The geometry creation for CFD can be accomplished by either of the following two methods:

  • Create geometry in any CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software such as Unigraphics, Catia, Pro/E, Solidedge. The geometry information create so far is called to be in "Native CAD" format. This geometry should be translated to a Neutral format such as IGES, STEP, Parasolid. All Pre-processors available has build-in capacity to read (Import) CAD data in this format. Once the geometry is imported into the Pre-processor, defeature as per requirement.
  • The second approach is to create geometry directly into the pre-processor. All commercial pre-processors has basic built-in features to create Geometrical Entities. We strongly recommend this approach for following two cases:
    • 2D simulation
    • When geometry is Axi-symmetric. In this case, one needs to create the 2D Cross- section first and then extrude it by rotation.
    • One widely used term in numerical simulation is Topology. A precise explanation is provided by Georgios Balafas in his master's thesis for the Master of Science program in Computational Mechanics "Polyhedral Mesh Generation for CFD-Analysis of Complex Structures": The topology of a mesh is an abstraction of the geometric model, that provides unambiguous, shape independent information about the relation between the entities that form the mesh structure. To this end, a mesh database is used in order to store various-level attributes of entities of different dimensions. These typically include 0-D entities, referred to, in literature, as vertices or nodes, 1-D entities, referred to as edges, 2-D entities, referred to as faces or facets and 3-D entities, referred to as solids, volumes, regions or cells.
    • Few other definition taken from previous reference:
      • "A face is said to be classified on the boundary of the geometric model, when it is adjacent to only one solid, which means that the free side of the face forms an external boundary. In the opposite case, where a face is adjacent to two solids, it is classified in the interior of the geometric model."
      • Mesh edges inherit their classification by their adjacent faces. Specifically, when an edge has at least one adjacent face that is classified on a model's boundary surface, the edge is also classified on the same boundary. To be more precise, in a conforming non-manifold three-dimensional mesh, an edge will have either zero or at least 2 adjacent boundary faces, however detecting one of them can be considered enough to classify the edge on the boundary as well. Furthermore, when an edge's adjacent boundary faces are classified on different boundary surfaces of the model, this denotes the edge's classification on a model's boundary edge, where 2 of its boundary surfaces intersect. It is, therefore, adequate to count the amount of different boundary identifiers that are assigned to the adjacent faces of an edge, in order to conclude whether this edge is internal (zero boundary identifiers), on a boundary surface (one identifier), on a boundary edge (2 identifiers), or is a non-manifold edge (> 2 identifiers).
      • Extending the aforementioned classification criteria for vertices, a mesh vertex is classified on a model's boundary surface, when at least one of its adjacent edges is also classified on a boundary surface. Additionally, when at least one of the adjacent edges of a vertex is classified on a model's boundary edge, then the vertex is also classified on the same boundary edge. Finally, when there exist at least two adjacent edges classified on two different model's boundary edges, the vertex is classified on a model's corner, formed at the intersection of the boundary edges. In other words, the classification of a vertex with respect to the model can be determined by counting the amount of different boundary identifiers assigned to the adjacent faces of the vertex. Zero boundary identifiers denote an internal vertex, while vertices on a boundary surface have adjacent faces with a unique identifier. Nodes on model's boundary edges have adjacency relationships to faces of two boundary identifiers in total and vertices on a model's corner sum up with three adjacent boundary identifiers. Finally, when a vertex has adjacent faces classified to more than three different boundary surfaces, the vertex is non-manifold.
  • DOMAIN SIZE REDUCTION THROUGH SIMILARITY:
    In order to results of the model to apply to the prototype, strict similarity rules must be followed.

    A convenient frame of reference must be defined that applies to both model & prototype and corresponding locations must be defined using dimensionless ratios (for a sphere for example, angle on its surface, longitude and latitude lines). Thus, there exist similar conditions for corresponding points on both model & prototype. That is, the drag coefficient at a particular point on the sphere applies to both model & prototype.

    The designer must follow, then geometric similarity (model and prototype), kinematic similarity (velocity vector direction is similar for both model & prototype), dynamic similarity (force vector direction is similar for both model and prototype), thermal similarity (heat fluxes), etc.

    Note that similarity principles cannot be applied for all application without loss of accuracy. For example, to reduce size of an axial flow fan with shroud, either for numerical or experimental investigation, their is no thumb rule to account for blade-tip and shroud clearance. Hence, the designer has to establish his own "quality standards and acceptance criteria" to address this limitation.

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