philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rig Veda is one of the oldest existing texts in any Indo-European language. Learn about Thiest, Diest, Panthiest, Athiest, Agnostic, Phoenix Philology: the branch of knowledge that deals with the structure, historical development, and relationships of a language or languages.

  • ऋग वेद -Rig Veda - the most important Veda. इसमें प्रसिद्ध गायत्री मंत्र सहित खुशी, स्वास्थ्य और ज्ञान के लिए मंत्र और भजन शामिल हैं। It contains mantras and hymns for happiness, health and wisdom, including the famous Gayatri mantra.
  • साम वेद -Sama Veda - Song Knowledge - यह संगीतमय भजनों और मंत्रों का एक संग्रह है जो कीर्तन का आधार बनता है, भक्ति योग का भक्तिमय जप। It is a collection of musical hymns and mantras that form the basis for kirtan, the devotional chanting of Bhakti yoga.
  • यजुर वेद -Yajur Veda - Ritual Knowledge - यह समारोहों के तकनीकी पहलुओं, यज्ञ कार्यों और देवताओं की पूजा के लिए निर्देशात्मक पुस्तिका है। It is the instructional handbook for the technical aspects of ceremonies, sacrificial acts and worship of the deities. This is used by Vedic priests. गायत्री मन्त्र और महामृत्युंजय मन्त्र यजुर्वेद में हैं. It is divided into two sections, the earlier black and the more recent white. इसे दो भागों में बांटा गया है, पहला 'काला' और दूसरा हाल का 'सफेद'।
  • अथर्व वेद - Atharva Veda - यह राक्षसों और बीमारी को दूर करने के लिए जादुई संस्कारों और मंत्रों का संग्रह है, साथ ही विवाह और दाह संस्कार के लिए भजन भी हैं। It is a collection of magical rites and spells to dispel demons and disease, as well as hymns for marriage and cremation.
Each of the Ved is further divided into types of text included within them:
अरण्यक - Aranyakas अनुष्ठान, पालन - rituals, observances
ब्राह्मण - Brahmanas उक्त कर्मकांडों पर भाष्य - commentaries on said rituals
संहिता - Samhitas आशीर्वाद, प्रार्थना, मंत्र - benedictions, prayers, mantras
उपनिषद - Upanishads या /or वेदांत - end or conclusion of the Vedas दार्शनिक आख्यान और संवाद - philosophical narratives and dialogues
उदाहरण -- ऋगवेदे अष्टके १, अध्याये २, वर्गे ७, मन्त्रः ५ ॥ सूक्तक्रमानुसार उदाहरण -- म० १, सूक्त २२, मन्त्र २० जहाँ म० = मण्डला. इसी तरह पुरानों में पर्व - खंड - अध्याय - पद का विवरण है. For example, many claim that Bhavishya Puran has reference to Muhammad in Parva-3, Khand-3, Adhyay-3 and Verses 5-6. अथर्ववेद में काण्ड - सूक्त - मंत्र संख्या से व्यक्त किया जाता है.
गठन /  संरचना:  
अर्चिका [पूर्वार्चिका, उत्तरार्चिका]
-- प्रपाठका 
Quatrains = चौपाई, Mandal = मंडल =/= अ‍ध्याय, Hymns = मन्त्र, सर्वेश्वरवाद - Pantheism, occult: connected with magic powers and things that cannot be explained by reason or science [रहस्‍यात्‍मक (तर्क या विज्ञान से परे), जादुई, जादू-टोना, तंत्र-मंत्र], apparitions = a ghost or an image of a person who is dead --- भूत-प्रेत, मृत व्‍यक्ति की छाया

List of Books with Authentic Translations

RIGVEDA ऋग्वेद : Vol. I - With Original Sanskrit Text, Transliteration & Lucid English Translation in the Aarsh Tradition of Maharshi Yaska and Swami Dayananda) English translation by Dr. Tulsi Ram M.A., Ph.D. (London, U.K.) (Professor, Administrator, Researcher and Writer)

RIG-VEDA-SANHITA: A Collection of Ancient Hindu Hymns OF THE RIG-VEDA. The Oldest Authority for the Religious and Social Institutions of the Hindus. Translated from the original Sanskrit. VOL. II By H. H. WILSON, MA, F.R.S.


THE SRIMAD-BHAGAVATAM OF KRISHNA-DWAIPAYANA VYASA: Translated into English Prose from the original Sanskrit text. BY J. M. Sanyal [Second Edition] VOL-I

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
00_Ved-Upnishad-Puran 00_Secret-of-Ved-Aurobindo.pdf The Secret of the Veda with Selected Hymns Volume 15 The Complete Works Of Sri Aurobindo -English 0616
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Part-I The Problem and Its Solution
Chapter-02: Part-I A Retrospect of Vedic Theory
Chapter-03: Part-I Modern Theories
Chapter-04: Part-I The Foundations of the Psychological Theory
Chapter-05: Part-I The Philological Method of the Veda
Chapter-06: Part-I Agni and the Truth
Chapter-07: Part-I Varuna-Mitra and the Truth
Chapter-08: Part-I The Ashwins Indra and the Vishwadevas
Chapter-09: Part-I Saraswati and Her Consorts
Chapter-10: Part-I The Image of the Oceans and the Rivers
Chapter-11: Part-I The Seven Rivers
Chapter-12: Part-I The Herds of the Dawn
Chapter-13: Part-I Dawn and the Truth
Chapter-14 Part-I The Cow and the Angiras Legend
Chapter-15: Part-I The Lost Sun and the Lost Cows
Chapter-16: Part-I The Angiras Rishis
Chapter-17: Part-I The Seven-Headed Thought, Swar and the Dashagwas
Chapter-18: Part-I The Human Fathers
Chapter-19: Part-I The Victory of the Fathers
Chapter-20:Part-I The Hound of Heaven
Chapter-21: Part-I The Sons of Darkness
Chapter-22: Part-I The Conquest over the Dasyus
Chapter-23: Part-I Summary of Conclusions
Chapter-01: Part-II The Colloquy of Indra and Agastya (I.170)
Chapter-02: Part-II Indra, Giver of Light (I.4)
Chapter-03: Part-II Indra and the Thought-Forces (I.171)
Chapter-04: Part-II Agni, the Illumined Will (I.77)
Chapter-05: Part-II Surya Savitri, Creator and Increaser (V.81)
Chapter-06: Part-II The Divine Dawn (III.61)
Chapter-07: Part-II To Bhaga Savitri, the Enjoyer (V.82)
Chapter-08: Part-II Vayu, the Master of the Life Energies (IV.48)
Chapter-09: Part-II Brihaspati, Power of the Soul (IV.50)
Chapter-10: Part-II The Ashwins, Lords of Bliss (IV.45)
Chapter-11: Part-II The Ribhus, Artisans of Immortality (I.20)
Chapter-12: Part-II Vishnu, the All-Pervading Godhead (I.154)
Chapter-13: Part-II Soma, Lord of Delight and Immortality (IX.83)
Chapter-01: Part-III HYMNS OF THE ATRIS, Hymns to Agni (V.1 - 28), Hymns to the Lords of Light, The Guardians of the Light, Hymns to Mitra-Varuna (V.62 - 72), Hymn to Varuna (V.85), Hymns to the Dawn (V.79, 80), A Hymn to Savitri (V.81)
Chapter-01:Part-IV HA Vedic Hymn (VII.60), A Hymn of the Thought-Gods (based on V.52 - 61), The God of the Mystic Wine (IX.75, 42), The Vedic Fire (I.94, 97), A Vedic Hymn to the Fire (I.59), Parashara's Hymns to the Lord of the Flame (I.65 - 73)

Review: Only english text, just plain translation and no personal opinion by the author.

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN *.pdf India: The Ancient Past* Burjor Avari 2007English 0303
Table of Contents
Introduction: Three terms in context: ‘India’, ‘ancient’, ‘Hindu’, Why study ancient India? Time, space and people, Primary sources and the historians
Chapter-02: From Africa to Mehrgarh: the early pre-history of India --- Earliest phases of human settlement and activity, The Neolithic Revolution and the rise of agriculture, The Early Harappan phase: proto-urban settlements of the late Neolithic period
Chapter-03: The Harappan Civilisation --- Phases of progress in Harappan archaeology, Understanding the Mature Harappan phase, The eclipse of the Harappan Civilisation
Chapter-04: The Indo-Aryans in the Vedic Age --- The Aryan background, The Aryan expansion, The Vedic world
Chapter-05: Formative centuries of the pre-Mauryan era --- Politics and the geography of power, Two foreign intrusions, Second urbanisation and the rise of heterodoxy, Varieties of literature
Chapter-06: The paradox of Mauryan imperialism --- Advising and observing at the court of Chandragupta Maurya, The Dhamma of Ashoka, The Mauryan world
Chapter-07: Diffusion and dynamism after the Mauryas --- New dynasties and new centres of power, The international trade of India, New trends in Indian religions, Secular literature, sciences and the arts
Chapter-08: Stability and change under the imperial Guptas --- The empire and the emperors, Gupta society: a world in transition, The ‘flowering’ of Gupta Classical culture
Chapter-09: The post-Gupta era and the rise of the south --- North India fractured, Chalukyas and Pallavas: the Deccan and the deep south, Political and economic perspectives, Cross-currents of culture
Chapter-10: Regionalism and feudalism: Rajput, Pala and Rashtrakuta kingdoms --- Three regional kingdoms, Political economy in the feudal era, Cultural highlights of the age
Chapter-11: Chola domination in the south and Turco-Afghan plunder in the north --- State and society under the Cholas, Turco-Afghan incursions into north India, Fortunes of three Indic religions, Literature and great temples
Chapter-12: Afterword: India post-AD 1200, Glossary of Indic terms, Glossary of selected ancient Indic place-names, Classification of ancient Indian texts by subjects
*A History of the Indian-subcontinent from 7000 BC to AD 1200 - this book is under copyright and only few excerpts are presented.

Keywords: Bharat, Sindhu, Harappa, Aryan, Veda, Vedic

Review:Preface: "Ancient India evolved in many stages, and her development is analysed and explained over the eleven chapters presented here. They are chronologically arranged, from the earliest known human settlements and the examination of their societies from 7000 bc, through to the commencement of the Turco-Afghan military forays into northern India in the eleventh and twelfth centuries AD."

Pg XVII: "Vedic Hinduism was strongly challenged by the religious dissenters, such as Ajivakas, Buddhists and Jains, who objected to the caste system, animal sacrifices, brahman dominance and the Vedas." Pg-1: "When the Persians began to penetrate Indian lands in the sixth century BC, they referred to the modern River Indus, the most westerly of the seven rivers, and the peoples living in the region, by the term Hindhu in Old Persian, the cognate of the Indic sindhu."

Pg-3: "What is generally known as Vedic Hindu culture began from around 2000 bc, and flourished for some 1,500 years, until about 500 bc. Then, pervasive Buddhist and Jain influences began strongly to make their impact for a thousand years and more, amid a plethora of sectarian dissents. From about ad 500 onwards, however, we find the evidence of a resurgent, and rebranded, Hinduism known as the Puranic and devotional Hinduism, which has endured ever since."

Pg-5: "Again, the famous astronomer Aryabhatta wrote his definitive mathematical work in ad 499, which was the year that, through his astronomical calculations, he claimed to complete 3,600 years of the Kali Yuga, the latest of the time-periods of the main Hindu religious calendar that began in 3101 BC. This means that, when the third Christian millennium began in AD 2000–01, the Hindus had just completed the first century of their sixth millennium."

Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
FN *.pdf THE WONDER THAT WAS INDIA* A. L. BASHAM** ThirdEnglish 0702
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: Introduction: India and her Ancient Culture, The Land of India: The Discovery of Ancient India: The Glory of Ancient India
Chapter-02: Prehistory: The Harappa Culture and the Aryans, Primitive Man in India: The First Villages: The Harappa City Culture: The End of the_Indus Cities: Indo-Europeans and Aryans: The Aryans in India. The Proto-historic Period: The Culture of the Rig Veda. The Later Vedic Age
Chapter-03: History: Ancient and Medieval Empires, Sources of History: The Age of the Buddha: Alexander and the Mauryas: The Age of In¬ vasions: The Guptas and Harsa: The Middle Ages in the North: The Middle Ages in the Peninsula
Chapter-04: The State: Political Life and Thought --- Sources: Kingship: The Royal Function: Quasi- Feudalism: Oligarchies and Republics: Council¬ lors and Officials: Local Administration: Village Administration: Public Finance: Legal Litera¬ ture: The Basis of Law: Crime: Administration of Justice: Punishment: The Secret Service: Hindu Militarism: Military Organization and Technique
Chapter-05: Society: Class, Family and Individual, Laws of Class and Stage of Life: The Four Great Classes: Untouchables: “Confusion of Class”: Caste: Slavery: Gotra and Pravara: The Family: The Four Stages of Life: The Child: Initiation: Education: Marriage: Sexual Relations: Divorce: Polygamy: Old Age and Death: Women: Prostitution: Widows
Chapter-06: Everyday Life: The Daily Round in City and Village, The Village: Agriculture and Stockbreeding: The Wild Tribes: The Town: The Man about Town: Amusements: Clothes and Ornaments: Food and Drink: Economic Life: Guilds: Technical Achievement: Trade and Finance: Caravans and Trade-routes: Sea Trade and Overseas Contacts
Chapter-07: Religion: Cults, Doctrines and Metaphysics I. The Religion of the Vedas: Gods of the Rig Veda: Sacrifice: New Developments of Doctrine: Asceticism: Speculation and Gnosis: Ethics of the Upanisads. II. Buddhism: The Buddha: The Growth of Buddhism: The Lesser Vehicle: The Evolution of the Great Vehicle: The Great Vehicle: The Vehicle of the Thunderbolt: The Buddhist Order: Buddhist Ethics and Morality. III. Jainism and Other Unorthodox Sects: Jainism: The Ajlvikas: Scepticism and Materialism. IV. Hinduism: Development and Literature: Visnu: Siva: The Relations of Visnu and Siva: The Mother Goddess: Lesser Gods: Demigods and Spirits: Cosmogony: The Soul, Karma and Samsara: The Six Systems of Salvation: Theism and Devotion: Hindu Rites and Ceremonies: Hindu Ethics. V. Non-Indian Religions
Chapter-08: The Arts: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Music and The Dance The Spirit of Indian Art: Early Architecture: The Stupa: Cave Temples: Temples: Sculpture: Terracottas: Metal Sculpture and Engraving: Painting: Minor Arts: Music: The Dance
Chapter-09: Language and Literature, I. Language: Sanskrit: Prakrits and Pali: Dravidian Languages: Writing. II. Literature: Vedic Literature: Epic Literature: Classical Sanskrit Poetry: Narrative Poetry: The Drama: Sanskrit Prose Literature: Pali Literature: Prakrit Literature: Tamil Literature: Folk Poetry
Chapter-10: Epilogue: The Heritage of India The Impact of the West: The World’s Debt to India
*A survey of the history and culture ofthe Indian sub-continent before the coming of the Muslims, **Professor of Asian Civilization in the Australian National University Canberra

Keywords: India, Rig Veda, Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Prakrit, Sanskrit

Review:Pg-4: "The ancient civilization of India differs from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece, in that its traditions have been preserved without a break down to the present day. India and China have, in fact, the oldest continuous cultural traditions in the world"

Pg-6:"In no other early civilization were slaves so few in number, and in no other ancient lawbook are their rights so well protected as in the Arthasastra (p. I54f). No other ancient lawgiver proclaimed such noble ideals of fair play in battle as did Manu (p. 127). In all her history of warfare Hindu India has few tales to tell of cities put to the sword or of the massacre of non- combatants."

Pg-39: "Recently Indian archaeologists have excavated parts of a few sites which belong to this period, such as Hastinapura, Ahicchatra and KausambI, the lowest levels of which have been reasonably fixed at between 900 and 600 BC, the time of the later Vedas."

D.J. Boilet, Al-Biruni, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, H.A.R. Gibb, J.H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht Editors, Brill, 1986 --- "In 1017, al-Biruni travelled to the Indian subcontinent, studying the Indian science and conveying it to the Islamic world".

B. Gafurov, Al-Biruni, a Universal Genius Who Lived in the Central Asia a Thousand of Years Ago, The Unesco Courier, June 1974, Pages 4-9 --- "In his early youth, fortune brought al-Biruni in contact with an educated Greek who was his first teacher. His foster father, Mansur, was a member of the royal family and a distinguished mathematician and astronomer. He introduced al-Biruni to Euclidean Geometry and Ptolemaic astronomy".

Al-Biruni considered the world, that is the universe, had come into existence in time, as Muslims believed, and then it was not eternal like Aristotle told. In the Mas'udi Canon, al-Biruni writes that the Earth is at the centre of the universe and that it has no motion of its own, as it is in the Ptolemaic system. However, in this book, he takes issue with this system on several points.

J. Boilot, The Long Odyssey, The Unesco Courier, June 1974, Pages 10-13: “He holds, for example, that the Sun’s apogee is not fixed, and while he accepts the geocentric theory, he shows that the astronomical facts can also be explained by assuming the Earth revolves around the Sun”

TAMING THE UNKNOWN: A History of Algebra from Antiquity to the Early Twentieth Century by VICTOR J. KATZ AND KAREN HUNGER PARSHALL --- Pg-105: "The earliest mathematical ideas that we can definitely attribute to Indian sources are found in the Sulba-sutras, works dating from sometime in the first millennium BCE, that describe the intricate sacrificial system of the brahmins. Most of the ideas contained in these texts are geometrical, but many of the problems can be thought of as geometrical algebra". Pg-106: "The central mathematical chapter of the Aryabhatya, the text’s second chapter, consists of thirty-three verses, each containing a brief rule for a particular kind of calculation. The requirements of poetry make some of the rules cryptic, but with the help of a commentary by Bhaskara I (early seventh century CE) and the two mathematical chapters of the Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta of Brahmagupta (early seventh century CE), both written around 628 CE, it is generally possible to understand Āryabhata’s meaning."

Pg-112: In the Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta, however, Brahmagupta did present a general algorithm for solving quadratic equations, in particular, equations we would write as a.x2 + b.x = c. As he put it, "diminish by the middle [number] the square root of the rūpas multiplied by four times the square and increased by the square of the middle [number]; divide [the remainder] by twice the square. [The result is] the middle [number]." Pg-113: Several hundred years later, Bhaskara II (1114–1185) also dealt with quadratic equations in his Bija-ganita, written around 1160. He, however, gave an explicit solution method involving completing the square and not just an algorithm similar to the quadratic formula.

Pg-121: There is good evidence that Brahmagupta and Aryabhata were originally interested in congruence problems for the same basic reason as the Chinese, namely, for use in astronomy, because many of the problems in their texts have astronomical settings. 32 The Indian astronomical system of the fifth and sixth century, like the ancient Chinese system, hinged on the notion of a large astronomical period at the beginning and end of which all the planets (including the sun and moon) had longitude zero. The idea was that all worldly events would recur with this same period. For Āryabhat.a, the fundamental period was the Mahayuga of 4,320,000 years, while for Brahmagupta, it was the Kalpa of 1,000 Mahayugas. In any case, calculations with heavenly bodies required knowing their average motions. Since it was impossible to determine those motions empirically with any accuracy, it became necessary to calculate them on the basis of current observations and on the fact that all the planets were at approximately the same place at the beginning of the period. These calculations involved solving linear congruences.

Pg-124: Pell Equation --- Why this problem interested Indian mathematicians remains a mystery. Some of Brahmagupta’s examples used astronomical variables for x and y , but there is no indication that the problems actually came from real-life situations. In any case, the Pell equation became a tradition in Indian mathematics. Studied through the next several centuries, it was solved completely by the otherwise unknown Acarya Jayadeva (ca. 1000).

Pg-126: Indian mathematicians also considered algebraic problems of kinds other than the solution of equations. One particular algebraic result that was discussed beginning in the time of Aryabhata was a formula for determining the sum of integral powers. Recall that verse 2.19 of the Aryabhatiya gave, as a special case, a formula for the sum of the integers from 1 to n. Verse 2.22 then presented the formulas for the sum of the squares and the cubes: "One sixth of the product of three quantities which are, in due order, the number of terms, that increased by one, and that increased by the number of terms; that will be the solid made of a pile of squares, and the square of a pile is the solid made of a pile of cubes."

नैशधियचरितम् - श्रीहर्ष द्वारा रचित, पाँच प्रमुख महाकाव्यों में से एक है। काव्य के पहले सर्ग में 145 श्लोक हैं, जो नल और दमयंती के गुणों की व्याख्या करते हैं, जो कविता की शानदार प्रमुख-जोड़ी है। Naishadhiyacharitam - composed by Sriharsha, is one of the Five major Mahakavyas. First sarga of the kavya contains 145 verses explaining the virtues of Nala and Damayanti, the illustrious lead-pair of the poem. Lalitavistara, (Sanskrit: “Detailed Narration of the Sport [of the Buddha]”) legendary life of the Gautama Buddha, written in a combination of Sanskrit and a vernacular. The text apparently is a recasting, in the Mahayana (“Greater Vehicle”) tradition, of a work from the Sarvastivada school.
Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
03_Bharatvarsha-Itihaas 03_Advanced-History-India.pdf AN ADVANCED HISTORY OF INDIA R. C. MAJUMDAR, H. C. RAYCHAUDHURI, KALIKINKAR DATTA FourthEnglish 1153
Table of Contents



Folder Name Book File Name Title of the Book Author(s) of the Book Edition Language(s) Number of pages
03_Bharatvarsha-Itihaas 03_Ancient-India-Earliest.pdf ANCIENT INDIA: FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE FIRST CENTURY A.D. E. J. Rapson*, M.A. 1914English 0220
Table of Contents
Chapter-01: The Sources of the History of Ancient India
Chapter-02: The Civilizations of India
Chapter-03: The Period of the Vedas
Chapter-04: The Rise of Jainism and Buddhism
Chapter-05: The Indian Dominions of the Persian and Macedonian Empires
Chapter-06: The Maurya Empire
Chapter-07: India after the Decline of the Maurya Empire
Chapter-08: The Successors of Alexander the Great
Chapter-09: Parthian and Scythian Invaders
Chapter-10: Notes on the Illustrations, Notes on the Ancient Geography of India


Review: Excerpt: "The Sanscrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful strcuture; more perfect than the Greeks, more copius than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs, and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed that no philologer could examine them all without believing them to have sprung from common source, which perhaps no longer exists. There is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothick and the Celtick, though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanscrit and the old Persian might be added to; the same family." This pronouncement, made by Sir William Jones as President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in the year 1786, may truly be called 'epoch-making', for it marks the beginning of the historical and scientific study of languages.

Fr. Bouchet’s India: An Eighteenth-Century Jesuit’s Encounter with Hinduism: Jean Venance Bouchet (1655–1732) was a Jesuit missionary in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka for over forty years, most of the first half of the eighteenth century. He was born on April 10, 1655 in Fontenay-le-Comte, France, and entered the Society of Jesus in 1670. In 1687, he went to Siam as part of a Jesuit mission, but after a 1688 revolution, the fourteen Jesuits were ejected from the kingdom. Bouchet was one of just three2 who, upon reaching Pondicherry in 1689, stayed on to join the French mission. By 1702, and by his own admission, he had baptized twenty thousand adults and heard one hundred thousand confessions.3 Bouchet was a friend and spiritual advisor to St. João de Britto (1647–93), and was the last Jesuit to see Britto alive before his martyrdom.4 He built a large church at Avur,5 which remained the center of the Madurai mission until 1773.

Information about Buddhism

William T. de Bary, ed., The Buddhist Tradition in India, China, and Japan (1972); N. McMullen, Buddhism and the State in 16th Century Japan (1984); R. Robinson, The Buddhist Religion (1982). Click here to get the cover page of more than 100 books on Buddhism and Jainism.

Reference: THE AGE OF WARS OF RELIGION, 1000–1650 AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GLOBAL WARFARE AND CIVILIZATION, Volume 1, A–K by Cathal J. Nolan Buddhism. A world historical faith founded by the Nepalese aristocrat Prince Siddhartha (‘‘The Buddha,’’ or "Enlightened One," 563?–480? B.C.E.). Buddhism was distinctively Indian in origin, though in later times it is hardly to be found in India. That shift was brought about by disruptive invasions, by the co-option of the Buddha in north India into a revived Hinduism (as an Avatar in the cult of Vishnu-worship), and in part by violent repression by a new devotional cult of Shiva-worshipers (bhakti), who slaughtered so many Jains they wiped out that faith in south India. The Asoka emperor (269–232 B.C.E.) was more kindly disposed, and sent out Buddhist missionaries to Sri Lanka and west Asia. Buddhism spread from north India to Bhutan, Burma, China, Indochina, Japan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Tibet. It reached Southeast Asia in the 1st century C.E. Buddhism was introduced to China in the Han dynasty and enjoyed a "golden age" there from the 5th to the 9th centuries, until it was harshly repressed by the Tang from 845 C.E. In defense, Buddhist monasteries were rebuilt as mountaintop fortresses and housed thousands of well-trained and armed monks. A "White Lotus" sect of Buddhism evolved a military offshoot known as the Red Turbans, who were so adept at the martial arts they helped overthrow the Mongol (Yuan dynasty) in 1368.

INDIA and the UNITED STATES: ESTRANGED DEMOCRACIES 1941 - 1991 by DENNIS KUX with Introduction by Senator Daniel P. Moynihan


The Shadow of the Great Game: The Untold Story of India's Partition by Narendra Singh Sarila - Narendra Singh Sarila was aide-de-camp to Lord Mountbatten and served in the Indian Foreign Service,1948–85. He joined the Indian delegation to the UN, and was India’s ambassador in Spain, Brazil, Libya, Switzerland, and France.

A radical reassessment in British colonial history by the former ADC to the last Viceroy of British India is important, but Sarila’s claim that current Islamic terrorism is partially rooted in Partition has wider implications. Historians have underestimated the role of British strategic fears about the USSR’s control of Middle Eastern oil wells and access to the Indian Ocean. New material on figures like Gandhi, Jinnah, Mountbatten, Churchill, Attlee, Wavell, and Nehru are offered.

The Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush by Robertson, George Scott, Sir, 1852-1916

Kafiristan, or "The Land of the Infidels," was a region of eastern Afghanistan where the inhabitants had retained their traditional pagan culture and religion and rejected conversion to Islam. The Káfirs of the Hindu-Kush is a detailed ethnographic account of the Kafirs, written by George Scott Robertson (1852-1916), a British administrator in India. With the approval of the government of India, Robertson made a preliminary visit to Kafiristan in October 1889, and then lived among the Kafirs for almost a year, from October 1890 to September 1891. Robertson describes his journey from Chitral (in present-day Pakistan) to Kafiristan and the difficulties he encountered in traveling about the country and in gaining information about the Kafir culture and religion. The latter, he writes, "is a somewhat low form of idolatry, with an admixture of ancestor-worship and some traces of fire-worship also. The gods and goddesses are numerous, and of varying degrees of importance or popularity." Robertson describes religious practices and ceremonies, the tribal and clan structure of Kafir society, the role of slavery, the different villages in the region, and everyday life and social customs, including dress, diet, festivals, sport, the role of women in society, and much else that he observed first-hand. The book is illustrated with drawings, and it concludes with a large fold-out topographical map, which shows the author's route in Kafiristan. In 1896 the ruler of Afghanistan, Amir 'Abd al-Rahman Khan (reigned 1880-1901), conquered the area and brought it under Afghan control. The Kafirs became Muslims and in 1906 the region was renamed Nuristan, meaning the "Land of Light," a reference to the enlightenment brought by Islam.

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